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An apparent limit on the temperature achievable by laser

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780201380279 | Authors: Daniel V. Schroeder ISBN: 9780201380279 40

Solution for problem 36P Chapter 4

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780201380279 | Authors: Daniel V. Schroeder

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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Problem 36P

PROBLEM 36P

An apparent limit on the temperature achievable by laser cooling is reached when an atom’s recoil energy from absorbing or emitting a single photon is comparable to its total kinetic energy. Make a rough estimate of this limiting temperature for rubidium atoms that are cooled using laser light with a wavelength of 780 nm.

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Media Effects (Chapter 15)  Media effects is the field of research that attempts to understand, predict, and explain the effects of mass media on individuals and society o scientific method: understand, predict, and explain o individuals and society: media does not only effect the individual but society as well  Not all media researchers are studying "effects" or aiming for prediction o Cultural studies researchers try to understand how media constructs and is constructed by questions of gender, race, social class, nationality, etc. o Rhetorical studies researchers try to understand how media functions in terms of persuasion, meaning, political contestation, ideology, identity, etc. Media Effects Theories  The Hypodermic Needle Model o An early model for television effects on audiences o The idea that powerful media shoot their messages directly into vulnerable audiences' brains o Also known as the "magic bullet" or "direct effects" model o Fails to account for the fact that people are critical and skeptical of media messages o Widely discredited by subsequent research  The Minimal Effects Model o Media effects are less powerful, and are mostly indirect. o Also known as the "limited model" o People engage in selective exposure:  We tend to expose ourselves only to messages that we are already comfortable with o People engage in selective retention:  We tend to retain messages that confirm the values and ideas that we already hold o This model still assumes that audiences are passive in their consumption of media  Uses and Gratifications o Studies how and why media are used, rather than what their effects are o The surveillance function suggests that people use the media to monitor the world around them o Similarly, the socialization function suggests that people use the media to help fit in with others o While the textbook says this model was never widely adopted, it has been incorporated into rhetorical and cultural studies research. What Effect Does the Media Have  The most significant demonstrated effect of media is agenda- setting: o Not telling people what to think, but telling them what to think about  Many of the other effects listed in the textbook are less well proven but still worth discussing  The cultivation effect is the idea that heavy TV viewing causes is to believe that TVis giving us an accurate portrayal of the real world o One common version of this is the mean world syndrome: we believe the world is more dangerous than it really is because TV shows so much crime  The spiral of silence theory is the idea that the media silences controversial opinions by making those who have them fear social invasion o This can even be true of opinions that are not really controversial, since the media edits out very widely held opinions o Some studies indicate that we are even willing to go along with wrong answers if "everyone else" is giving those answers too

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Chapter 4, Problem 36P is Solved
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Textbook: An Introduction to Thermal Physics
Edition: 1
Author: Daniel V. Schroeder
ISBN: 9780201380279

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An apparent limit on the temperature achievable by laser