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# An inventor proposes to make a heat engine using water/ice

ISBN: 9780201380279 40

## Solution for problem 33P Chapter 5

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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Problem 33P

An inventor proposes to make a heat engine using water/ice as the working substance, taking advantage of the fact that water expands as it freezes. A weight to be lifted is placed on top of a piston over a cylinder of water at 1°C. The system is then placed in thermal contact with a low-temperature reservoir at –1°C until the water freezes into ice, lifting the weight. The weight is then removed and the ice is melted by putting it in contact with a high-temperature reservoir at 1°C. The inventor is pleased with this device because it can seemingly perform an unlimited amount of work while absorbing only a finite amount of heat. Explain the flaw in the inventor’s reasoning, and use the Clausius-Clapeyron relation to prove that the maximum efficiency of this engine is still given by the Carnot formula, 1 – Tc/Th.

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Water and Macromolecules water is a polar molecule because it is slightly imbalanced in the distribution of charges  polar bond created when the oxygen atom pulls electrons of the water molecule away from the hydrogen atoms  creates a charge separation, where the oxygen end of the molecule is slightly negtive, and each hydrogen end of the molecule...

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