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Solved: Solve the variation problems in Exercises 9398.

Precalculus | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321837349 | Authors: Rober F. Blitzer ISBN: 9780321837349 160

Solution for problem 94 Chapter 2.8

Precalculus | 5th Edition

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Precalculus | 5th Edition | ISBN: 9780321837349 | Authors: Rober F. Blitzer

Precalculus | 5th Edition

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Problem 94

Solve the variation problems in Exercises 9398.

Step-by-Step Solution:
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ANTH 320 Midterm 2 Study Guide - Practical reason: experience and habits together in skilled execution, action is the idea o Scott says development will only work when using practical reason - Metis: from Scott reading, teaching through doing, need to touch/feel in order to act o From dynamic environment - Modernization: present destroys past traditions o Knowledge/technology to improve future o Human institutions by themselves can deliver progress o Real knowledge replaces traditional knowledge - Modernist state (according to Scott) o Simplified society:  Get rid of folk communities and tribal authorities o Rely on science/technology to solve problems  Constant classification o Use of force o Pro-state policies  Little opposition to state - Developmental state: o Discourse strengthens state power o Failure still strengthens state power  Unintended consequences - Lesotho: o Large migrant mining industry, rise of migration correlated with decreased farm production o Not primarily farmers o Cattle not used for family consumption  Undernourished, so don’t produce enough milk  Used for plowing, dung for fuel  Only sold in desperate times o Development problems:  International agencies want to improve standard of living b/c current economic practices seem inefficient  raise cash earnings from farms - Reasons World Bank proposes for irrationality of cattle keeping: o Dual economy: society of traditional and modern  Cattle is part of traditional society, cash is part of modern  New generation more capital-focused o Utilitarian: cattle is only investment available, better than no investment at all - Bovine mystique: o Cattle can be bought but not sold except for in an emergency  Usually used in bridewealth, but recipients prefer cash because more immediately useful o Cattle valued by older men as sign of social standing and respect o Value cash overall, however, because cattle can’t purchase imports or food o Not explained by culture, but does determine/highlight cultural values o Must be justified in community because exists in trade-offs - One-way barrier: cash can always be converted to cattle, but cattle usually not converted to cash - Household economies: o Household property: shared by men and women, consists of principle cash earnings o Men’s property: cattle, sheep, goats o Women’s property: pigs, poultry, things they produce themselves  If use own money to buy men’s animal, it becomes the man’s property - Benefits of cattle: o Raw materials: milk, wool, reproduction o Owners respected by community because provide benefits o Social connections - Different interests in cattle: o Young men: cattle acts as placeholder while men away, investment of capital/store of wealth, not contested because only men’s property o Women: only want few plowing cattle, preference for immediate needs of family o Older men: cattle as sign of social standing, ability to pay bridewealth and marry daughters to good family - Development projects in Lesotho: o Range management/Grazer’s association  Set aside large plot of good land for members committed to commercialization of cattle  Only 10 signed up for program, failed o Livestock marketing  Regular cattle auctions  Failed because increased sales meant more people in economic crises o Improved stock/fodder production  Encourage higher quality cattle, but smaller numbers  Use croplands for fodder production - State doesn’t choose a side because: o Needed political support in rural areas o Discourage migration to cities for mining o Raise revenue through taxation and commercialization o Remain partners with international aid agencies o Better able to tolerate economic failure than political failure - Unintended outcomes in Lesotho (Anti-politics Machine): o Extension of state:  New roads  Increased government offices in place of development project offices  Increased military presence  Government has better knowledge of rural areas o Technical/depoliticized state:  Discourse of technical expertise created  Established as neutral party for creating policy  Goal is to promote economic growth  State maintains material benefits for wealthy - Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth: o Independence of national development, different sequence of development for different countries o Agriculture  industry; capital/infrastructure  mass consumption o Conflict between tradition and modernity o Self-generating, self-perpetuation  System driven by self-interested individuals - Arguments for/against economic globalization o For: correct national system and export products will bring prosperity o Against: markets only help those with capital, only separation from world economy will bring prosperity - Arguments for/against stages of economic growth: o For: Third World countries similar to US in 1890’s, will overcome just like US did o Against: US never had such extremes of wealth and poor, must take into account history of Third World - Duality: prosperous modern part linked to traditional part o Traditional sector provides raw materials to create prosperity of modern, but don’t get anything in return - Barriers to development: o Terrain, rainforests, deserts/droughts, landlocked o History shows that these barriers don’t create economic problems o Nations landlocked as a result of history/politics/war - Key market conditions: o Regulatiry: available and predictable o Adequacy: enough diversity to make participation worthwhile o Security: earnings are safe o Autonomy: individuals can exercise choice - Dependency theory: integration into world economy hurts poor countries, creates dependence - Self-generating: o Local demand encourages expansion of capital and skills o Local markets can meet local demand and then sell to national markets in addition - How world economy has historically developed: o Orientation to ports and, therefore, export markets  Conversion to single industries (commodities) o National politicians support single industries o Capital from commodities don’t support local communities or contribute to investment/surplus o Simplified economy, diversity loss o Local communities unable to develop o Vulnerable to commodity price decreases - Polycropping: use of variety of crops in one farmland o Different plants contribute to overall well-being of other plants o Less vulnerable to pests or disease o Create richer soil o Different plants well-suited to different environmental fluctuations - Opposites of diversity: o Commodification: standard set of characteristics for each product o Mechanization: farms must be able to accommodate different types of machinery, plants to withstand harsh machines o Experiments only show limited relationships and effects - Benefits of disorganization: o Mutually productive relationship: different tasks contribute to success of other tasks o Spread of tools illustrates sequence of action o Utilization of waste and left-overs o Excludes those who do not share same values (those who don’t appreciate disorganization) - Criticisms of development: o History/evolution: development isn’t linear, Frank o Progress/enlightenment: development project failures can still create unintended outcomes, such as increased power of state, Ferguson o Action/expertise: scientific knowledge/advancement hurts unless paired with tradition/context, Scott o Goal/economy: end goal is more than economic prosperity, environment important also - Shiva’s Triple Crises: o Peak oil: decreasing oil supply will cause increased oil prices o Climate: increased temperatures lead to more extreme weather o Farming: monoculture hurts land, GMO’s/patents hurt livelihoods of locals - Consequences of convergence: o Human survival o All nations affected/responsible o How people work/live o Land use o Increased gap between rich and poor, aka those that benefit and those that are hurt - Harmful solutions to crises: o Carbon trading:  Privatizes atmosphere  Corporations over people  Concentration of pollution increases vulnerability  Cost on people who don’t receive benefits o Exportation of dirty industries to LDC’s  L. Summers memo: lower wages leads to less economic effect, less pollution so able to hold more, abundance of problems will mitigate consequences of one more problem - Refutations of Larry Summers’ memo: o Costs not appropriate measures to justify suffering (everyone has right to well-being) o Idea of underpollution illustrates shifting baseline syndrome  World so destroyed, impossible to imagine life without pollution o Even though pollution is lower priority for poor, does not justify additional problems o Illustrates World Bank ignorance of history  Exportation of dirty industries has already happened - Economic thinking causes destruction: o Favors high priced commodities, markets have priority over people - Shiva’s solutions: o “hand-me-down” techniques and knowledge o Cows and fig trees as sacred because promote life - Machine space: Horvath o Shows reach/power through technilogy o machines have priority over humans - Machines in India: o Most people are not car owners and prefer animals to machines  Doesn’t make sense to transform infrastructure to prefer machines - Organic farming produces more microbial life  better soil  better production

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Chapter 2.8, Problem 94 is Solved
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Textbook: Precalculus
Edition: 5
Author: Rober F. Blitzer
ISBN: 9780321837349

The full step-by-step solution to problem: 94 from chapter: 2.8 was answered by , our top Calculus solution expert on 11/23/17, 05:02AM. Precalculus was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321837349. This full solution covers the following key subjects: exercises, variation. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 78 chapters, and 1132 solutions. The answer to “Solve the variation problems in Exercises 9398.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 7 words. Since the solution to 94 from 2.8 chapter was answered, more than 244 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Precalculus, edition: 5.

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Solved: Solve the variation problems in Exercises 9398.