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An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780201380279 | Authors: Daniel V. Schroeder ISBN: 9780201380279 40

Solution for problem 25P Chapter 7

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780201380279 | Authors: Daniel V. Schroeder

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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Problem 25P

Problem 25P

Use the results of this section to estimate the contribution of conduction electrons to the heat capacity of one mole of copper at room temper­ature. How does this contribution compare to that of lattice vibrations, assuming that these are not frozen out? (The electronic contribution has been measured at low temperatures, and turns out to be about 40% more than predicted by the free electron model used here.)

Step-by-Step Solution:

Adv. Prin. of Criminal Justice Study Guide Exam 3  Exam date: April 19 th  Covers chs 8-14 in the textbook and all lectures  I have divided up this study guide into specific sections, not chapters  Highlighted = P. Krohn specifically mentioned this would be on the test Issues with Policing  External Issues o Political  Policies and laws are enacted by police  Federalism- division of power between state, local and federal gov  Must follow state, federal and local laws  Must follow impacts of judicial decisions  Amendmentth  4 - search and seizure- must have probable cause or reasonable suspicion for warrant o Warrantless searches  Consent- no duress or coercion  Searches incident to arrest- occur at time of arrest and arm-span rule (limited search)  Plain view- must be visible and have legal right to be in location  Automobile search (know Caroll v US)  Searches based on exigent circumstances (ex: hot pursuit, danger to others or evanescent evidence) th  Administrative search- inventory  5 - no forced confession and due process  6 - right to be informed as to why they are arrested o Miranda v Arizona o Terry stop- temporary detention for pat down  8th- no cruel and unusual punishment o Economic influences  Budget constraints  Police consolidation (ex: fire, EMT and police are one)  Merging organizations  Police dissolved  Share services/resources  Reorganize internally- civilianization  Multitasking postitions  External funds/ grants o Contingency theory- police have more than one concern with ties to grant o Resource dependency theory- so desperate for money- don’t care about what needs to be implemented to get it o Social influences  Woman and policing  Early times- “police matrons”- cared for criminals  1972- full-fledged officers  Today only 12% are women  Race and policing  Black police rare before civil rights laws  Today 25% are minority (mostly black and Hispanic)  Juveniles and policing  Before 1900s- treated as adults  Today- treated when they are suspects, in need of protection or for community service activities  Societal norms and policing  Ex: tattoos, gay marriage, marijuana legalization, etc.  Police take these into account when preventing crime o Technological influences  Can be used by police to aid work or for corruption (ex: privacy)  Can be used by criminals (ex: social media)  Internal Issues o Police subculture- form bonds with other police because of  Potential and unpredictable danger  Territorial control- command over beat  Order maintenance  Authorized to use force and consequences  Solidarity-stick together (blue wall of silence)  No two encounters the same  Discretion and consequences  Can be based on organizational, neighborhood, situational and individual characteristic variables  Use of force continuum- can use force one level higher than force applied  Deadly force is rare  Stress  Internal, organizational, operational and external o PTSD and critical-incident stress debriefing o Police misconduct  Rotten apple theory- one bad cop ruins reputation for all police  Systematic theory- police system allows for bad cops to get away  Types  Abuse of authority- excessive use of force  Police corruption- receives material reward  Occupational deviance- use position for personal gain  Police crimes o Code of ethics taught in training o Internal affairs unit and citizen review boards investigate  Punishments  Incapacitation- protect society from criminals  Rehabilitation- criminals affected by internal or external factors which need to be addressed  Deterrence- ensure criminal or others do not commit crime  Retribution- punish offenders because they deserve it  Reintegration- inmates must understand that conforming is necessary  Restitution- inmate reimburses society for wrongdoing Courts  History o o Article III of the Constitution and Judiciary Act of 1789  Marbury v Madison creates judicial review o Payments to court (BOT= to victim, WITE= to king) o Compurgation- take oath to claim innocence and people attest to honesty  Tied to status of individual and did not work o Trial by ordeal (complete challenge) or battle  God protects innocent victims (survived=innocent, died=guilty)- not work o Grand jury- 12 judges who traveled from city to city, check on prosecutor and determined evidencth o Jury trials in the 13 C  Court of the Star Chamber- king’s counselors  Today- adversary system and evaluate facts  Types- differ in jurisdiction and venue o State courts- each usually has own system  State supreme courts- final decision on state law violations  Courts of limited jurisdiction- misdemeanors and pre-investigations o Assembly line justice- cases decided quickly  Courts of general jurisdiction- serious felonies and incarcerations  Specialty courts- specific offenses (drugs, juveniles)  Appellate courts- re-evaluate lower court decision (constitutionality) o Federal courts  Supreme court- appellate and uses writ of certiorari to demand that lower courts send records of previous decision to review (4/9 judges needed) o judges on cases with US as party or disputes between states o amicus curiae- friend of the court writes brief on behalf of side o Judge decision  Majority- no unanimous, most judges agree  Concurring- same opinion, different reasoning  Dissenting- disagree with decision  Per curiam- court agrees with parts of lower court decision o Current court has 9 judges, differing political opinions o Judicial restraint- less active o Judicial activism- more active  Court of Appeals- appellate with 12 regional courts  District Courts- 94 judicial districts and trials  Federal Magistrates- issues warrants, conducts hearings and set bail  Others- military, tax, etc.  Actors o Judges- hear cases and makes decisions  Qualifications- resident of state, 25-70 years old, member of State Bar Association and licensed for law  Some jurisdictions don’t even require degree  Earlier times- no bar or license or degree o Prosecutor- bring case against accused  Use discretion and decides charges, bail and plea bargaining  Important relationships with media and police  Santobello v NY- prosecutor recommended sentence illegally and sentence was overturned because of it o Defense attorneys- ensure proper representation and minimal acquittal  public defenders are inexperienced, lack resources and overloaded  Assigned counsel- appoint private offender in rural setting  Contract system- block grant given/hire private law firm o Law / court clerks- assist in duties of courts o Bailiff- armed law enforcement officers who keep order in courtroom o Stenographer- records events of court case o Witnesses, media and victims also play role o pro bono- "for the public good"- less money for large role (public defenders)  Juries o Plea bargaining- guilty pleas 90% of time, but issues with coercion o Jury selection (voir dire)  Challenges for a cause- prejudiced for or against party  Preemptory challenges- dismissed without reason stated o no exclusion of cognizable group, but sometimes capital punishment and juvenile cases exclude groups legally o Attorneys try to find jurors who do not agree with them or won't side with them in the case o "death qualified"- offender could be sentenced to death if found guilty (jury influence)  Started with Harrisburg 7  Levett, Crocker and Kovera- biased questions and bias with class  Responsibilities- decides issues of facts/law and injects community values  200-1000 potential jurors each month- ~30 selected for duty  Selection not very effective (studies by Johnson and Haney)  Social scientists assist with trail consulting  Attitudes really only matter on ambiguous cases  Methods- mock trial, community survey and shadow juries  Explanation for decisions making o Step 1: story creation (coverage, coherence, uniqueness) o

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Chapter 7, Problem 25P is Solved
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Textbook: An Introduction to Thermal Physics
Edition: 1
Author: Daniel V. Schroeder
ISBN: 9780201380279

Since the solution to 25P from 7 chapter was answered, more than 320 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: contribution, low, capacity, Compare, Conduction. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 10 chapters, and 454 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 25P from chapter: 7 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 07/05/17, 04:29AM. An Introduction to Thermal Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780201380279. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: An Introduction to Thermal Physics , edition: 1. The answer to “Use the results of this section to estimate the contribution of conduction electrons to the heat capacity of one mole of copper at room temper­ature. How does this contribution compare to that of lattice vibrations, assuming that these are not frozen out? (The electronic contribution has been measured at low temperatures, and turns out to be about 40% more than predicted by the free electron model used here.)” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 68 words.

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