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Show that the nth virial coefficient depends on the

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780201380279 | Authors: Daniel V. Schroeder ISBN: 9780201380279 40

Solution for problem 8P Chapter 8

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition | ISBN: 9780201380279 | Authors: Daniel V. Schroeder

An Introduction to Thermal Physics | 1st Edition

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Problem 8P

Show that the nth virial coefficient depends on the diagrams in equation that have n dots. Write the third virial coefficient, C(T), in terms of an integral of f-functions. Why it would be difficult to carry out this integral?

Equation:

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FCNS 230 Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 5-9 Chapter 5:  Know definitions of proximodistal, Cephalocaudal, lateralization, plasticity, Patterns of Growth  Cephalocaudal: Earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom • Examples: shoulder to middle trunk  Proximodistal: Growth starts at center of body and moves toward extremities • Examples: hand control before finger control  Lateralization: Specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other (the brain)   Know influences on early growth  The brain demonstrates both flexibility and resilience  Neuroscientists believe that what wires the brain is repeated experience  Neuroconstructivist view: Biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain’s development  The brain has plasticity and is context-dependent  Brain development is closely linked with cognitive development  Main cause of infant/toddler death  Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and dies without apparent cause  Highest cause of infant death in U.S.  Highest risk is 2 to 4 months of age  Infants should be placed on their backs in the prone position  Less common in bedroom with fan, for infants who breastfeed and for infants who use a pacifier  Habituation and dishabituation  Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus  Dishabituation: Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation  Tracking - Applied to vision and hearing  High-amplitude sucking, videos, computers  Visual cliff  Visual acuity and color in newborn improves over time  Perceiving patterns – patterns preferred  Perceptual constancy – size, shape  Size constancy – an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes as you move toward or away from the object  Shape constancy – an object's shape remains the same even though its orientation to us changes  Depth perception  ‘Visual cliff’ study and visual expectations • Infants will not crawl over the edge • Their perception of affordances let them crawl or not crawl over the cliff  Binocular cues by age 3 to 4 months  Reflexes, operant and classical conditioning (including punishment and reinforcement)  Rooting: Reaction to cheek/mouth being touched; in response they their turn head  Sucking: Automatic sucking of object in mouth  Moro: Startle response causes back arching, extension and then rapid closing of arms and legs  Babinski: Toes fan, foot arches when sole is stroked  Grasping: When something touches their palm  Classical conditioning - Pairing of new stimulus to condition a response  Operant conditioning - Consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of that behavior reoccurring  Gross and fine motor skills  Gross Motor Skills o Milestones for large muscle activities  Development of posture  Learning to walk  First year milestones - walks easily  Development in second year  Increasing independence  Skilled and mobile: pull toys, climb stairs  Natural exercise: walk quickly, run stiffly o Fine Motor skills that involve finely tuned movements  Finely tuned (coordinated) movements  Perceptual-motor coupling necessary  Finger dexterity (thumb and forefinger)  Two types of grasps: Palmar and Pincer  Wrists and hands turn and rotate more  Experience and exercise have impact  Grasps  Palmar- griping of objects with the whole hand  Pincer- grasp of small object with thumb and forefinger  When do infants turn their heads to sound 3 months Chapter 6  Piaget’s stages  Simple reflexes- birth to 1 month  First habits and primary circular reactions- 1 to 4 months  Secondary circular reactions- 4 to 8 months  Coordination of secondary circular reactions- 8 to 12 months  Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity- 12 to 18 months  Internalization of schemes- 18 to 24 months  Intermodal perception, centration, object permanence, visual cliff  Object permanence occurs earlier o Distinguishing objects by 3 to 4 months o A-not-B error: infant selects familiar hiding place (A) rather than new hiding place (B)  Centration: the tendency to focus on one salient aspect of a situation and neglect other, possibly relevant aspects  Visual Cliff: Gibson and Walk (1960) hypothesized that depth perception is inherent as opposed to a learned process. To test this, they placed 36 infants, 6 to demonstrate that by the time babies are between 6 and 14 months old they are capable of depth perception  intermodal perception, babies can integrate information from two different senses, such as the sounds that go with a certain sight. This finding challenges the commonly held view that infants begin life experiencing totally unrelated sensations in each sensory system.  Adaptation, accommodation  Adaptation - adjusting to new environments • Mental structures help us adapt to our environment • Children actively construct their own cognitive worlds  Accommodation: Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences  Vygotysky and basics of his theory including what is important in his theory, ZPD, Scaffolding  Social constructionist approach o Focuses on cognitive development o Children - Active construction of knowledge and understanding by actions and interactions  Depends on tools used by society  Shaped by cultural context  The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) o The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to achieve alone but that can be achieved with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children o Lower limit - What child achieves independently o Upper limit - What can be achieved with assistance of able instructor o Cognitive skills in process of maturing  Scaffolding: Changing level of support over course of teaching session to fit child’s current performance level  Language and thought o Children use speech for solving tasks and social communication  Plans, monitors, guides behavior  Private speech: self-regulation o All mental functions have external, social origins  Language perspectives Chapter 7:  Emotions, primary emotions  Emotion: Feeling or affect of importance  Primary emotions: present in humans, animals  Appear in first 6 months of life  Examples: surprise, anger, joy, sadness, fear and disgust  Self-conscious emotions: self-awareness  Appear after age 18 months  Examples: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt  Responses to reactions of others  Research controversy on the onset of an emotion  Example: jealousy in infants  Attachment, self-conscious emotions, emotional self- regulation  Self-conscious emotions: self-awareness  Appear after age 18 months  Examples: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt  Responses to reactions of others  Research controversy on the onset of an emotion  Example: jealousy in infants  Emotional Regulation o During first year: o Gradual control of arousal to adapt, reach goal o Self-soothing in early infancy o Redirected attention, self-distraction later in infancy o Language defines emotions by age 2 o Contexts affect emotional regulation o Caregiver responses matter, infant adapts  Erikson stages  Erikson’s trust-versus-mistrust: o Infants experience world as either positive or negative outcomes; continuity not guaranteed  Sense of self:  Real or imagined; motivating force in life  Self-recognition: about 18 months of age  The mirror technique  The developing sense of self  Separation: movement away from the mother  Individuation: development of self  Independence  Erikson’s 2 ndstage - Autonomy versus shame and doubt  Self-determination and pride or overcontrol creates shame and doubt  Bowlby stages  Bowlby - ethological view: attachment is innate predisposition o Develops in a series of phases o Attachment: 4 phases of social cognition  Phase 1: birth to 2 months – drawn to humans  Phase 2: 2 to 7 months– focus on one person  Phase 3: 7 to 24 months – actively seek regular contact with caregivers  Phase 4: From 24 months on – aware of others’ goals, feelings, actions  Ainsworth types of attached children  Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation  Measures attachment by observation  Infant experiences series of contexts  3 reactions to new situation  Secure: Positive, confident exploration  Insecure-avoidant: Little interaction with caregiver, no distress  Insecure-resistant: Clings to caregiver and then resists  Insecure disorganized: Disoriented and dazed  Temperament, goodness of fit, bidirectionality  Crying: most important mechanism for communication  Basic - Rhythmic, incited by hunger  Angry - Excess air in vocal cords  Pain - Louder, high pitched, sudden, longer  Social smile  Reflexive - Natural, occurs 1 month after birth  Social - Response to external stimuli, occurs as early as 4 to 6 weeks  When does stranger anxiety show up  Stranger anxiety: Fear, wariness of strangers o Intense from 9 to 12 months o Not shown by all; intensity affected by social context and stranger behavior/traits  Types of child temperament  Chess & Thomas’ classification: 3 basic types or clusters  Easy child: Positive mood, easily adapts  Difficult child: Reacts negatively and cries frequently, resists change, shows irregular behaviors  Slow-to-warm-up child: Low mood intensity, low activity level, somewhat negative  Kegan’s behavioral inhibition  Sociable, extroverted, bold child  Shy, subdued, timid child  Inhibited to unfamiliar; shows anxiety, distress at about 7 to 9 months of age  Inhibition intensity varies  Considerable consistency into early childhood  Rothbart and Bates’ Classification o Extraversion/surgency - Positive, impulsive  Kegan’s uninhibited child fits here o Negative affectivity - Easily distressed o Kegan’s inhibited child fits here o Effortful control - Self-regulating, control varies  Rouge test  Social referencing, transitional object  Social referencing: Ability to ‘read’ emotional cues of others to help determine how to act in a specific situation  Affects infants’ perceptions of others  Transitional Object: an object used to provide psychological comfort ex. Security blanket Chapter 8:  Average growth  Height and weight  Growth is slower  Average child grows 2½ inches and gains between 5 and 7 pounds a year during early childhood • Growth patterns vary individually • Heredity has an influence • Boys gain muscle; girls gain fatty tissue  Grows slower in childhood than in infancy • 75% of adult size by age 3 • 95% of adult volume by age 6 • Brain and head: fastest growing parts of body  Body weight of 5-year-old is 1/3 of adult size  Density of synapses peaks at 4 years of age  True episodic memory may begin  Self-awareness may develop here  Main cause of death for children  Preventing childhood injuries o Child more at risk for serious injury and accidents o Motor vehicle accidents leading cause of death in young children o Accidents - Leading cause of death in children  Most can be prevented using safety laws  Safety linked to behaviors, environment, family  Most accidents occur in the home Chapter 9:  Piaget stage  Limits of preoperational thought and be able to recognize an example  ZPD and scaffolding  Talk for self and private speech  Cardinality (count one group and then another) and ordinality (1 is less than 2 which is less than 3 etc.)

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 8, Problem 8P is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: An Introduction to Thermal Physics
Edition: 1
Author: Daniel V. Schroeder
ISBN: 9780201380279

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: An Introduction to Thermal Physics , edition: 1. The answer to “Show that the nth virial coefficient depends on the diagrams in equation that have n dots. Write the third virial coefficient, C(T), in terms of an integral of f-functions. Why it would be difficult to carry out this integral?Equation:” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 39 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 8P from chapter: 8 was answered by , our top Physics solution expert on 07/05/17, 04:29AM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: equation, coefficient, virial, integral, carry. This expansive textbook survival guide covers 10 chapters, and 454 solutions. An Introduction to Thermal Physics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780201380279. Since the solution to 8P from 8 chapter was answered, more than 273 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer.

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