Show that the nth virial coefficient depends on the diagrams in equation that have n dots. Write the third virial coefficient, C(T), in terms of an integral of f-functions. Why it would be difficult to carry out this integral?
FCNS 230 Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 5-9 Chapter 5: Know definitions of proximodistal, Cephalocaudal, lateralization, plasticity, Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal: Earliest growth always occurs at the top—the head—with physical growth and feature differentiation gradually working from top to bottom • Examples: shoulder to middle trunk Proximodistal: Growth starts at center of body and moves toward extremities • Examples: hand control before finger control Lateralization: Specialization of function in one hemisphere of the cerebral cortex or the other (the brain) Know influences on early growth The brain demonstrates both flexibility and resilience Neuroscientists believe that what wires the brain is repeated experience Neuroconstructivist view: Biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain’s development The brain has plasticity and is context-dependent Brain development is closely linked with cognitive development Main cause of infant/toddler death Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and dies without apparent cause Highest cause of infant death in U.S. Highest risk is 2 to 4 months of age Infants should be placed on their backs in the prone position Less common in bedroom with fan, for infants who breastfeed and for infants who use a pacifier Habituation and dishabituation Habituation Decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus Dishabituation: Recovery of a habituated response after a change in stimulation Tracking - Applied to vision and hearing High-amplitude sucking, videos, computers Visual cliff Visual acuity and color in newborn improves over time Perceiving patterns – patterns preferred Perceptual constancy – size, shape Size constancy – an object remains the same even though the retinal image of the object changes as you move toward or away from the object Shape constancy – an object's shape remains the same even though its orientation to us changes Depth perception ‘Visual cliff’ study and visual expectations • Infants will not crawl over the edge • Their perception of affordances let them crawl or not crawl over the cliff Binocular cues by age 3 to 4 months Reflexes, operant and classical conditioning (including punishment and reinforcement) Rooting: Reaction to cheek/mouth being touched; in response they their turn head Sucking: Automatic sucking of object in mouth Moro: Startle response causes back arching, extension and then rapid closing of arms and legs Babinski: Toes fan, foot arches when sole is stroked Grasping: When something touches their palm Classical conditioning - Pairing of new stimulus to condition a response Operant conditioning - Consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability of that behavior reoccurring Gross and fine motor skills Gross Motor Skills o Milestones for large muscle activities Development of posture Learning to walk First year milestones - walks easily Development in second year Increasing independence Skilled and mobile: pull toys, climb stairs Natural exercise: walk quickly, run stiffly o Fine Motor skills that involve finely tuned movements Finely tuned (coordinated) movements Perceptual-motor coupling necessary Finger dexterity (thumb and forefinger) Two types of grasps: Palmar and Pincer Wrists and hands turn and rotate more Experience and exercise have impact Grasps Palmar- griping of objects with the whole hand Pincer- grasp of small object with thumb and forefinger When do infants turn their heads to sound 3 months Chapter 6 Piaget’s stages Simple reflexes- birth to 1 month First habits and primary circular reactions- 1 to 4 months Secondary circular reactions- 4 to 8 months Coordination of secondary circular reactions- 8 to 12 months Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity- 12 to 18 months Internalization of schemes- 18 to 24 months Intermodal perception, centration, object permanence, visual cliff Object permanence occurs earlier o Distinguishing objects by 3 to 4 months o A-not-B error: infant selects familiar hiding place (A) rather than new hiding place (B) Centration: the tendency to focus on one salient aspect of a situation and neglect other, possibly relevant aspects Visual Cliff: Gibson and Walk (1960) hypothesized that depth perception is inherent as opposed to a learned process. To test this, they placed 36 infants, 6 to demonstrate that by the time babies are between 6 and 14 months old they are capable of depth perception intermodal perception, babies can integrate information from two different senses, such as the sounds that go with a certain sight. This finding challenges the commonly held view that infants begin life experiencing totally unrelated sensations in each sensory system. Adaptation, accommodation Adaptation - adjusting to new environments • Mental structures help us adapt to our environment • Children actively construct their own cognitive worlds Accommodation: Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences Vygotysky and basics of his theory including what is important in his theory, ZPD, Scaffolding Social constructionist approach o Focuses on cognitive development o Children - Active construction of knowledge and understanding by actions and interactions Depends on tools used by society Shaped by cultural context The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) o The range of tasks that are too difficult for children to achieve alone but that can be achieved with guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children o Lower limit - What child achieves independently o Upper limit - What can be achieved with assistance of able instructor o Cognitive skills in process of maturing Scaffolding: Changing level of support over course of teaching session to fit child’s current performance level Language and thought o Children use speech for solving tasks and social communication Plans, monitors, guides behavior Private speech: self-regulation o All mental functions have external, social origins Language perspectives Chapter 7: Emotions, primary emotions Emotion: Feeling or affect of importance Primary emotions: present in humans, animals Appear in first 6 months of life Examples: surprise, anger, joy, sadness, fear and disgust Self-conscious emotions: self-awareness Appear after age 18 months Examples: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt Responses to reactions of others Research controversy on the onset of an emotion Example: jealousy in infants Attachment, self-conscious emotions, emotional self- regulation Self-conscious emotions: self-awareness Appear after age 18 months Examples: embarrassment, jealousy, empathy, pride, shame, and guilt Responses to reactions of others Research controversy on the onset of an emotion Example: jealousy in infants Emotional Regulation o During first year: o Gradual control of arousal to adapt, reach goal o Self-soothing in early infancy o Redirected attention, self-distraction later in infancy o Language defines emotions by age 2 o Contexts affect emotional regulation o Caregiver responses matter, infant adapts Erikson stages Erikson’s trust-versus-mistrust: o Infants experience world as either positive or negative outcomes; continuity not guaranteed Sense of self: Real or imagined; motivating force in life Self-recognition: about 18 months of age The mirror technique The developing sense of self Separation: movement away from the mother Individuation: development of self Independence Erikson’s 2 ndstage - Autonomy versus shame and doubt Self-determination and pride or overcontrol creates shame and doubt Bowlby stages Bowlby - ethological view: attachment is innate predisposition o Develops in a series of phases o Attachment: 4 phases of social cognition Phase 1: birth to 2 months – drawn to humans Phase 2: 2 to 7 months– focus on one person Phase 3: 7 to 24 months – actively seek regular contact with caregivers Phase 4: From 24 months on – aware of others’ goals, feelings, actions Ainsworth types of attached children Mary Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Measures attachment by observation Infant experiences series of contexts 3 reactions to new situation Secure: Positive, confident exploration Insecure-avoidant: Little interaction with caregiver, no distress Insecure-resistant: Clings to caregiver and then resists Insecure disorganized: Disoriented and dazed Temperament, goodness of fit, bidirectionality Crying: most important mechanism for communication Basic - Rhythmic, incited by hunger Angry - Excess air in vocal cords Pain - Louder, high pitched, sudden, longer Social smile Reflexive - Natural, occurs 1 month after birth Social - Response to external stimuli, occurs as early as 4 to 6 weeks When does stranger anxiety show up Stranger anxiety: Fear, wariness of strangers o Intense from 9 to 12 months o Not shown by all; intensity affected by social context and stranger behavior/traits Types of child temperament Chess & Thomas’ classification: 3 basic types or clusters Easy child: Positive mood, easily adapts Difficult child: Reacts negatively and cries frequently, resists change, shows irregular behaviors Slow-to-warm-up child: Low mood intensity, low activity level, somewhat negative Kegan’s behavioral inhibition Sociable, extroverted, bold child Shy, subdued, timid child Inhibited to unfamiliar; shows anxiety, distress at about 7 to 9 months of age Inhibition intensity varies Considerable consistency into early childhood Rothbart and Bates’ Classification o Extraversion/surgency - Positive, impulsive Kegan’s uninhibited child fits here o Negative affectivity - Easily distressed o Kegan’s inhibited child fits here o Effortful control - Self-regulating, control varies Rouge test Social referencing, transitional object Social referencing: Ability to ‘read’ emotional cues of others to help determine how to act in a specific situation Affects infants’ perceptions of others Transitional Object: an object used to provide psychological comfort ex. Security blanket Chapter 8: Average growth Height and weight Growth is slower Average child grows 2½ inches and gains between 5 and 7 pounds a year during early childhood • Growth patterns vary individually • Heredity has an influence • Boys gain muscle; girls gain fatty tissue Grows slower in childhood than in infancy • 75% of adult size by age 3 • 95% of adult volume by age 6 • Brain and head: fastest growing parts of body Body weight of 5-year-old is 1/3 of adult size Density of synapses peaks at 4 years of age True episodic memory may begin Self-awareness may develop here Main cause of death for children Preventing childhood injuries o Child more at risk for serious injury and accidents o Motor vehicle accidents leading cause of death in young children o Accidents - Leading cause of death in children Most can be prevented using safety laws Safety linked to behaviors, environment, family Most accidents occur in the home Chapter 9: Piaget stage Limits of preoperational thought and be able to recognize an example ZPD and scaffolding Talk for self and private speech Cardinality (count one group and then another) and ordinality (1 is less than 2 which is less than 3 etc.)