Let X and Y equal the hardness of the hot and cold water, respectively, in a campus building. Hardness is measured in terms of the calcium ion concentration (in ppm). The following data were collected (n = 12 observations of X and m = 10 observations of Y):
(a) Calculate the sample means and the sample variances of these data.
(b) Construct a 95% confidence interval for μX − μY, assuming that the distributions of X and Y are N(μX, σ2 X) and N(μY, σ2 Y ), respectively.
(c) Construct box plots of the two sets of data on the same graph.
(d) Do the means seem to be equal or different?
3/21/16& -! Lynching o! African Americans were attacked, hanged, and murdered by white men of the south o! Often, they faced raped o! Ida B. Wells suggested voluntary relationships between white men and black woman !! White men were infuriated by this o! National anti-lynching group was formed !! Wells produced a pamphlet about it -! Thomas Moss o! -! Memphis Free Speech o! -! A Red Record o! 197 people were put to death by mobs without being given a chance to speak o! Written by Ida B. Wells o! Collected oral and written testimonies o! Press, courts, political establishments, and churches were unmoved by this research -! World’s Columbian Exposition o! 1893 o! Tried to focus international attention on inequality in America o! Black America was not represented at the fair o! Wells published a pamphlet about blacks weren’t represented in the exposition !! This was distributed to thousands of foreigners -! Alpha Suffrage Club o! & & ****&WILL&BE&UPDATED&WHEN&DEFINITION&OF&OTHER&VOCAB&WORDS&ARE&RECEIVED***& 3/23/16& -! Progressive Era o! Attempt to reform government during end of Gilded age o! Came about after the populist movement th o! Came to prominence after the turn of the 20 century o! Progressives wanted to see changes in politics and society !! Concerned about concentration of businesses in US !! Concerned with mistreatment of industrial workers !! Believed government needed to regulate working conditions o! Focused on Urban America o! Included different groups of people such as business men who wanted to help workers, woman from middle class reform organizations, academics (social scientists) who were doing studies on working conditions and conditions in American cities, and middle class men both black and white concerned about business in society o! Mass movement for woman’s suffrage began during this era and they supported it o! Supported worker rights and wanted to clean up political systems !! Wanted local politicians to have less power o! Supported movements that limited powers of immigrants (southern and eastern European immigrants) o! International movement -! W.E.B. DuBois o! Professor o! Critique of Booker T. Washington and o! One of the first African Americans to graduate from Harvard o! Called for a meeting of critiques of Booker T. Washington (Washington focused on black education and not equality) !! The Niagara Movement •! Represented intellectual elite of African American community at this time •! Wanted to end segregation, give blacks the right to vote, and wanted black people to have full equality rights as the white man •! Established 30 branches in the US •! Led to creation of NAACP in 1909 and disbanded o! Larger organization that drew in more people o! DuBois and Ida B. Wells were some of the founders of NAACP -! America During World War 1 o! People who participated took part in trench warfare, o! Airplanes, tanks, and poison gases were introduced for the first time o! England and France and their allies (US) were fighting Germany and their allies o! US became involved in world affairs at a new level than ever seen before o! Progressives thought the war was an opportunity to create national unity and could push their ideas on an international level o! Government power expanded in US !! In 1917 the government required more than 17 million men to register for draft !! Took over railroad systems !! Taught farmers better ways to grow crops so they could be more productive for war production !! Ensured hire wages in war industries 3/23/16& !! Progressivism on a larger scale which is why most progressivism supported the first world war o! Opposition to the war existed in certain parts of the country o! Wilson asked for a declaration of war against Germany and there were few members of congress voted against it o! Jeanette Rankin !! Elected to congress in 1916 as first woman in congressional seat !! Said she couldn’t bring herself to vote in favor of war !! Said she could not send other people’s brothers and husbands off to war !! Critique of war who received a lot of attention for it o! Committee on Public Information !! Influence public opinion in favor of WW1 !! Flooded US with pro war propaganda !! Sent men traveling the country making pro-war speeches !! Said the war was a movement to end tyranny among the world -! Prohibition and Suffrage o! Woman picketed the white house every day demanding that president Wilson take action to create a movement o! Woman suffragists used Wilson’s own words against him o! Prohibition !! Progressives and other groups wanted to ban the consumption and sales of alcohol !! Hoped it would cut down on crime and create a more orderly !! End the creation and operation of political parties of out solons !! In 1917 the legislation to ban alcohol consumption was proposed and was passed in 1920 -! Espionage and Sedition Acts o! Espionage Act (1917) prohibited spying, interfering with draft, and making statements that might impede military success !! Immigrant news papers and socialist press were banned as a result o! Sedition Act (1918) made it a crime to make statements that were critical of America !! Leader of American socialist part made a speech against the draft and was arrested for violating this act •! Defended himself in court and pointed out that there had been opposition to every war but was sentenced to 10 years in jail but only served 3 of the years before he was pardoned •! Patriotism meant support for the war and government and anything else was considered un-American •! In 1919 4 million workers walked out and demanded freedom in the work place o! National Guard was called out to end strikes and 5,000 radicals were arrested and over 1,000 were deported •! People who didn’t speak English were viewed suspiciously •! Ethnic groups were required to participate in loyalty parades •! 1917 immigrants were required to be literate in English or another language •! Mexican Americans living in SW US experienced discrimination -! Anti-German propaganda o! German Americans were largest ethnic group in US 3/23/16& o! 1,000 German language newspapers existed prior to the war o! By 1919 every American state outlawed the teaching and speaking of foreign languages !! Caused repression and government involvement in citizen’s lives •! Phone calls were monitored, churches were closed o! German Americans protested the war and refused to participate in draft o! Largest anti-draft demonstration was in New Ulm, Minnesota !! 10,00 Germans thought war was unjust and unchristian and demanded Germans be excluded from draft !! Speeches about US constitution and their right to protest !! Government sent spies to this meeting and said it was un-American and demanded city attorney, governor, and a president of a local university be striped of their jobs for this -! WW1 – 1920s o! Fear of radicals continued -! Sacco and Vanzetti o! 1923 arrested in Boston accused of partaking in robbery of a bank where a security guard was killed o! Italians o! Both were anarchists, political radicals that believed government, private property, and religion should be abolished o! Believed violence was acceptable o! No evidence that connected them to the crime o! Believed they were being persecuted for their beliefs and ethnicity o! Were sentenced to death penalty and were executed in August 1927 -! Immigration Restriction o! Legal restrictions on immigration began to form o! Page Law required women of Chinese decent to prove they were not immigrating for the purposes of prostitution o! Naturalization Act (1790) o! Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) o! 1898 court ruled children of Chinese decent that were born in the US were citizens even if their parents were not o! Immigration Restriction League !! Wanted to pass a piece of legislation to bar illiterate immigrants from entering the US o! Laws were passed that required you to be an American citizen before you could vote o! Johnson-Reed Act (1924) !! Established a quota system that assigned quotes to each country in Europe rather than a general quota to all of Europe !! The number of immigrants that were allowed to come from each country each year was a formula that put people from Northern and Western Europe at an advantage and Southern and Eastern Europe at a disadvantage !! Only allowed 2% of people that were born in their home country that were living in the US in 1890 !! Numerical limitations !! Quota did not apple to people from Canada and Mexico because land owners in California and Texas and other states depended on these immigrants for work !! Quota from Asia was zero meaning they couldn’t immigrate at all -! Ku Klux Klan o! Appeared after reconstruction to terrorize black office holders o! In 1920s target African Americans, Jews, Catholics, and Immigrants -! Woman and Work (1920s) o! Acceptable for woman to shop in the city alone and travel without men o! Immigrant woman were clustered in factory and industrial work o! By 1920s there were large number of woman working in offices and as telephone operators -! America in the 1920s o! Progressives created public health offices in cities through out the US and gave citizens advice about health o! Began to track disease to learn how it spread and track pandemics o! Advances in war technology such as machine guns, bomb droppings, poisonous gas o! America produced 40% of the worlds coal and 70% of the worlds petroleum