A fire destroys all of the merchandise of Assante Company on February 10, 2014. Presented below is information compiled up to the date of the fire. Inventory, January 1, 2014 $ 400,000 Sales revenue to February 10, 2014 1,950,000 Purchases to February 10, 2014 1,140,000 Freight-in to February 10, 2014 60,000 Rate of gross profi t on selling price 40% What is the approximate inventory on February 10, 2014?
FINAL EXAM REVIEW Exam 1 Review Psychology: The Science of Mind Mind is not welldefined; c.f. "life" Conscious Experience: all things stored in memory that isn’t active Behavior/Action The Scope of Psychology: Basic and Applied Basic Psychology: attitudes, morals, personalities and values relate to psychology. Uses scientific method to understand fundamental laws of mind and behavior Applied Psychology: helps explain the behaviors & attitudes within individuals and groups Deals with problem solving by applying scientific principles & knowledge The Roots of Psychology Religion Greek "psyche" Mind & soul leaving body at death Descartes (15961650) and Dualism The mind & body are distinctly different; The soul operates through the brain like a puppeteer; pineal gland where mind connects to the bra n Philosophy: William James (18421910) Organized field of psychology; studied light & sound physics & perception differ; drew from physiology Physicslight and sound Light travels faster than sound Detectors can be misleading with perception Physiology Study of how the body functions Nerves, brain, speed of neurons Natural Selection and Comparative Biology Survival of the fittest Charles Darwin; didn’t know where variation came from; wrote Origin of Species Mendel discovered variation with plants(punnett square); basis for modern genetics NeurologyPhineas Gage Pole shot through skull & brain; lived but had a completely different personality Mental Illness Any mental condition that affects mood, behavior, and thinking Reflexes, Reactions, and the Speed of Thought Mind: Soul or Machine (René Descartes, 15961650) Automatons: used with hydraulics making things life like using systems; robot like (humans are complex automatons) Reflexes Reaction to an external stimuli Dualism/Monism Dualism= Mind & body separate (Descrates) Monism= Mind & body are one thing vision & audition experiments longitude & latitude with sailors (time & ball drop) Perception takes time The First Experiments in Psychology Astronomy: The Personal Equation Astronomers discovered reaction time; perception takes time Helmholtz: Velocity of the Nerve Impulse Measured speed of neural impulse w/ frog leg stimulated at different points; ~60140 mph; found that further away from the nerve the longer it would take the frog’s leg to twitch. Donders: Simple and Choice Reaction Time Beep vs Bep; Choice reaction= more time; making a decision before reacting Reaction Time As an Analytic Technique Stroop Effect Colors & words; reaction time test Mental Rotation More degree a letter is rotated, the longer it takes to recognize Reflexes and the Discovery of the Synapse Sherrington and the Synapse Discovered the synapsejunction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite/cell body of the receiving neuron. He called the tiny gap at this junction the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft. Reflex Latency Time for a reflex to happen; time it is hidden Summation (Temporal and Spatial) Two weak stimuli add together for a stronger stimulus(temporal= time; spacial= distance) The Synapse Slows down reaction; two stimuli increase synapse speed Reflex Inhibition Flexors and Extensors: Reciprocal Inhibition ne muscles contracts, the other relaxes Disinhibition: Brain Damage Affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania Release of Approach Reflexes Infant Reflexes developed in utero Robinson/ Grasp Reflex; baby grabs finger when placed on its hands. Rooting Reflex; touch a baby’s face and it will turn its head that way. Release of Withdrawal Reflexes Ex: when you touch something hot or sharp you pull away Gait How people move Development Scientific Method Classic: Bacon 3 steps: description of facts, classification of those facts, rejection of whatever appears Descriptive Theories of Science Describes what really happens Prescriptive Theories of Science: Karl Popper and Falsifiability Tells what scientist should do; Popper said it’s only science if you can demonstrate its false Falsifiabilit Possibility for a hypothesis/ observation to be proven false The Quest to Identify Causes Correlation Positive, Negative, and no correlation shown in scatter plots trends Observational Studies used to understand cause & effect relationships researcher can’t control who is in groups researcher can’t control which groups do what in the study Correlation & Causation Correlation=/= causation; causation required correlation Experiments Independent Variables variable we change Dependent Variables variable that is affected by the independent variable Brain Gross Surface Anatomy Frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, cerebellum Hemispheres Left= analytic, right= creative/artistic (but proven to be inaccurate) Cerebellum oordinate/regulates muscle activity Corpus callosum Connects two hemispheres White matter Transport signals(cable) Grey matter hows neurons interacting(processing) Lobes: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporalF.P.O.T) Fontal: Control of muscle movement, critical thinking, personality, contains motor cortex & Broca's area (controlling speech) Parietal: Sense of touch, comprehension, memory, & spacial location Occipital: Visual processing, right eye= left hemisphere, left eye= right hemisphere Temporal: Auditory processes, store new memories, contains Wernicke’s area (comprehension of of speech), not lateralized Motor projection area Located at the rear of the frontal lobe Somatosensory (touch Eddie’s mom) projection area ;) Located at front of parietal lobe Localization Phrenology (greek: mind & knowledge); measurements of the brain/skull has localized modules/ functions Projection Areas Area in cortex of brain responsible for motor and sensory processing Broca's Area (productive aphasias) Speech production (frontal lobe) “TONO” ; caused by aphasia Wernicke's Area (receptive aphasias) peech comprehension (left temporal lobe) Contralateral Control Left brain controls right side of body; Right brain controls left side of body Modularity and the “Binding Problem” Brain unconsciously combines features to create coherent mental images Neurons Basic building block of the brain Anatomy Dendrite> cell body> axon> terminal button Resting Potentials membrane potential maintained if no active changes are in the membrane potential. negative value; determined by concentrations of ions in fluid surrounding cell membrane & ion transport proteins in the membrane (this influences the values of RP) Depolarization & Action Potentials: Excitation Hyperpolarization: Inhibition Digital Signal Transmission Slow Ungraded FrequencyLimited Synapses Anatomy Terminal buttons> neurotransmitters> dendrite Function Transmit neural signal to other neurons Signal Transmission Input through dendrite> cell body> axon> terminal buttons> neurotransmitter Excitation and Inhibition Digital Signal Transmission Slow Ungraded FrequencyLimited with Refractory Periods Neuron needs time to rest before firing again Lateral Inhibition Neural Pattern Mach Bands Exaggerated contrast between edges of slightly differing shades of grey Reciprocal Inhibition Simultaneously contracting one muscle to release another muscle Brain Damage: Some Examples Aphasia Affects a person's ability to speak Agnosia Able to perceive details but unable to know what the object is Apraxia Unable to complete task bc how the process is organized in the brain Dementia General deterioration of the brain Alzheimer’s Progressive mental deterioration Vascular Cause vascular lesions in the brain Lewy body verlap of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Lobotomy Removing sections of the brain Lateralization Cutting corpus callosum; separating hemispheres Neglect Damage to right parietal lobe; half of vision field; can only draw half of a flower Sensation Adaptation & Aftereffects: `Movement Aftereffects Continuous movement one way will tire eyes; see movement in opposite direction when stopped Stabilized Images Negative Color Afterimages Rods & cones adapt to over stimulation and lose sensitivity The McCollough Effect Colorless gratings appear colored contingent on the orientation of the gratings Proximal and Distal Stimuli Distal: Objects and event out in the world about you Proximal: Patterns of stimuli from distal that actually reach your senses The Coding Problem Neurons are slow & frequency limited; only all or none response Audition The Ear Eardrum> 3 bones(anvil, stirrup, hammer)> cochlea Coding Frequency Matching Low frequency Volleys Med frequency; neurons fire at different point to increase speed of wave Place Coding Vision Functionally Different Eyes Brightness Sensitivity and Adaptation Color Sensitivity Spatial Sensitivity Detail Vision The Blind Spot rea where there are no rods or cones Additive versus Subtractive Color Mixture Additive: Wavelengths are added to create a range of colors Subtractive: Mix colors to absorb some wavelengths but not others Color Theories Trichromatic Receptors (Young/Helmholtz) 3 classes of cone receptors (color receptors) Our eyes are based on mixing the 3 primary colors to get what we see Opponent Processes (Hering) Color perception is controlled by 2 opponent systems (red/green, blue/yellow) When one color is turned on, its opposite is also to dull the original color Receptive Fields & Feature Detectors a field where a cell can react to anything in it (receptive this is wrong a feature from a certain field that a cell reacts to (feature detectors) Chemical Senses Taste (Gustation) Bitter, Sweet, Salt, Sour, Umami (Glutamate) Evenly distributed on tongue Supertasters Bitter tastes are intensified Smell (Olfaction) Orthonasal Smells through the nostrils Retronasal mells when through mouth when you eat Perceptual Organization Order from Chaos Figure/Ground Differentiation Main subject (figure) is closer/larger than background Gestalt Principles Proximity Close= belong together Similarity Similar= belong together Continuation Mind continues a blocked image (cube placed over line) Closure Mind finishes unfinished shape Good Figure ou will fill in with familiar information (PEREIDOLIA: seeing faces where there are not any faces.) Depth Perception Seeing objects in 3 dimensions; used to judge distance Monocular cues nly need one eye Relative Size Smaller retinal image is far away Overlap Closer object covers the further object Texture Gradient hange in texture is a change in distance Relative Height Closer objects are lower, farther objects are higher Linear Perspective Converging lines mean distance Relative Brightness Nearby objects reflect more light & larger shadows Haze Hazy objects are further away Motion Parallax Objects that are closer move faster than objects that are farther Binocular cues Two eyes Convergence yes come together when objects are close Retinal Disparity Left and right eye view slightly different images Perception in Context Constancies and Contrast Effects Constancies: the fact that we perceive the constant properties of an object even though the sensory info we receive changes (door appears rectangle both open and closed) Contrast: Perceptual Set Parent and child look more alike when told relationship; influences what we hear; determined through experiences TopDown Processing vs. BottomUp Processing ottomup: Deals purely with stimuli Top down: Deals with content Bottomup: Receptive Fields, Feature Detectors, and the Binding Problem TopDown: Perceptual Set Modern Genetics Mendel; pea plants/punnett square; recessive and dominant gen s Drugs Curare Amazon basin plant (poison darts); fills acetylcholine receptors (tells muscles to move and breathe) poison fills these and the thing dies Deadly Night Shade “Bella Dona” = “Beautiful woman” Toxic plant; irregulates heart if ingested in small doses can be put in eyes blocks acetylcholine & smooth muscle dilated pupils; models, and beautiful women have large pupils (hence more attractive) Atropine helps keep heart rate stable after a heart attack or surgery lessens amount of fluids before procedures so choking doesn't happen while unconscious Firing of Neurons 1) Stable neuron membrane a) excess amt of positive ions on outside i) result = negative voltage of resting potential 2) Membrane is stimulated a) ion channel opens, positive ions flow inside i) result = positive voltage of action potential 3) Excitation of neuron a) spreads to neighboring regions i) result = moves action potential along axon 4) Moving along axon a) Myelin sheath i) Faster with a thicker coat ii) Slower with thinner to no coat (1) With myelin sheath; depolarization proceeds down the axon ** All or None Law: Once the action potential is launched, further increases in stimulus intensity have no effect on its magnitude.** Communication of Neurons 1) Release of neurotransmitters (lock and key model; shape has to fit to work) a) cross synapse; latch onto receptors on postsynaptic cell i) potentially triggers response to cell b) Transmitters can be inactivated after being discharged i) done by “clean up” enzymes c) More commonly neurotransmitters are reused i) result = process called synaptic reuptake Bloodstream 1) endocrine system Exam 2 Breakdown Perception in Context Constancies and Contrast effects Perceptual Set TopDown Processing vs. BottomUp Processing Bottomup: Receptive Fields, Feature Detectors, and the Binding Problem TopDown: Perceptual Set and Contextual Interpretation Empiricism and Associationism Pavlovian Conditioning Basic Methods and Results Acquisition ● The CR slowly grows as the animal experiences more and more pairings of the CS and US Extinction ● Undoing of a previously learned response so that the response is no longer produced Spontaneous Recovery ● The CS elicits the CR even though someone went through extinction and had a rest period Inhibition ● Theories Pavlov's Account Expectations, Blocking, & Surprise The Garcia Effect Biases Familiarity The Conditioning Model of Anxiety Disorders Biases in Fear Conditioning Social Transmission of Phobias Drug Conditioning Instrumental (Operant) Learning Instrumental Learning James and Willful Action ● Golfer knows what swing should look like ● Magic writing: unconsciously write on paper while blindfolded Comparative Psychology Thorndike ● Law of effect ● Cat in a puzzle box and hits lever and escapes for food Comparing Pavlovian and Instrumental Learning Skinner ● Sharp distinction between classical and instrumental conditioning ○ Instrumental responses are operants: operate on environment bringing about a change that leads to consequence ● Studied pigeons to aid in war effort Shaping ● You can shape & create target behavior with successive approximations Secondary Reinforcer ● Conditioned; money, grades, and tokens Immediate Reinforcement ● Occurs immediately after the desired or undesired behavior Successive Approximations ● Series of rewards that act as positive reinforcement towards final behavior Some Applications Clinical: Behavior Modification ● Patient can be rewarded for getting out of bed or moving around the room Creativity ● Dolphins or other entertainment animals Computer Assisted Instruction ● Used in mental institutions ● Dicky and his glasses Avoidance Learning ● Learn a behavior to avoid a stressful situation Basics ● Rat doesn’t wait for heat lamp(bad thing); automatically jumps on ledge Persistence ● Dog will jump over a barrier hundreds of times to avoid bad thing; never come in contact with the bad thing Punishment ● Learns to avoid by not doing something; kid avoids punishment by not running into the street Mnemonic Strategies Introduction: Working Memory and LongTerm Memory Mnemonics Brute Force Rehearsal ● Repeating oesn’t get things into memory ● Can only remeber 7 + 2 items with rehearsal(short term memory) Maintenance Rehearsal ● 7 + 2; short term memory; simply repeat list Elaborative Rehearsal ● Add meaning or rhythm to a set of info ● Professors phone number Interactive Imagery ● Create image that makes the objects interact; eagle and locomotive Method of Loci ● Find someplace you have well established in your head and place items there asic Method "S" and Synesthesia ● “Human memories are remarkably alike. They just use them differently.” ● Gave digit span test: “S” repeated back 30 digits; filled in a 10x10 digits sheet forward, backward, and diagonally ● Synesthesia: experience info in every sense Rhythm and Rhyme ● Giving a rhythm or rhyme makes it easier to memorize Prospective Memory ● Know there is something in particular that you need to remember but don't always think about it; tie to retrieval cues that will be present at the time you need it Peg Words ● Peg words to number to create interactive images ● 1 bun, 2 shoe, 3 tree, 4 door, 5 hive Meaningful Surrogates ● Add personal meaning to words or phrases Substitution ● Substituting a word to help remember another word/number Chunking ● Think in terms of chunks rather than individual pieces of informatio Links ● Put in in personal environment to link it to your life Generation ● learned through generations Discovering Organization ● Discover the existing organization of the material Imposing Organization ● Create your own organization that works best for you Precise Elaboration ● Elaborating in a way that is more closely tied to the meaning of the words Intentional versus Unintentional Learning ● Learn more when you don’t mean to learn the material The Stage Model of Memory Processing Iconic Memory ● Remembering for a brief time after you can’t see anymore Working Memory Compared to LongTerm Store ● Working memory contains short term memory & systems that can operate on short term memory> can get to long term memory through consolidation; Has a capacity of 7 + 2 at any time ● Long term memory information can be pulled back into short term memory Introspective Differences ○ How we perceive our own memories Capacity ● Working memory has a smaller capacity than long term memory Confusion Errors ● Short term confusion is sound, long term confusion is meaning Serial Position in Free Recall ● Remember better at the beginning and end of a data set than the middle Amnesia ● Often caused by alcoholism or damage to the brain; Alcohol causes decreased thiamine Anterograde(Korsakoff’s Syndrome) ● Person looks and acts normal but will have problems with certain topics; short term memory is normal but loses consolidation; cannot get new information into long term memory; memory does NOT recover; wipes out consolidation permanently Retrograde (Consolidation) ● Affects what’s happened in the past; may not remember before amnesia happened; electroconvulsive therapy wipes out short term memory and beginning stages of consolidation; greatest memory lost is the events right before the cause of the amnesia, can go back an entire day; temporarily wipes out consolidation The Memory Process Encoding ● Processing events and information in your brain Retrieval Retrieval Cues ● Cue that’s going to trigger a memory Hierarchical Search ● Search for something in memory but start further up the hierarchy StateDependent Memory ● The state that you’re in becomes part of the retrieval cue Reconstruction ● Fill in memory with information that seems plausible Testing (Practicing Retrieval) ● Forgetting Loss of Retrieval Cues ● Lose cues when you move away Interference ● Learn something and subsequently learn something else Thinking, ProblemSolving, and Judgment Thinking as Covert Action Problem Solving Algorithms versus Heuristics ● Algorithm is strictly analytical; heuristics is an estimate based off previous knowledge; heuristic= rule of thumb Expertise Chunking ● above Heuristics ● Rule of thumb Depth of Processing Set ● A particular set of information that one relies on Rigidity Functional Fixedness ● When you think of things in terms of their normal function HeuristicBased Errors in Reasoning Representativeness ● You decide a category that something belongs to by how representative that thing is by our notion of things that belong in said category Anchoring ● The first information you hear anchors your judgement and you adjust it based on the proceeding information Availability ● Estimate how frequently something is by how readily we can pull it up in our memory Language Syntax ● Arrangement of words to create a coherent sentence Semantics The "Dictionary" Model (Collins & Quillian) ● A good dictionary is carefully edited so people don’t get lost; words have a hierarchical organization Typicality ● Faster at categorizing things that are closer to the image; hear bird, think rob n Cognitive Development Approaches to Development: Nature vs Nurture Maturational ● You mature and grow; happens automatically Experiential ● People are products of their experiences Interactional ● Development involves both experience and maturation Piaget's Approach Basic Concepts Schemas ● Any organized action pattern ● Certain order for ordering food at a restaurant Assimilation and Accommodation ● Assimilation: Adding new information to a schema ● Accommodation: Change schema to fit new information Piegots 4 Major Periods Sensorimotor ● Lasts about 1 ½ years Sucking ● Newborn develop this skill within hours of birth ● Can get better at extracting milk Object permanence ● Knowing an object exists even though you can’t see it PreOperational ● Last until the child is 15 years old Failure to conserve ● Knowing there is the same amount of something, it’s just in a different container Egocentrism ● The child is unable to understand that people have different perspectives Concrete Operations ● 58 years old ● Learns conservation Formal Operations ● Social support ● Speeds up development Egocentric speech or thought development ● Children just think aloud rather than actually talking to each other Another approach: Child as Novice MetaMemory ● Children have terrible short term memory ● Can only remember 3 + 1 ● Teaching rehearsal increased their short term memory for a period of time Counting OneonOne ● Assign a number name to an object at a rate of 1 per object Stable Order ● The certain order in which we count (1,2,3,4,5) Cardinality ● The last number is the last number assigned and the number of object in the whole group Order Irrelevance ● You get the same number of objects regardless of which order you count them Abstraction (applies to any set) ● Use counting cue to count other things such as people or animals Language Acquisition ➔ Glue words together around 1 year old First Language ● 222 year old people acquire 515 words a day ● Language must be acquired while young, often before puberty ● Children have a greater plasticity Telegraphic utterances ● Just enough words to carry the meaning of a message Overgeneralization ● Over applies a word; goed, went Critical Period ● Period in which information is most easily aquired Second Language ● An adult can learn a second language more easily than first language Animal Language/studies Early Attempts Clever Hans ● Horse could read arithmetic problems and correctly answer by stomping foot ● Would stop stomping when the crowd gasped ● Didn’t actually know arithmetic, but rather displayed sensitivity to social cues Trained Chimpanzees ● Raised chimps as best as possible to be human children ● The whole point was to see if chimps could develop human language Washoe and others ● Chimp raised in compound where people all used sign language ● Washoe could use 100+ signed words ● Chimps use words to stand for other things, but have no clear human language Birds ● Song birds pick up songs from their parents while they are young Emotional Development Attachment Freud: “Cupboard Love” ● Whoever provides food will become the center of the child's attachment Animal Models Imprinting (Lorenz) ● Experimented with birds ● animals form a strong attachment and will follow for a long time the first moving object that they encounter ● Got birds attached to objects such as a tractor Contact Comfort (Harlow) ● Harlow’s monkeys ● Orphan monkey would cling to artificial mothers ● Monkeys would cling to terry cloth mother and only feed from the wire mother ● Motherless monkeys were terrible mothers themselves Childhood Attachment Loss (Bowlby) ● Studied children who were separated from their parents ● Children form intense bonds around 6 months of age Protest ● Child who has been attached and separate is very unhappy; cries, kicks, hits; lasts days to weeks Despair ● Child becomes inactive; whimpers quietly rather than kicking ● Subject to certain kinds of infections and suffer higher rates of mortality Detachment ● Children form attachment to new primary care takers The Uses of Attachment Sexuality Development ● Rearing can affect sexual development Strange Situations Social/Emotional Learning of Fears ● Anxieties and fears can be learned ● Visual cliff: babies learn to not crawl off the “cliff” ○ Babies got cues that it was dangerous by watching their mothers Cohort Effects: Reasons to be Skeptical Agoraphobia: fear of going into public places John B. Watson argued there is no such thing as conscious though Children love their mothers bc they have working breasts Exam 3 Breakdown Social Influence NonVerbal Social Influence Social Facilitation (Triplett) ● Triplet: Bicycle racer will go faster in a pack than riding against the clock; being in the presence of other people who are judging you speeds up your performance; increases performance of skills that are already well learne Diffusion of Responsibility Bystander Effects ● The more people there are witnessing, the less likely someone will come to their aid Social Loafing & the Jigsaw Strategy ● When you feel that your responsibilities is not as much as it otherwise would be bc there are other in the group to share said responsibility; tug less in tug of war when there are more people Demand Characteristics ● The behavior that a situation demands of you; ex. funeral vs party ● Can distort the results of psychology studie Group Dynamics Conformity (Asch) ● Give the same answer as the rest of the group; conform to the group's thinking; doubted evidence of their own senses; topdown Group Decision Making Does brainstorming work ● Comedy writers believe it works; psychological studies suggest this is not effective; individuals produce more creative ideas in the same amount of ti e Predicting Outcomes ● They do this in the military. Intellective Tasks ● Judgmental Tasks ● if you know opinions before its still hard to predict what will happen Polarization and Group Think ● They were so confident that they were right that they didn’t look at other options. Dismissal of outside opinion . Panic and the "Prisoner's Dilemma” ● Your choice is affected by the functionality of another choice ● Two confessions vs one confession and one silence Obedience ● Obedient when the guy told him what to do even when the person doing it thought it was wrong Ethics in Research with Human Subjects Unethical Studies ● Untreated Syphilis The Belmont Report ● Fine document describing the ethical issues in human experimentation and state the standards. There are 3 general principles: ○ Respect for person understand that people are to be treated as autonomous agents who can make decisions to participate ○ Beneficence promote the wellbeing of people in a study, do research that benefits people ○ Justice treating people fairly Informed Consent ● Consciously give consent for an experiment Attribution causal theory Dispositions versus Situations ● Situations are major controllers of behavior; external, environment ● Dispositionsinternal. thoughts, reasonings, traits. The Fundamental Attribution Error ● Tendency to place an undue emphasis on internal characteristic Types of Attribution Internalexternal (dispositionalsituational) ● Internal Something that relates to a trait or belief. ● External: Situational. Stableunstable ● Stable: Does it persist over time. ● Unstable: Temporary factors. Globalspecific ● Global: Does it apply to many aspects of life. ● Specific: Specific to one particular thing. “Fixed” vs “Growth” mindset ● Fixed: Praise the child that supports internal talent. ● Growth: Praise child that supports growth that you can get better Attitude Change Attitudes Follow Behavior ● Attitude: belief that follows a valued component Footinthedoor ● Get more out of a person by slowly intensifying your cause Under Justification ● Getting someone to do something with little justification. Overjustification ● Get someone to do something by making it sound more promising than it really is Cognitive Consistency/Dissonance ● Cognitive consistency: Attitudes people have toward each other; contradictory attitude come closer to each other The Case of the Profligate Mother ● Son feels mother should be institutionalized ● Mother refuses; son goes to court ● She was institutionalised in a country club type place ● It was Mary Todd Lincoln Psychopathology Social Context ● Madness in History Demonic Possession ● Would trephine peron (cut hole in the head) to release spirits Mental "Hospitals" ● Similar to zoos ● Exposed to treatments to shock them out of their mental state ● London Bethlehem Hospital: charged admission to show off the most interesting of the crazy people The Pathology Model ● Perhaps some of these mental disorders represented a disease Somatogenic Disorders ● Things caused by a bodily process such as invasion of bacteria Psychogenic Disorders ● Physical symptoms caused by something happening psychologically The StressDiathesis Model ● People may be born with different susceptibilities towards disorders but this does not mean that they will develop the disorder Diagnostic Taxonomies ● DSM is the universal guide to classifying psychological disorders Discrete or Continuous Classifications ● Continuous you may or may not see visually but discrete is obvious Diagnostic Reliability ● It has gotten more reliable but still varies from doctor to doctor Diagnosis in Socio/Economic Context ● Questioning the pathology model ● Takes things that are part of normal life and makes them abnormal by giving them a label as a pathology ● We are too quick to over apply this Schizophrenia ● About 1 in 100 ● Appears in early adulthood Symptoms Disorganized Speech & Derailment ● The person will being a conversation but gets derailed by each new thought Delusions ● Perceive world in an accurate sensory way but get confused in the mind ● Paranoid delusion Convinced that someone is out to get them ● Grand delusion Hallucinations ● They are often voices that people hear that say bad things ○ Can’t tell where the voices are coming from ● Person has a problem telling was is real and what isn’t ● Ex. Thinking phone vibrates when it doesn’t Affect ● Inappropriate Schizophrenic finds a happy situation very sad Behavior ● Some get agitated, some find themselves shaking, some scratch, behavioral ticks, some are immobile(catatonia) Possible Causes ● Stressful life Pathology as Exaggeration Mood Disorders Major Depression ● Involves something that last 2 weeks or more that involves a lot of changes including changes in mood Learned Helplessness ● A sense of powerlessness Depressive Realism ● Depressed people are more realistic about the amount of control they have Attributional (Explanatory) Style Bipolar Disorder ● Looks like depression and schizophrenia ● People feel themselves falling into a depressive phase ● Manic phase is where they are super positive and motivated Anxiety Disorders Generalized (Freefloating) Anxiety ● Someone who has anxiety attacks without any clear trigger ● General worry about everything with no obvious trigger Phobias ● People have a rational specific fear ● Can be quite delusional ObsessiveCompulsive Disorders ● Treatments are based off treatments for phobia ● Constantly thinking about something without control Paranoia ● Psychopathy ● Not all psychopaths commit crime ● They show no remorse when they do commit a crime ● Respond to the world differently than everyone else Insanity ● Not a diagnostic category, it's a legal concept/ legal category ● The person was incapable of understanding that the crime they committed was wrong Psychoanalysis Freud (18561939) ● Was interested in the new drug cocaine as a potential local anesthetic Hysteria ● People show physical symptoms but the symptoms have no obvious physical cause Theory of Personality Structure Id ● So stupid that you can satisfy its urges simply by fantasy ● Pleasure principle Ego ● Its job is to tell what's real ● Reality principle ● Depends on the cognitive development of the child ● Has to learn about social norms Superego ● Where the child internalizes the social rules of the world ● Develops a sense of conscious ● Conscious deals out guilt ● Ego ideal: internalizes what the good things to do are ○ Gives a sense of pride Origins of Conflict in Psychosexual Development Oral Stage ● The reason the child loves its mother is bc she provides food ● Almost completely focused on food; puts everything in its mouth Anal Stage ● Child comes up to the first restrictions imposed on them ● First serious rules involve urination, defecation, and potty training Phallic Stage ● Children start to have sexual urges ● Boys are driven by castration anxiety Oedipus Complex ● The boy has a extreme love for its mother and directs his sexual urges to her ● Tries to replicate the behaviors of the father Elektra Complex ● The girl conclude she must’ve done something bad bc someone took her penis away ● Thinks she can borrow one by having sex with dad Latency Period ● Child represses sexual urges and associate with members of the same sex Genital Sexuality ● sexual urges Defense Mechanisms Repression ● things you do to get rid of the id urges Suppression ● You can deliberately do something to avoid thinking about something that makes you uncomfortable ● Can avoid retrieval cues Displacement ● Take the forbidden urge and redirect it to something that’s more acceptable Reaction Formation ● Sometime you have a forbidden feeling and you fight it by forcing yourself to feel the opposite Rationalization ● You do something that your conscious knows is bad so you offer an explanation to rationalize it Projection ● blame on someone else; deny Denial ● Fighting urges; deny that the feeling is there Regression ● Falling back to previous feelings The Legacy of Psychoanalysis ● Provided a framework for what people talk about Poppers critic ● There is nothing that cannot be proved by psychoanalysis Psychotherapies Good work sam Who does therapy ● Therapy Styles Psychoanalysis ● Extraordinarily expensive ● Starts with the person paying $1,000 a week and can go on for years ● Tries to break through all the defenses to bring them into consciousness ● Preassociation: try to get the client to break through the defenses by thinking in a free way to get anything to come out ● Dream analysis: our defense mechanisms are weaker in our sleep Behavior Therapies ● Interested in changing behavior Exposure Therapies ● Exposes people to situations that would normally trigger undesirable feelings Systematic Desensitization ● Work to get over a fear by moving up a hierarchy Flooding ● Throws a person into a situation and doesn’t let them escape Behavior modification ● Application of operant training techniques to change human behavior ● Biofeedback: controlling body processes that are normally involuntary Cognitive Therapies ● Based on the idea that the reason people experience inappropriate emotions is bc they’re thinking inappropriately about the situation RationalEmotive Therapy ● To have an emotion appear at a rational, realistic level ● What’s the actual outcome of the fear Attributional retraining ● Challenging a person's belief about what caused a situation ● Ex. you failed bc you didn’t prepare, not bc you’re bad at it PersonCentered Therapies ● Role of the therapist is to provide support and show concern, not inject their own opinions Pharmacological Approaches ● PDR Physician’s Desk Reference Drug Info Psychopharmacology The Synapse Review of Basics ● Dendrite, cell body, axon, terminal button ● Receptors are like a lock and key ● Synaptic gap is a “soup” of neurotransmitters Excitation and Inhibition ● Inhibitory blocks a receptor and hyperpolarizes; less likely to fire ● Excitation makes it more likely to fire Agonists and Antagonists ● Agonist makes the neurotransmitter more intense than it normally would be ● Antagonist interfere with the normal function of a neurotransmitter ● Only defined relative to particular neurotransmitter Drug Information Physician’s Desk Reference ● Source physicians consult when prescribing drugs ● Found at every nursing station across the country ● Only covers prescription drugs The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics ● Standard textbook used at medical school ● Covers everything from illegal drugs to drugs no longer used Websites: Physician Prescribing Information ● Where to look to find drug information Modes of Action Synthesis ● Drugs can speed up or slow down the manufacturing process of neurotransmitter ● Drugs operate in the presynaptic neuron Reuptake ● agonist facilitating Receptors Blocking ● Facilitating ● Reverse (Retrograde) Signals ● Accessing & Reading Drug Information ● Pharmacodynamics how it affects the body ● Tongue lolling sticks tongue out and pulls it back in after being to aggressive ● Institutional review board reviews all studies that it incorporates feature that incorporate respect, beneficence, and justice