Calculating Percentage Composition
Calculate the percentage of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (by mass) in C12H22O11.
What is the percentage of nitrogen, by mass, in calcium nitrate? (a) 8.54%, (b) 17.1%,
(c) 13.7%, (d) 24.4%, (e) 82.9%.
General Psychology CH. 12 Stress and Health What is stress Stress is tension, discomfort or physical symptoms In response to a ..... Stressor - condition that disrupts ability to cope effectively (shots, public speaking, finals) Hassles - minor annoyances that strain our ability to cope Traumatic event - a severe stressor (death, car accident) Both can produce long term health problems Perceiving hassles as continual predicts health problems better than major events Study of Stress 3 approaches o Stressors as stimuli - focus is identifying types of stressful events What is dangerous or unpredictable Lob loss Combat Pregnancy Marriage o Stress as a response - assesses reactions to stress Measure outcome variables - like corticosteroid levels Psychological Depression Hostility Anxiety Physical o Corticosteroid levels o Heart rate o Stress as a transaction - examines how people cope with stress Interactions between people and environment How we perceive/appraise events (stressful/not stressful) Assessing Stress Primary appraisal - asset if situation is harmful or dangerous Secondary - then assess how well we can cope with it Coping with Stress Problem focused coping - use when we feel can change outcome o Grade on a test (we study more) Emotion focused coping - use when we feel we can't change outcome o Put a positive spin on the outcome I don't really care anyway It worked out for the best General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) Three stages Alarm - fight or flight o Emotional brain reaction o Arousal = limbic system activated o Adrenaline released o Anxiety HPA axis: hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal Fear -> activates Hypothalamus -> activates Pituitary -> triggers Adrenal gland -> releases hormones cortisol, adrenaline • Resistance - feel like flee/fight - but think better of it (running out during the test) o Thinking brain reaction o Coping with stress Exhaustion - constant, long term stress (combat) o Run out of coping resources o Can cause serious health problems Physical Psychological Stress and Gender Tend and befriend: o Nurture (tend) and/or seek social support (befriend) More common in females than males Fight or flight: o Aggression (fight) and/or social withdrawal (flight) More common in males than females Coping with Stress Catharsis- disclosing painful feelings Useful only if w/ involves problem solving Crisis debriefing- single 3-4 hr session soon after trauma Designed to ward off PTSD Not helpful – may increase risk of PTSD Social support > lower morality rates Maybe why women live longer (tend and befriend) Gaining control > stress Control o Behavioral control Ability to gain control of situation Problem-focused Better than avoidance orientated coping o Cognitive Ability to think differently “turn frown upside down” Includes emotion-focused coping o Decisional Ability to choose among alternatives o Informational Able to acquire info about stress event Proactive coping- anticipating problems and plan for solutions. o Emotional Ability to suppress or to express emotions Better for health to express – but not always practical Individual Differences Hardiness- set of attitudes in which: View change as challenge not threat External locus of control = less anxiety proneness Also called resilience Optimism- better immune system > less stress > mortality Spirituality- better immune system > less stress > morality (we must coexist) Ruminating- continual focus on problems