The concept of chemical equilibrium is very important. Which one of the following statements is the most correct way to think about equilibrium?
(a) If a system is at equilibrium, nothing is happening.
(b) If a system is at equilibrium, the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the back reaction.
(c) If a system is at equilibrium, the product concentration is changing overtime. [Section]
Biology 130 : Exam 3 Diversity of Life Diversity of Life : total of all variations in forms, functions, and behaviors. Biodiversity : number of all the surviving species in the world. Number of species increases due to evolution and decreases due to extinction. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Living organisms are currently classified in to 3 domains and 6 kingdoms. Kingdoms are Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista. Domain ArchaeaProkaryotic Kingdom Archaebacteria Has many ancestral characteristics –Cell wall type 1 Can survive in extreme conditions Domain BacteriaProkaryotic Kingdom Eubacteria It’s the typical bacteria – Cell all type 2 Domain EukaryaEukaryotic Kingdom Protista – Most no cell wall, mostly single celled organisms Kingdom Plantae cellulose cell wall, multicellular metazoans, producers Kingdom Animalia no cell wall, multicellular metazoans, consumers Kingdom Fungi –Chitin cell wall, mostly multicellular metazoans, decomposers *Prokaryotic : Before+Kernel – No nucleus, no membrane bound organelles. *Metazoan = multicellular organism that has to have all of its cell types to survive Body shape of bacteria related to name: Spherical shapedcoccus Rod shaped bacillus Spiral shaped spirillum Form chains = strepto Form sheets = staphylo Earliest antibiotics discovered were produced by bacteria and fungi. Harmful bacteria: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium (Tetanus/ botulism), Rickettsia (Rock Mountain Spotted Fever), Borrelia (Lyme disease). Viruses are non living and non cellular. Cannon reproduce without using a host cell ( the reason why it is non living). Non domain no kingdom. Can evolve because they have DNA and RNA. Smaller than bacteria (30100 nanometers). Kingdom Protista Mostly single celled, eukaryotic, most found in water, Have to have moisture, highly diverse. Major groups Amoebalike cells move with pseudopods. Ex) Amoeba, Foraminifera. Cells with cilia Paramecium, Stentor. Cells with flagella: Giardia, Euglena (protest that undergoes photosynthesis) Some are intracellular parasites. Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Plasmodium causes malaria. Toxoplasma travels around in animal feces. (Carnivore and omnivore.) Causes birth defects. Some are plantlike protistans: Rhodophyta and Phaeophyta