Consider the two waves shown here, which we will consider to represent two electromagnetic radiations:
(a) What is the wavelength of wave A? Of wave B?
(b) What is the frequency of wave A? Of wave B?
(c) Identify the regions of the electromagnetic spectrum to which waves A and B belong.
Exam 4: April 11, 2016 1 The Russian Revolutions of 1917 Conditions/problems on the Eastern Front. o The lack of weapons was the major problem for the Russian Army. 1 in 3 soldiers did not have a rifle. The Russians had ¼ the artillery of the Germans. Pounded by the German army. 2 million Russian soldiers were killed. 46 million Russian soldiers were wounded or captured. The February Revolution. o 10,000 women in Petrograd held a demonstration. o Shops and factories closed down. o Transportation had stopped running. What Is To Be Done o The revolution in Russia will be led by a small party of professional revolutionaries. Lenin’s campaign for supporters. o “Peace, Land, Bread, Now”. o Workers will have control of industry. Leon Trotsky and the Red Guard. o The revolution in Russia will be led by a small party of professional revolutionaries. o Led the October Revolution. o Training for the siege of ower. The October Revolution. o The Bolshevik seizure of power. o Took over communication centers in Petrograd. Important developments after the October Revolution. o Peace treaty signed with Germany. o Civil War 19181921. o Lenin’s death and Stalin’s rise to power. Fate of Nicholas II and his family. o Execution. Lenin’s “Testament”. o Wanted someone else in his place besides Stalin. o Not endorsing Stalin as his successor. o Was not made public until 1958. Stalin’s falsification of photographs. o Made a lot of “fake” photos to achieve his end. o Became a trend in altering photographs to alter records. Stalin’s “Revolution from Above” Five Year Plans. o Wanted rapid industrialization in a short amount of time. o High goals to project targets. Conditions of everyday life for industrial workers. o Food rationing. o Consumer goods were in short supply. Clothes. Shoes. Home goods. o Very little emphasis placed on consumer goods. Stalin’s industrial development: the view from below. Exam 4: April 11, 2016 2 o Loaded the working class with socialist competition, shock work, overfulfilling the industrial and financial plan, and so forth. o Toils seven hours not leaving his post. o Sits in endless meetings or classes for 1 ½ 2 hours in order to increase his skill level. Collectivization of agriculture. o Transform from an agricultural for a greater output for the land. Feed industrial workers. Export grain in order to obtain equipment. o Order peasants. Give up their private land and their livestock. Relocated. o Collective farms. Transformed private agriculture into small staterun collective farms. People were set on farms to meet quotas. Complete in most areas of the Soviet Union. Kulaks. o Peasants who resisted collectivization. o Burnt their fields and killed their livestock in order to resist the Soviet Union. Famine 19323. o Claimed about 35 million lives. o Let nature run its course and let people die. The Great Terror. o Campaign to purge people who were enemy of the people. Essential to the success of the country. People from all rules of life were considered and enemy. o Nearly 1 million people killed. 1.5 million people sent to labor camps. Propaganda—A.O. Advienko. o Everything he is and everything he has is because of Stalin. o Stalin is the new God in the Soviet Union. o Be willing to work hard and sacrifice for Stalin. o Paintings. The “Cut of Stalin”. Stakhanovites. o Make people work harder for their goods. o “Heroes of labor”. The Nazi State Hitler’s economic programs. o Enabling Act. Granted Hitler ultimate power for 4 years. 4 year plan turned into a 12 year dictatorship. o Public work projects. Batted unemployment. Built up construction. Autobahm. Engineers and workers would find jobs easily. Hitler Youth. o Get the ready for their future roles in the army. Military instruction. o Males age 1018. Exam 4: April 11, 2016 3 League of German Girls. o Females ages 1018. o Breeding program where the girls would have a relationships with the S.S. officers. o Gave a gift of pure Aryan race to the German population. o Defy social convention to please Hitler. Nazi ideology and school materials. o AntiSemitism. Heinrich Himmler and the Lebensborn. o Head of the S.S. and Gestapo Chief of police. o Pregnant young women were able to liv there and get the proper nutrition and housing they needed before they gave birth. Marriage loan scheme. o A German couple could apply for an interestfree loan of 1,000 Reichmarks. o The future wife has to be employed and must leave her job upon marriage. o ¼ of the loan would be paid for 1 child. o ½ of the loan would be paid for 2 children. o 1/3 of the loan would be paid for 3 children. o The entire loan would be paid for 4 children. Honor Cross of the German Mother. o Acknowledgement of the mother’s contribution to the state with a medal. o In the city, 745 women received the medal. Brought 7,372 children into Germany. Sterilization program. o Anyone is hereditarily ill within the meaning of this law who suffers from one of the following illnesses cannot have children: Congenital feeblemindedness. Schizophrenia. Manic depression. Hereditary epilepsy. Huntington’s chorea. Hereditary blindness. Hereditary deafness. Serious physical deformities. Chronic alcoholism. o Nearly 320,000 people had been sterilized. AntiSemitism in Nazi Germany AntiSemitism in Europe. o Barrage of propaganda against Jews, blamed for all the troubles of modernity, from socialism, to international banks and mass culture. Score of books. Pamphlets. Magazines. o Violent assaults on Jewish communities. April boycott. o People across Germany were encouraged to not buy from Jewish shops and businesses. o Hitler tried to hurt the Jews economically. o Deprive the Jewish people of earning a livelihood. Exclusionary laws of 1933. o Excluded Jewish people from working in civil services, legal professions, judgeships, medical professions, teaching professions, cultural and entertainment enterprise, and the press. Exam 4: April 11, 2016 4 Reich Citizenship Law. o Stripped the Jewish people of their citizenship, rights and privileges. Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor. o Prohibited marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Germans. “The Night of Broken Glass”. o Destruction of Jewish businesses, synagogues, and homes. 700 businesses destroyed. About 100 Jewish people were killed. Marta Appel’s account. o Social death before physical death. Hitler’s Foreign Policy Hitler’s violations of the Treaty of Versailles. o Expand the size of the German army, build an air force, and build up the navy. o German rearmament. AngloGerman. o Germany could build up its navy, but limit the size of the navy. o Beginning of the British policy of appeasement. o Made negotiations and concessions with Hitler to keep the peace in Europe and avoid a war. Treaty appeasement. o Did not want another WWI. o Some people believed that the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh and Germany had legitimate grievances to redress. o Some people believed that a strong Germany would stop the spread of communism in Europe. Neville Chamberlain. o Wanted to avoid a repetition of the Great War in Europe. Munich Conference. o Diplomatic victory. o Determined the fate of Sudetenland. David Low. o Important early political cartoonist. Winston Churchill. o Presence of a disaster of the first magnitude. Pact of Steel. o Mutual aid in the event of a war. Nonaggression Pact. o The Soviet Union would stay neutral in the event of a war.