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Answer: Drawing a Lewis StructureDraw the Lewis structure

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780321910417 77

Solution for problem 2PE Chapter 8.6SE

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 2PE

Drawing a Lewis Structure

Draw the Lewis structure for phosphorus trichloride. PC13.

{a} How many valence electrons should appear in the Lewis structure for CH2CI2? <b) Draw the Lewis structure.

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International Law, IOs, and Ethics Source of International Law  Thomas Aquinas  Grotius, 1500’s, Treatise on International Law ◦ Customs, renaissance Italy ◦ Philosophers – Thomas Aquinas ◦ New Practices – territorial waters  Original – anything within range of seaside artillery  Current – landward waters (inside of shore boundaries, as with Albemarle sound); territorial waters, 12 nautical miles; Contiguous zone, 12 miles; exclusive economic zone, 200 miles  Five Major Sources: specified in the UN Charter 1. International Treaties: - the dominant source of law - legally binding (the principle of “pacta sunt servanda” and “rebus sic stantibus”: pacts must be respected, and the last as long as conditions are the same.) Example: the UN Charter as an int’l law 2. International Custom: - long-standing habits or customs followed by states are eventually codified into law. Example: The laws protecting diplomats and embassies 3. General Principles of Law: - include legal principles that are common to a large number of states. Example: invasion of a country by another 4. Judicial Decisions and Juristic Writings: - the written arguments of judges and lawyers 5. Scholarly works Enforcement of International Law  Enforcement of int’l laws is difficult because there is: - no legislative body to make binding laws. - no judicial body exists to authoritatively identify the rules accepted by states, record substantive precepts reached, interpret when and how the rules apply, and identify violations. - no centralized enforcement procedures exist, and compliance is voluntary.  International Court of Justice ( the World Court)– Noncompulsory jurisdiction on cases brought exclusively by states  Why do States still Follow Int’l Law: - The principle of reciprocity - Not to face the long-term costs of violations of int’l law - To avoid collective response by a group of states International Law  The two most developed areas of int’l law: A. Laws of Diplomacy: “Diplomatic immunity” for foreign bureaucrats - immune from the jurisdiction of the host country’s national courts - use of an embassy as if it were their own state’s territory B. Laws of War: - limitation of warfare to the combatants - protection of prisoners of war (POWs)  International Criminal Court (ICC): established in 2002 to hear cases of war crimes  the US did not ratify it. (It infringes the US sovereignty and might some day prosecute US soldiers.) Just War Theory  Just War Doctrine: a war is morally just if waged as a last resort for the purpose of responding to aggression.  Therefore, force may be used only if there is: ◦ Right intention (to correct a public evil) ◦ Proportionality (destruction should not overweigh the good to be achieved) ◦ Last Resort (first all peaceful alternatives should be exhausted) International Organizations (IOs)  IOs include: - Intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) example: the UN, the European Union, NATO, NAFTA - Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) example: Greenpeace, International Red Cross, Amnesty International  IGOs differ in geographic scope of membership: ◦ Global (e.g. the UN) ◦ Regional/Subregional (e.g. the EU; ASEAN)  IGOs also differ in the range of stated purpose: ◦ Multiple purposes (e.g. the UN) ◦ Single Purpose (e.g. World Health Organization) Functions of IGOs in IR  IGOs: - serve as arenas for negotiations and creation of coalitions during int’l bargaining - develop procedures to make rules and settle disputes - lead the creation and maintenance of international rules and principles (known as international regimes).  IGOs: - reduce uncertainties about other states and thereby enhance predictability in the policymaking process. - expand the possibilities for foreign policy-making  Supernationalism and Supranationality aspect of IGOs: ◦ tension bw. state sovereignty and higher authority of supranational structures (nationalism vs. intergovernmentalism vs. supranationalism) IGOs constrain states: By creating principles, norms, and norms of behavior with which states must align their policies if they wish to benefit from their membership. The most extensive IO: The UN  History  Intentions  Structure  Limitations The United States  History of the UN: Founded in the 1945 after WWII.  Members: Nation-states (as of 2007, 192 members)  Purpose: Maintaining int’l peace and security The Principles of the UN  The UN Charter was founded on four fundamental principles: - Equality of member states before int’l law - Full sovereignty of states over their internal affairs - Independence and territorial integrity of states - States should comply with their international obligations (Int’l rules and norms) Structure of the UN  Principal organs of the UN include: 1. Security Council 2. General Assembly 3. Secretariat 4. Economic and Social Council 5. International Court of Justice Security Council  Membership: 15 members; 5 permanent with veto; 10 rotating members  Responsibilities: ◦ Peace and security ◦ Identifies aggressors ◦ Decides on enforcement measures  Observation, peace keeping, enforcement  Criticized as an exclusive “nuclear club.”  Membership reform: Discussion of an increase in the number of permanent members (inclusion of Japan, Germany, and India)  Do we really need the SC Is it fair that only 5 countries control the SC  Should developing countries also be given veto power in the SC General Assembly  Membership: 192 members; each state has one vote  Responsibilities: ◦ Debates any topic within charter’s purview  May pass resolutions, comment on other actors ◦ Admits states ◦ Elects members to special bodies  Some criticize the GA because: - GA tries to address a very broad agenda. - GA needs to focus on some specific issues such as international migration, terrorism etc.  Should GA replace the Security Council  Can GA become the future “world government” Lacks structure, mandate, elections Secretariat  Headed by secretary-general. Secretary-general elected for 5-year renewable by General Assembly and Security Council  The executive arm of the UN  Responsibilities: ◦ Gathers information, coordinates and conducts activities ◦ Secretary General is the chief administrative officer, spokesperson Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)  Membership: 54 members elected for 3-year terms  Responsibilities: ◦ Coordinates economic and social welfare programs ◦ Coordinates action of specialized agencies (WHO; UNESCO; FAO) International Court of Justice  Membership: 15 judges; Elected for nine-year terms (five judges in every three years) by a majority of both the Security Council and General Assembly  Responsibilities: Noncompulsory jurisdiction on cases brought exclusively by states  Major weakness: all states do not agree in giving the court jurisdiction in certain cases.  States want to reserve their rights and limit the degree to which Court can break borders of national sovereignty. Overall Picture  Debate between intergovernmentalists and supranationalists  Inefficient – agencies have budget, but work is outsourced, and anything over budget is provided by pledges – unreliable  Relies on members to carry out the intentions of the organization, but cannot compel compliance.  No punishment for wickedness – symbolic unity rules… International Ethics  Values of idealists and constructivists shape part of international regime  Deontological vs. utilitarian ◦ Focus on means vs focus on ends  Moral relativist ◦ No set of values dominates – all at risk  Moral skeptic ◦ Morals are a tool to justify or oppose actions, but they have not real content. Like culture, morals can be a shield, bridge, or weapon.

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Chapter 8.6SE, Problem 2PE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 13
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780321910417

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Answer: Drawing a Lewis StructureDraw the Lewis structure