(a) If you were going to build a system to check the effectiveness of automobile catalytic converters on cars, what substances would you want to look for in the car exhaust? (b) Automobile catalytic converters have to work at high temperatures, as hot exhaust gases stream through them. In what ways could this be an advantage? In what ways a disadvantage? (c) Why is the rate of flow of exhaust gases over a catalytic converter important?
Questions to be able to answer for the document analysis: Who wrote the document To whom When was it written What does it say Historical circumstances promoting the composition of the document Why is it significant Documents to know: The Prince by Machiavelli Froissart: on the Jacquerie Knighton: The Impact of the Black Death Africa and the West St. Simon Louis XIV Memoirs Important Themes to think about for the essay questions: Exploration/Expansion Reformation and Counter Reformation o Religious wars Political Changes o Feudalism, monarchy, absolutism o Conflict between church and state Renaissance o Humanism Lecture Notes: The Renaissance Wednesday, February 10, 2016 10:57 AM Most historian’s und stand the Renaissance as a phenomenon in Italy during Is it appropriate to divide history into distinct periods On what basis can we divide history into these period so What are the consequences of these divisions On what basis do we characterize and interpret these historical periods Francesco Petrarch (13041374) o Some people thought they were living in a golden age but many people did not realize that Jacob Burckhardt o Published a book in the 19jth century called the civilization of the Renaissance in Italy o Thought that this as one of the first modern cultures o Saw it as being in stark contrast to the Middle Ages o Republican government shifts to monarchy's and oligarchy’s o Humanism: refers to liberal arts education. Influenced virtual very field of knowledge Intellectual movement who's central focus was determining man’s place in society. Deeply religious movement Loved the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. Thought by reading the works of these societies they would n able to learn about human nature Also thought it would make them more civilized Optimistic outlook of the human condition, though they would be able to create a world worthy of the god that crater them Niccolo Machiavelli The prince Represents a. Departure for much of the humanist program The arts Giotto, crucifixion, 13201325 People look more human than they did in previous art o o Express the human capacities of the human figure In sculpture, artists were inspired by the ancient world o Favored the creation of free standing human figures so people could walk around them Scholars began to imagine the ideal city as one that would be characterized by ideal morals and educated people. Also, included a material vision Transformation between the people who created art and those who bought it o There was no independent art market. It was normally commissioned, with room for very little creative and individual expression o Individuals more often became to be the patrons of works of art. Merchants, bankers, and others began to ask artists. To create statues or portraits. Of them o Decline in religious artwork o The artists weren't consider d any more important or glorious than any other crafts person, o The 15th century proved pivotal in elevating artists above other craftsmen o This was due to the increasing amount of work artists were asked to do, normally by wealthy individuals. Art became a sign of social status Artists were now recognized as creative geniuses o Discovery in the Renaissance The separation of European. Culture from other cultures was heightened during this time Travel and trade allowed them to become aware of other societies Magellan landed in India, tried to go around the world but n died up dying in the Philippines Explorers were tempted to go out and hopefully trade directly with Asia, even though explorations were very dangerous Improvements in ship building and sails made it feasible for people to sail out in the ocean Rethinking the Renaissance More continuity between the Middle Ages and Renaissance than some people make it seem Treating the Renaissance as a separate period showcases how difficult it is to divide history The growth of slavery was part of the economic expansion during this time The Black Death was still prominent Most people were illiterate, so they weren't reading the classic texts Poorer people weren't paintings to put in their homes Politics government and religion in the later middle ages Monday, February 22, 2016 11:03 AM Many dimensions of European life underwent dramatic changes during this period There were signs of recovery despite all of the tragedy Difficulties with the institutional church, changes in economic and religious life show that Europe was on the way to recovery Political and military life Represents a reversal of earlier trends we have seen Centralization process to bring territory and people under control of the monarchy' When a leader was strong and confident, things went pretty well. If they weren’t strong and confident, were underage insane or didn’t have an heir, power went to regents and progress was lost Monarchy was threatened by varying quality of leadership Economic problems caused concerns as well o Wars were very expensive and put economic strains on the monarch o Kings could raise taxes, but needed the consent of his subjects o He could borrow money, but if he was unable to pay it back he wouldn’t have that opportunity later o Plundering was another option, but wasn’t favorable because it led to corrupt leaders France came close to being conquered by England Hundred years war (13371453) o Period of intermittent warfare Caused by the age old rivalry between France and England o o Battles of Crecy and Poitiers During these battles where many people died, the black death was also spreading throughout Europe and there was a lot of looting o The French changed strategy by focusing on small battles rather than large ones and were more successful as England started to lose more territory o The English people were starting to become annoyed with the war and they eventually kicked King Richard II out of power o Charles VI (The Mad) Had to give up his son and give up the throne French guy Lol I don't know o Joan of Arc She came and helped gain victories for the French , was eventually killed at the stake because she was a woman Unam Sanctam (1302) Struggle between the pope and the king over power King Philip brought enough pressure on the papacy that the power of the pope was severely weakened o The new pope, clement V, repealed the unam Sanctam Papacy moves to Avignon and stayed there for centuries o Antipapal sentiment began to develop o Gregory XI moved back to Rome because the people thought that Great Schism Council of Pisa o Rome and Avignon popes deposed o Third pope was named, a three way schism ensued Recovery Changes in economic life o The black death was devastating to the economy, but after it we can start to see some growth and improvements o Banks became more popular. New methods for bookkeeping and moneylending Books were developed as sort of manuals for banking o Hanseatic League Informal association of over 100 trading cities dominant in northwestern Europe Not as robust or complex as the Mediterranean, but was still successful o Jacob Dugger Prominent person in the spice trade, his family was a bunch of bankers Eventually was controlling all money transfers in the holy roman empire to and from the Papacy o Innovation sin Agricultural life Lower rents and increased wages in the wake of the black death Higher standard of living for laborers and small farmers Before, their diet consisted mostly of bread. They were able to eat more because of lower food prices o Cloth making Innovations in cloth making allowed lower class people to boost their income by making cloth in the winter when their fields were frozen Initially England was a supplier of raw wool, eventually this declined while the export of finished cloth was increasing o Woman workers Increasing number of urban guilds across Europe that limited the ability of women to take over their husbands trade when he died Wealthy townsmen were less inclined to let their wives and daughters work in some of the fields where they were previously able to Changes in the church o Confraternities o Corpus Christi o Anchoress o Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life o Devotio moderna Renaissance Rome Wednesday, February 25 2016 Early Reformation Martin Luther o 95 theses o Not very radical o Luther hated the Dominican monk selling indulgences, (indulgence controversy) o Read bible in a new way. Humans couldn’t earn salvation through good works alonefaith/grace o Justification by faith sola fide o Good works/sacraments destraction from faith PopLeo X condemned Luther o Luther resisted diet of worms 1521 o Said papacy had no authority over him Luther’s Theology o Justification of faith o Ultimate authority of the bible o Priesthood of all believers unmediated relationship with God is okay o Translation of bible into German no difference between a devout lay person or a priest Why how o Tempo of criticism picked up o Church unable to reform/respond o Humanim/Christian humanism Exposed elements of church that weren’t working Erasmus (ceremonies empty, but without proper training people could harm themselves Insistence that the bible should be available for everyone to read themselves o Newer outlets of lay piety Allowed people to articulate spirituality without the assistance of a priest Undermined monasticism and the power of priests Stressed simplicity/ humility as a reaction to the corruption and wealth of the church o Weaknesses in the papacy Corruption, war, lost spiritual credit, simony, ignorance of clergy Things to Keep in mind o Dispute within Christendom o Used to only one religion, so huge change and conflict o Many believed there could only be one religion, had less energy to persecute Jews o Reformation had profound impact no area of life untouched o Many opposed the reformation, even church’s critics Spread of Luther’s Ideas o Availability of printing press, books were intitially very expensive. Went from block printing to moveable type. For the illiterate, there were pictures and woodcuts o Humanist support o Urban support cities had grivances bc the clergy was exempt from taxes and had better land o Peasants interpreted message of freedom as freedom from lords o Lack of strong authority o Charles V was a very bad guy. Controlled most of Europe and fought with France and Turkey o By the time he turned his attention, ½ the empire was Lutheran. 1555 Peace of Augsbus. The church fractured for good but not too much traction elsewhere Significance o Split up united Christendom, caused serious wars, everything in Europe had religious dimension for next 200 years o Difficult interpretations of protestants o Weakened HRE and strengthened England o People come to believe religious truth not possible to obtain Counter Reformation o Not simply a response, trying to address issues Protestant didn’t address o Urgency to moral reform o Monks began to specialize in preaching around 1525 o Jesuits 1540 founded by Ignatious Loyola o No distinctive clothing, high standards very hazardous assignments, secret missions o Council of Trent Expansion in Africa Monday, February 29, 2016 11:11 AM The Portuguese were interested in exploring Africa in order to increase trade with these areas and find a direct trade route so they didn’t need to rely on Muslim merchants as middle men Vasco de Gama Pedro Alvares Cabral 14641520 Both Portuguese traders who brought back spices and jewelry and sold it for huge profit Christopher Columbus (14511506) Sailed under a Spanish flag but was actually Italian He was convinced that Asia could be reached by sailing due west, also thought he was on a god given mission to find this new trade route He asked the French, Portuguese, and English for support but they didn’t back him up He landed in central America in the Bahamas and Cuba Ferdinand Magellan He went all over to the Philippines and areas near there Hernando Cortes (14851547) Went to Cuba, left and went to conquer the Aztec empire Determined to establish Christianity in what is now Mexico Syphilis and Smallpox Diseases spread from both the new world and the old world Fevers, the flu, influenza, devastated the indigenous populations Led to an increased need to import African slaves to work the land Plants and Animals Cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chickens were brought to the new world where they thrived o When they were let loose in the Caribbean, they multiplied very quickly o Quickly became staples of the peoples diet Horses were brought to the new world and allowed people to travel long distances much more quickly Clover, peaches, artichokes went to the new world The new world provided chocolate, tomatoes, potatoes, Reasons for going to the New World Hope of finding precious metals Christian conversion Trade routes to Asia Internal factors that prompted exploration Technological advancement o New ships and fishing equipment Economic growth o More people with a disposable income that can fund these expedition Population increase Why Portugal and Spain Population pressures Increasing wealth of monarchies New outlets for energies Eventual success technological advantages Political and organizational skills Flexibility and autonomy in decision making Impact of Expansion It took a couple centuries for Europeans to achieve the dominance over Asia and America that we are familiar with It was not total and complete domination right away. It was a gradual process Economic impact o Broke up the monopoly of the Arab and venetian spice trade Intellectual impact o Bartolome de las casas Defended the idea of the humanity of the people encountered in the Americas Condemned the brutality inflicted upon these people Said that all people who live on the earth must be treated under a natural law o Juan genes de Sepulveda Thought that the "Indians" were not actually people, but rather were humanlike and therefore didn’t have these rights Missionaries saw themselves as protectors of the Indians because they thought they would convert and assimilate into western culture War, Politics, and Religion in 16th century Europe Wednesday, March 2, 2016 11:07 AM Peace of Augsburg 1555 Made permanent the division of Christendom Said that the ruler of a land got to determine the religion that land would practice This had already been going on in practice but this codified it Religious conflict shifts Away from the holy roman empire, toward western Europe Intensifying struggle for Protestantism Geneva became a refuge for protestants who were kicked out of their country Many parts of Europe descended into armed conflict as the churches fought Internal conflicts were present along with transnational conflict Catholic and protestant churches struggled against each other in France, the Netherlands, and England In the latter half of the 16th century there is a struggle between England and Spain over supremacy in Europe The French wars of Religion 15621598 Francis and henry were very strong capable rulers with many resources, but it soon became clear that the success of France was correlated with their individual personalities Henry II was killed accidentally by a jousting tournament and was succeeded by his sons Some people such as the Medici’s used religion as a justification for the fighting Calvinism was the name of the branch of Protestantism in franc o Followers were known as Huguenots o Appealed throughout all segments of French society and had followers from every social class 4050% of French nobility converted, making it a potentially dangerous political o force in France o They were well organized and had the support of nobles, making them seem very dangerous to those who opposed them Catherine de Medici o Married to Charles IX (15601574) o Interested in religious compromise in order to alleviate the political tension in France o Leaders form the two sides wanted to dominate one another Constitutional crisis for the French Became more complicated because of the intervention of outsiders o Philip II of Spain supported the catholic side, Elizabeth of England supported the protestant St Bartholomew's Day Massacre o August 24 o 30,000 French died War of Three Henries 158889 Henry of Navarre, later henry IV o Took the throne but this was a problem because he was protestant and the majority of France was catholic o He converted to Catholicism in order to keep ruling o Attempted to solve religious problems by offering the Edict of Nantes (1598) Acknowledges Catholicism as the official religion of France, but allowed for religious toleration and freedom Henry Duke of Guise Henry III o Assassinated by a monk Philip II Became king of Portugal in 1580 Very rich and powerful because he had a lot of land all over the world The Netherlands Consisted of 16 provinces No real political bond between them, except that they had a common ruler of Philip II from Spain Northern and southern provinces spoke different languages Open to a lot of different influences due to its position Some people were Lutherans, Baptists, Catholics Philip wanted to expand his control in this area but there was considerable opposition to this from the lower countries o They feared they would lose the freedom they enjoyed o Philip wanted to eradicate religions other than Catholicism William "the silent" of Orange o 15331570 o 1566 iconoclasm Statues from catholic churches were being destroyed o Philip sent the Duke of Alva to go against them, but the rebels were able to organize o He eventually pulled out because there wasn’t much success Duke of Parma o Unable to eradicate Protestantism like he was hoping to do Elizabethan England She ruled from 15581603 During her rule England rose as the leading protestant country Very reluctant to adopt the role of champion of the protestants Her mother was executed when she was 3, father was Henry VIII and died in 1547. After henry died, her brother Edward and sister Mary were rulers before Elizabeth was Created a protestant church for England Catholics was strong among the aristocratic class Puritans and Presbyterians Elizabeth didn’t want to help the rebels because someone might come and help the rebels in England Also she didn’t want the Netherlands to come under control of France Eventually sent actual help to them Spain was threatening Elizabeth’s throne by helping the Irish defend themselves against English domination Spanish Armada History 1B Quarter Review Wednesday, March 9, 2016 10:58 AM Empire (with Charlemagne) The empire was fraying at the edges Was too large and unwieldy even for a ruler with a dominant personality like Charlemagne Feudalism Didn’t really exist It is really only brought up for convenience Feudal monarchies o Louis VI and William the Conquered o Different ways they were established in France Medieval religion: the churches Christianity started to have stronger roots in Europe starting in the middle ages 10th and 11th centuries it established itself as part of the fabric of European society Monastic movements o How they articulated this greater intensification of Christian spirituality Reversal of fortune: the Black Death Killed a lot of people Confused society led to more personal worship Increased living conditions for laborers Europeans expand The Renaissance When we think of the renaissance we think of the art music and intellectual output, but that doesn’t speak to the vast majority of the people who weren’t able to participate in the portrait painting or language learning Shows the problem with periodization Darker side of the renaissance, came at the expense of many people in Europe and the Americas Reformations in Religion Efforts to make the church a better place never took in the way the reformation did Martin Luther and other reformers in the 16th century had criticisms that finally fractured the roman catholic church The printing press allowed their messages to spread widely The humanist critique of the church undermined the church by pointing out its flaws The great schism where the papacy had spread into 3 different camps, also the papacy was getting involved in wars and such which made it look bad and meant it wasn’t already strong enough to withstand the criticisms Index of prohibited books (1559) was a list of books that the church said you needed special permission to read so that you didn’t fall into heresy Council of Trent o Program to improve education of priests o Codified the 7 sacraments o Made the index of prohibited books Monarchy Resurgent Louis XIV Despite the fact that he was held up as an absolutist monarch, this type of government was never truly absolutist He knew he was bound by the laws of god so he couldn’t really do whatever he wanted, and also the way the French government was set up it was really difficult for one person to truly have that much power For a very long time, monarchs were expected to support themselves from lands that they owned Inflation made it so that the king didn’t have the funds to do whatever he wanted