Predicting the Direction of Approach to Equilibrium
At 448 °C. the equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction
is 50.5. Predict in which direction the reaction proceeds to reach equilibrium if we start with 2.0 x 10-2 mol of HI, 1.0 x 10-2 mol of H2. and 3.0 x 10-2 mol of I2 in a 2.00-L container.
At 1000 K. the value of Kp for the reaction Calculate the value for and predict the direction in which the reaction proceeds toward equilibrium if the initial partial pressures are PS03 = 0.16 atm; PSQ2 = 0.41 atm; P02 = 2.5 atm.
Memory and Forgetting External events Sensory memory Working memory (short term) Long term memory Sensory memory holds the words herd for a few short seconds and lets you register them. Researchers believe that there is a sense memory for each sense. (Auditory and visual are the most studied) Short-term memory is the active processing of information. It associates new and old information/solves problems Duration: longer than in sensory memory, rehearsal helps. Forgetting is decay, if not rehearsed it just fades away. Interference is being replaced by new info. Capacity: 7+/- rule (4+/- 1) at one point you can take on about 5-9 facts. Capacity can be increased by chunking- breaking things up into meaningful pieces for yourself Short term memory to working memory- they are not exactly interchangeable. Short term memory is simple memory process that come from rehearsal. Working memory is more effective because it is effortful/active. It deals with problem solving, reasoning, language comprehension, mental comparisons. Long-term memory extended period of time It last longer than 20 seconds in STM, its max duration is a life time. Encoding LTMs- making new info retrievable by transferring it to LTM. Maintenance rehearsal isn’t effective here (it’s not working hard enough) Elaborative rehearsal- focus on the meaning of the info/ relates it to things you already know. The best ways to do this are: put things in your own words, question the new info, think deeply, search for connections, and generate your own examples. Memory retrieval- bringing memories forward Importance of cues- clues, prompts, hints that help you recall. Cue failure can happen if the cues aren’t there or if they aren’t good enough. Serial positon effect- a words position in the list makes a difference. Primary- remembering words at the beginning. Recency- remembering the words at the end of a sequence. Forgetting encoding failure- it never got to LTM Decay theory is that memories we don’t use fade away. Not all researchers agree with this (Ex. Going back to your elementary school and having forgotten memories come back) Interference theory Motivated forgetting: suppression- “I’m not going to think about it” repression- happens unconsciously Misinformation effect happens when existing memories are altered when exposed to misleading info. False memories Schema- an organized cluster of information about a particular topic, like a script. (Like going to a restaurant and knowing the series of events or associating an office with books)