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Your professor gives you a bottle that contains a clear

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780321910417 77

Solution for problem 1DE Chapter 16

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 1DE

Your professor gives you a bottle that contains a clear liquid. You are told that the liquid is a pure substance that is volatile, soluble in water, and might be an acid or a base. Design experiments to elucidate the following about this unknown sample, (a) Determine whether the substance in the sample is an acid or a base, (b) Suppose the substance is an acid. How would you determine whether it is a strong acid or a weak acid? (c) If the substance is a weak acid, how would you determine the value of Ka for the substance? (d) Suppose the substance were a weak acid and that you are also given a solution of NaOH(ag) of known molarity. What procedure would you use to isolate a pure sample of the sodium sal: of the substance? (e) Now suppose that the substance were a base rather than an acid. How would you adjust the procedures in parts (b) and (c) to determine if the substance were a strong or weak base. and. if weak, the value of Kb?

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Post-SelassieEthiopia March15,2016 2:28PM TheDerg: In1974, a militarycouptookpowerfromHaileSelassie.Thiswasspurredonbystudentsand intellectualswhowereunhappywiththeking.Itwasanurban movementwithstudents,teachers,civil servantsandsoldiersrebellingagainstHaileSelassie'smodel.Theywereagainstthenobilityand aristocraticgroups,anyonewhosupportedhim.Theyresentedthecommercialcapitalismhehad broughtin.ThisissimilartotheArab Spring,theywerecallingforseparationofchurchandstate, equalitybetweenreligions,regionalequality,andeconomicaccess. OnJune21, 1974, a committeeofarmedforces,policeandterritoryarmiescametogethercalledthe Derg.MajorMengistuHaileMariambecamea prominentfigureinthismovement,andwasmadethe leaderofthecommittee.Themilitarygrouptookoverthemovement,tryingtoshiftitmoretotheleft, takingaMarxist standpoint. JohnHabersonidentifiedthreephasesofEthiopiansocialismfromthiscoup.First,theDergproclaimed itscommitmenttoAfricansocialism.Theyweremovingawayfromwhattheyidentifiedascolonialism andcapitalismbasedonclasssocieties,wantingtobemoreegalitarian.Theydeclaredtheirsystemas Ethiopiansocialism.Inthesecondphase,theystartedtodesignreformsthatdestroyedtheoldorder andmobilisethemassesforalargerrevolution.Thirdly,theyinstitutedanewpoliticalprogramthat strengthenedgrassrootsmovements.Theymadeaninstitutionforapeople'sdemocraticrepublic, committeesthatrepresentthepeopleoneverylevel. Theyhada populistslogan,"EthiopiaFirst."TheDergestablishedahegemonicproject,sayingtheywere modernisingEthiopiaunlikeHaileSelassie,movingawayfromAmericaandcapitalism.Theystarted centralisedeconomicplanning,uniqueintheMarxistworld.Therewasverystructuredeconomic controlinthesociety.Theyweren'ttryingtobeMarxistinthewesternview,asharingofresources,they werefocusingonapre-industrialsociety.Theywantedunity,wealthandinternalrespect.Theywere takingmoreofthemodelofRussiaandChina.Theywantedtomodernisebytakingthisideology. MengistuembracedaMarxistviewofthestate,seeingitasa majoragentforeconomicandsocial transformation.Theystartedtoreorganiseagriculturalsystemsandrelocatepopulationsfrom overcrowdedandexhaustedareastomorefertileareas.ThisiscommoninotherAfricancountriesas well,likeTanzania'sUjamaa,althoughitfailedinTanzania.Peopleinstitutingthesekindsofchanges didn'ttakeintoaccountthat peoplehadattachmenttoland,andremovingthemwouldn'thelpthings. It'snot a bad idea,itjustdoesn'ttakehumanbehaviourintoaccount,whichturnsoutto bereally important. TheDergmovedawayfromcapitalismbecausetheyassociateditwithcolonialismandoppression,a systemmadeonlytosupportthenobility.Theywantedtodotwothings.First,advanceindustrialisation. Secondly,spreadliteracyandeducation.By1975, theDergwas ridinga revolutionarywave,starting radicallandreformsandnationalisingmajoreconomicoperations.Oneofthekeyelementsofsocialism isthatthestate controlstheeconomy.Oneoftheirsloganswas"Landto theTillers."FromMenelikto HaileSelassie,aparticularclassownedtheland,andtheywantedtochangethis. TheDergtook40 000 studentsandteachersto theinteriortoexplaintotheruralareaswhat the revolutionwasabout,andimplementitintheCampaignofNationalReform.Themilitarygovernment launchedcorporationcampaignsthroughforcedmobilisationofstudentstoexplainandspreadthe socialistrevolution.Theywenttoteach,andtoindoctrinate. TheDergcondemnedprivateownershipbutalsopracticedit.Theyleftsomequasi-feudalistelements, notinitiallyrejectingthechurch.By1975 and76, ethnicelementsbecameveryimportant.Banksand financialinstitutionswereallnationalised,butnationalisingtheeconomydidn'treallystoptheinflation andhardshipstheyhad.Theycreateda committeeofcivilianstoadvisethemonhowtodothings.They stressedequality,self-relianceandthedignityforlabour. GeneralAndom: From1974-87, thestateusedcoercivemeanstobreakdowntheformerestablishment,confiscating elite-ownedproperties,removingreactionaryelements.Theyeventuallynominatedapresident, GeneralAndom,whowasnotpartof theDerg.He came fromEritreabut had beenveryAmharised. Andomwascautiousandlessradical,andverypopular.Hesuggestedthe120-membergoverningbody shouldbereduced.HeproposedmanyideasthatwereoffensivetoMengistuandtheDerg,including negotiationswiththeEritereansforindependence.Hewasalsoagainsttheimpositionofthedeath penalty.OnNov.23,1974, BloodySaturday,MengistuandhisallieskilledAndomandseveralother officials. EthiopianParties: Therewasa feudwithintheDergbetweenthemoderatesandmilitants.In1974,theydismissedthe Abuna,theheadofthechurch,and destroyedtheposition.Manypeoplesawthattheanti-HaileSelassie movementhadbeenstartedbythestudentsandthemilitaryhijackedit.Suddenly,therewasdiscontent withtheDerg.Studentsandthemassesweresayinglandreformwasn'thappeningliketheywere promised,andstudentsbegantorecruitgrassrootsgroupsthatgotverycriticalofthe Derg'ssocialist model.Thesegroupshadconflictingideologies,sometimesbeingethnicallybased.Inresponse,theDerg madeapoliticalbureautohelpthereconstructionprojects.TheycreatedtheAllEthiopianSocialist Movement(MEISON).AnothermajorgroupwastheEthiopianPeople'sRevolutionaryParty.TheEPRP wasalliedwiththeTigrePeople'sLiberationFront,againsttheDerg. MEISONwasmuch closertothe government.Theyweredominatedbyolderretaineesfromthe diasporaandtheysupportedtheDerg,believingincontrolleddemocracy.TheEPRPwasmuchmore focusedonpeople'sdemocracy,notcentraliseddemocracy,verycriticaloftheDerg.Theybegana systematiccampaigntodiscreditthegovernment.Thismovementwasintheurbanareas,andledto the WhiteTerror,anattemptby theregimetocrack downon thisgroup.Therewas openkillingofthis groupandtheirfamiliestoshutthemup.Tensiongrew,andMengistuemergedasamajorelement. In1977, Feb3, ina meetingofthestandingcommitteeoftheDerg,Mengistuandhisalliescameinand killedeveryone,gettingridofallhisrivals.ThiseventiscalledtheRedTerror,whenMengistutook powerforreal. Mengistu'sRule: Atthistime,membersoftheEPRPweresubjectedtoindiscriminateattacksandexecutions.In1978, therewasalot ofdissatisfactiontowardthemilitaryleadersandMEISON.Butallcivilianopposition groupsweredead,undergroundorinexile.Onceallthiswasdone,thegovernmentstartedto implementtheirMarxist-Leninistprogram.Itwastryingtostrikea balancebetweendemocracyand multi-ethnicstates. Goingbackto theoverthrowofHaileSelassie,thegroupsfollowingideasofself-determinationwas centeredinEriteeaandTigre.Eritreawantedtobetheirowncountry,andtheTigrewantedto liberate themselvesfromtheAmhara.Theywerecentersofactivitiesandbecamevitalareasforremovingthe Derg. EritreahadtheEritreanLiberationFront,createdwhenHaileSelassieannexedthem,andtheEritrean People'sLiberationFrontappearedalittlelater.Theybelievedinbecomingaseparatestate.TheDerg wantedtodestroythismovementbymilitaryforce. In1975, troubleinEritreanterritoryeruptedasnationalistsattackedAsmaraandtookitover.Eventhe Americanswantedtostoparmedsupportforthis,andwereconsideringcuttingoffthesupplyofarms toEthiopia,despitetreaties. TheHornof Africaisstrategicallyimportantglobally,becauseoftheRedSea.It'sa bridgebetween AfricaandtheMiddleEast.Ethiopiahasan importantpositionintheHorn.Whenviolencehappensin thatarea,theglobalworldis concernedbyit. TheColdWar messeditup,becauseboththeUS and USSRwereinterestedinit. USSRwereinterestedinit. Counter-GovernmentalMovements: Inoneformoranother,therewererebellionsallovertheplaceinTigreareas.TheTigreanPeople's LiberationFrontwasveryimportantinthis.TheyliberatedNorthernEthiopiafromtheruleofAddis. TheyspokethesamelanguageasmostoftheEritreans,and wereclosetogether,sothemovements wereveryrelated.TheTigrehadbeenagainstAmharicdominanceeversinceMenelik.Theyhadbeen dominantintheAksumera,buthadsincedeclined.TheywantedtofinallybefreefromtheDergand alliedwiththeEritreanstoseethishappen.TheyeventuallycametoAddisanddefeatedtheDerg. BoththesemovementswereinthenorthernpartofEthiopia.TheOromobegantomaketheirown movements,liketheOromoLiberationFront.Somalimovementsroseupaswell,liketheWestern SomaliLiberationFront.TheAfars(mainlyinDjiboutiandEritrea)alsobegantoformgrps.Thesefive ethnicgroupswereverymuchagitatingforpower,andtheDergstruggledagainstallthis. In1977, SomaliainvadedEthiopia.Currently,Ethiopiaisdividedintoprovincesbasedonethnicgroups, eachgroupbeingself-governingandteachingtheirownlanguage.SomaliabelievedinjoiningallSomalis together,andtheirflaghasfivestarstosymbolisethefivedividedplaceswhereSomalislive.Theywant tobringallfivetogether. Somali-EthiopianWar: TheSomalismadealiberationmovementstationedinMogadishu.TheycapturedthetownsofJigjiga Diridhawa,supportedbytheSomaliarmy.ThefirstEthiopian-Somaliconflicthadhappenedin1964,and thiswasa second,muchlargerconflict.Itwas a majorexternalchallengeforMengistureign,butit hopedhimconsolidatepower.Itgavehimanexternalforcetofightagainstandrallythepeople,fighting for Ethiopia'sliberty.Mengistu'sgovernmentwasdesperate,andsotheymovedtotheSovietUnion andbroughtitin,movingawayfrom theAmericans.Thisswitchedupthealliances.Afterthishappened, theSovietUnionpulledoutofSomaliaandtheAmericansmovedin. From1977-78, theSovietUniongave$1billiontoEthiopia'sarmy,considerablymorethanthe Americanshadgiventhemintermsofaid.Theywonunequivocally,andthiswarwasamajorelementin weakeninganddestroyingtheSomaligovernment.TheUSSRandCubabecamemajorallieswith Mengistu.HeturnedhisgazetoEthiopia'sEritreanprovince,thinkingthatnowthathe'ddefeatedthe Somalis,heshoulddefeattheEritreans. FightingwithInternalOrganisations: Militarycampaignswerelaunched,buttheyfailedtodefeattheEritreanmovementanditgottoo expensive.From1982-85, theEPLF and theDerg heldnegotiations.Mengisturealisedtherewasnoway anyonewaswinningthisdeadlock,andcametotalkwiththem.Thisgainednothingforanyone.Bythe endof1987, thetwo northernmovements,theTPLFandtheEPLF,alliedandliberated90%oftheir regions.TherewasadialoguewithmanyopinionsoverwhetherEritreashouldbefree.Mengistusaid theyhadalwaysbeenpartofEthiopia,whileEritreanssaidtheyweredistinctandneeded independence. Thestakesrose.MengistuwantedtorestorethefederationthatHaileSelassiehadruled,butthings wereshiftingtotherecognitionofEritrea'sindependence.Ethiopiahadalwaysresortedtoforceinthe region,anditjusthadn'tworked. TheOromos,whoestablishedtheOLFin1973, startedto allywiththeTPLF andEPLF, wantingtheirown nation.Eachethnicgroupwastryingto advancetheirownnationalinterests.Alotoftheseissueswere causedbycolonialism,likeEritreabeinggiventoEthiopiaandtheSomalipeoplebeingsplitup.TheCold Warjust madeitworse;neithersidecaredforhumanrights,andunderminedthemwhenevertheygot intheirway. TheDergstartedto solidifyitsrelationswithneighbouringcountrieslikeSyria,Egypt,Iraq,Israeland Libya.SignificanttoIsrael,theDergagreedthatJewishcommunitiesinEthiopia,theFalashaJews,could betakentoIsrael.Many weretakenoverafternegotiations. TherearemanyexplanationsfrowhytheseJewsgotthereinthefirstplace.Therehadbeentimeswhen YemenhadbeencontrolledbyaJudaicstate,andtheymayhavecomeoverfromthere.Theymayhave YemenhadbeencontrolledbyaJudaicstate,andtheymayhavecomeoverfromthere.Theymayhave preservedtheirculture.OtherssaytheycamewiththeQueenofSheba.Eitherway,theyhavea significantpresence,eventhoughtheydon'tspeakHebrew.TheyliveinLateTana,oneofthesourcesof theNile. Endof the Derg: Thereisalwaysagap betweentheoryandpractice.Manygroupstalkedaboutbuildingsocialismbut reliedontheirownethnicgroups.Everydictatorwhocomessayshe'saMarxist anddoessomething else.Theydidnotworktothepeople'sadvantage.TheDerg,forexample,neverletnon-militarypeople participateintherunningofthecountry.Civilianshadcreatedthatideaofreform,andtheDerghijacked itandcontinuedon.EthiopianleadersappropriatedLeninismandMarxismwithoutimposingmany otherthings.Theywouldadoptself-determinationbutnotfollowthroughwithit. Inthe1980s, Ethiopiafaceda significantfamine.Severedroughtplaguedthem,andmanydied.Massive aidcamefromoutsideandtheyfacedmajoreconomicdecline.MengistuwenttotheSovietUnionin 1985, whenGorbachevwasleading.Gorbachevtoldhimthathehadto changeEthiopia,liberalisethe economy,decentralisethegovernment,whathadbeentheGlasnostreformsintheUSSR.Hehadto do thesethingstogethelp,inamajorshiftfortheEast. By 1990, the SovietUnionhaddisintegrated. Mengistucontinuedtodeclarepolices.In1991,hedeclaredthefailureoftheMarxistsystemandtried todecentralise.Bythe1990s,the Derg wasreallydefeated.Theyruled17years,andwerereplacedbya muchmoredemocraticgovernmentin1991. Thiswas calledtheEthiopianPeople'sDemocraticFront.

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Chapter 16, Problem 1DE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 13
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780321910417

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