Weak Acids (Section)
Determine the pH of each of the following solutions ( Ka and Kb’ values are given in Appendix D): (a) 0.095 M hypochlorous acid, (b) 0.0085 M hydrazine, (c) 0.165 M hydroxylamine.
Poverty & Development 4.11.16 Nationalism 4.13.16 Fascism 4.15.16 What is the difference btw wealth & prosperity Prosperity: sense of happiness, security, social mobility & stability. Kids are happiest when they feel most secure. Prosperity is about the long game, not just about what’s happening at this moment. Sustainability, legitimacy/trust. Wealth: all about resources and money. A lot of wealthy countries have ridiculous income inequality, and often one high value resource that they focus on exporting, which is great until it runs out or is no longer important. They tend to put all their eggs in one basket. Global Wealth Disparity Since end of WWII the world has seen unprecedented levels of economic growth fueled in part by international development programs However, disparity btw rich& poor has widened considerably Both w/in countries And across global economy as a whole High GINI coefficient = less prosperous Poverty today Poverty defines global landscape Approximately half world’s population lives on less than $2 a day Poorest 40% of world’s population accounts for 5% of global income. Richest 20% accounts for ¾ of world income 22000 children die each day due to poverty Around 2728% of all children in developing countries are estimated to be underweight 1.1 billion ppl in developing countries have inadequate access to water, & 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation 2 billion ppl are food insecure For every $1 in aid a developing country receives, over $25 is spent on debt repayment Poverty disproportionately impacts women & children 20% of the world must walk more than 2 miles to get water, and it probably isn’t fresh or sanitary. US →WB → W. Europe → WB → Latin America (more stable & have been out of colonialism for longer) → WB →Asian economies → WB → Middle East & Africa **problem: 1971, Europe did not sufficiently pump money into world bank. World bank goes to big private banks in 1971. They were the only ones who had a lot of money. The grants became loans, loans that were associated w/ neoliberalism and were called structural adjustment. UN Millennium Development Goals Eradicate poverty & hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality Poverty & Development 4.11.16 Nationalism 4.13.16 Fascism 4.15.16 Reduce child mortality Improve maternal health An Unlikely goal MDGs were to be achieved by 2015 Very unlikely in part bc of great recession Question becomes: how to we eradicate poverty & promote development in ways that are sustainable & effective What to do International agencies o UN o World bank Foreign aid Nonprofit organizations Postcold war world In great struggle btw democracy & communism, the dark horse contender, nationalism, came out on top o What is nationalism & how does it differ from patriotism & nationality Nationalism: extreme pride, supremacism, propaganda. Not only great, but better than other countries. First and only loyalty is to country. Possible call for sacrifice. **Unquestioning, critical loyalty. Willingness to do things w/o thinking through it. Nationalism is very exclusivist and narrowly defined. You often have to compromise enormously. Nationalism presents itself as the good. Patriotism: pride in one’s country. Difference btw the 2 is that patriotism gives you room for critical thought. Nationality: identity is a group of people (sense of belonging) o What are its impacts upon global politics in 21 century o How does nationalism change global landscape & w/ what consequences for sovereign states & international system Understand a nation Nations are “imagined communities” of people who believe that they belong together & that they should be ruled by a single gov’t o Not homogenous – many different religions, races, ethnicities, cultures, histories, languages, classes, etc. o Not necessarily contained w/in boundaries of sovereign contiguous states Nationstates Substate nations Transnational nations o Conflict minerals: in DRC, needed to build certain technologies like cell phones Poverty & Development 4.11.16 Nationalism 4.13.16 Fascism 4.15.16 What is nationalism Fantastical devotion to nation Linked to ideas of identity, loyalty, & legitimacy Often becomes exclusionary & supremacist Frequently becomes associated w/ ideas of national purity Becomes inseparable from demands for selfdetermination Can lead to episodes of political evil Not patriotism or nationality o Subnational movements wanting their own space 3 perspectives on nationalism Civic (dedication to state & its values) vs. ethnic (commitment to a group of common descent) Elite vs mass Statestrengthening (“purification”, extending power) vs statesubverting (separatist, create new state) History of nations Luther, Napoleon o Napoleon was first to realize that you can get people to die for their nation Being French wasn’t just allegiance or about language It was about allegiance to each other He could harness that and turn it into military force Age of Metternich WWI WWII Cold war Postcold war Three problems State gov’t adopt nationalist policies that deny sub state groups the full benefits of citizenship on basis of their race, ethnicity, class, etc Stateless nations seek selfdetermination, potentially through liberation mvmts &/or terrorism Nationless states (particularly postcolonial) Germany & the Turks Chechnya Federal republic of Russia After fall of USSR, Chechnya demanded independence But they have oil resources Chechen independence fighters have been fighting Russian gov’t (and people) since early 1990s In 2000s they began using terrorism fight against overwhelming force of Russia army Schools, theaters, apartment buildings But what is role of Russian gov’t Poverty & Development 4.11.16 Nationalism 4.13.16 Fascism 4.15.16 Anna Politkovskaya accused Russian gov’t of orchestrating attacks to turn public opinion against Chechens she was killed Separatist gov’t of Chechnya is not recognized Kenya Kenya was British colonial possession British chose Kikuyu as their clients But relationship btw British & kikuyu was not always pleasant – Mau Mau After independence, Kenya was seen by many as great hope of Africa State determined to create hyphenated identities & overcame its colonial past Then there was election of 2007 Kikuyu candidate accused of stealing election from Luo challenger Violence claimed 1000 lives & destabilized the country Since then question about legitimacy & threats of future violence have overwhelmed country Yugoslavia Carved out of AustroHungarian empire after series of preWWI nationalist revolts Especially in Serbia Part of soviet sphere during cold war Held together by brutality of Tito Began to deteriorate after Tito’s death Fascism: what is it How does it differ from nationalism Nationalism is fantastical devotion to nation Fascism is a political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation & often race above individual & that stands for centralized autocratic gov’t headed by dictatorial leader, sever economic & social regimentation, & forcible suppression of opposition. Fascists contend that liberal democracy is obsolete o Your voice should be the same as theirs o Complete mobilization of society under totalitarian oneparty state is necessary to prepare nation for armed conflict or against common enemy, & to respond effectively to economic difficulty Nation was once great, but now it isn’t bc of some country. Leader There is always a strong charismatic leader (dictator) & martial gov’t composed of members of governing fascist party o This forges national unity & maintains stable & orderly society Fascists advocate mixed economy, w/ principal goal of achieving autarky thru protectionist & interventionist economic policies Since end of WWII in 1945, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist Examples of fascist & neofascist parties Their name is national socialist, so why “rightwing” Poverty & Development 4.11.16 Nationalism 4.13.16 Fascism 4.15.16 Spanish fascism Least talked about fascism, but longest lasting Francisco Franco Hero of Spanish civil war Wanted Spain to be fascist totalitarian regime like Italy & Germany o Defeat of Axis meant isolation for Spain o Became simply an autocratic regime Italian fascism Fascism derived from Italian word fascio meaning bundle of rods German fascism