Calculating the Free-Energy Change under Nonstandard Conditions
Calculate at 298 K for a mixture of 1.0 atm N2. 3.0 atm H2. and 0.50 atm NH3 being used in the Haber process:
N2(g) + 3 H2(g)⇌2 NH3(g)
Calculate at 298 K for the Haber reaction if the reaction mixture consists of 0.50 atm N2. 0.75 atm H2. and 2.0 atm NH3.
Chemistry of Solutions Lecture no. 7 Thursday, September 15, 2016 Topics Covered: Le Châtelier’s principle, the nature of acids and bases, acid strength, the pH scale, and calculating the pH of strong acid solutions. Le Châtelier's Principle If a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce that change. A chemical reaction is not a sentient being, if a substance is added the rates of the forward and reverse reactions are disturbed. The net reaction occurs in one direction, until the system reaches equilibrium again, At the new equilibrium position, the reactants and products have different concentrations (compared to their initial concentrations). 1. Changing co