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This chapter has focused on the properties of elements

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus ISBN: 9780321910417 77

Solution for problem 1DE Chapter 21

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition | ISBN: 9780321910417 | Authors: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus

Chemistry: The Central Science | 13th Edition

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Problem 1DE

This chapter has focused on the properties of elements that exhibit radioactivity. Because radioactivity can have harmful effects on human health, very stringent experimental procedures and precautions are required when undertaking experiments on radioactive materials. As such, we typically do not have experiments involving radioactive substances in general chemistry laboratories. We can nevertheless ponder the design of some hypothetical experiments that would allow us to explore some of the properties of radium, which was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898.

(a) A key aspect of the discovery of radium was Marie Curie’s observation that pitchblende, a natural ore of uranium, had greater radioactivity than pure uranium metal. Design an experiment to reproduce this observation and to obtain a ratio of the activity of pitchblende relative to that of pure uranium, (b) Radium was first isolated as halide salts. Suppose you had pure samples of radium metal and radium bromide. The sample sizes are on the order of milligrams and are not amenable to the usual forms of elemental analysis. Could you use a device that measures radioactivity quantitatively to determine the empirical formula of radium bromide? What information must you use that the Curies may not have had at the time of their discovery? (c) Suppose you had a 1-yr time period in order to measure the half-life of radium and related elements. You have some pure samples and a device that measures radioactivity quantitatively. Could you determine the half-life of the elements in the samples? Would you have different experimental constraints depending on whether the half-life were 10 yr or 1000 yr? (d) Before its negative health effects were better understood, small amounts of radium salts were used in "glow in the dark" watches, such as the one shown here. The glow is not due to the radioactivity of radium directly: rather, the radium is combined with a luminescent substance, such as zinc sulfide, which glows when it is exposed to radiation. Suppose you had pure samples of radium and zinc sulfide. How could you determine whether the glow of zinc sulfide is due to alpha, beta, or gamma radiation? What type of device could you design to use the glow as a quantitative measure of the amount of radioactivity in a sample?

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Angel Carrasquillo CHM 132 Notes Week of 01/24/31 ● Hess’s Law - The total enthalpy is the sum of all changes. Enthalpy is a state function. - ΔHrxn = ΣΔH products - ΣΔH rectants ● ΔHrxn from Bond Dissociation Energy - Bond break absorbs energy - Bond make releases energy - BDE (+) is a homolytic bond cleavage - So… H----H →H + H - each H has its own electron when bond is broken - ΔHrxn = ΣΔH broken - ΣΔH formed (bonds broken and formed) ● Entropy (S) - Organization of energy - spread of energy → ↑entropy ΔS= (+) - Favorable ● Isothermal - Reversal: Rxn always at equilibrium, work put in=work put out, at equilibrium no energy lost or gained. - Irre

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Chapter 21, Problem 1DE is Solved
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Textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science
Edition: 13
Author: Theodore E. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay; Bruce E. Bursten; Catherine Murphy; Patrick Woodward; Matthew E. Stoltzfus
ISBN: 9780321910417

Chemistry: The Central Science was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321910417. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 1DE from chapter: 21 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 09/04/17, 09:30PM. The answer to “This chapter has focused on the properties of elements that exhibit radioactivity. Because radioactivity can have harmful effects on human health, very stringent experimental procedures and precautions are required when undertaking experiments on radioactive materials. As such, we typically do not have experiments involving radioactive substances in general chemistry laboratories. We can nevertheless ponder the design of some hypothetical experiments that would allow us to explore some of the properties of radium, which was discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898.(a) A key aspect of the discovery of radium was Marie Curie’s observation that pitchblende, a natural ore of uranium, had greater radioactivity than pure uranium metal. Design an experiment to reproduce this observation and to obtain a ratio of the activity of pitchblende relative to that of pure uranium, (b) Radium was first isolated as halide salts. Suppose you had pure samples of radium metal and radium bromide. The sample sizes are on the order of milligrams and are not amenable to the usual forms of elemental analysis. Could you use a device that measures radioactivity quantitatively to determine the empirical formula of radium bromide? What information must you use that the Curies may not have had at the time of their discovery? (c) Suppose you had a 1-yr time period in order to measure the half-life of radium and related elements. You have some pure samples and a device that measures radioactivity quantitatively. Could you determine the half-life of the elements in the samples? Would you have different experimental constraints depending on whether the half-life were 10 yr or 1000 yr? (d) Before its negative health effects were better understood, small amounts of radium salts were used in "glow in the dark" watches, such as the one shown here. The glow is not due to the radioactivity of radium directly: rather, the radium is combined with a luminescent substance, such as zinc sulfide, which glows when it is exposed to radiation. Suppose you had pure samples of radium and zinc sulfide. How could you determine whether the glow of zinc sulfide is due to alpha, beta, or gamma radiation? What type of device could you design to use the glow as a quantitative measure of the amount of radioactivity in a sample?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 375 words. Since the solution to 1DE from 21 chapter was answered, more than 273 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 305 chapters, and 6352 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Chemistry: The Central Science, edition: 13.

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This chapter has focused on the properties of elements