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2732. Shell method Use the shell method to find the volume

Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780321947345 | Authors: William L. Briggs ISBN: 9780321947345 167

Solution for problem 27 Chapter 6.4

Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition

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Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780321947345 | Authors: William L. Briggs

Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition

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Problem 27

2732. Shell method Use the shell method to find the volume of the following solids. A right circular cone of radius 3 and height 8

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Step 1 of 3

The State and Its Policies Tuesday, January 26, 2016 1:59 PM The State: • Has territoryand population • Sovereignty ○ Internal Sovereignty:Legal power to make and enforce law within its boundaries ○ External Sovereignty:The country is recognized by other states and can make binding agreementswith them • State's Historic Role • National Defense • DomesticTranquility • General Welfare ○ All of these aspects change over time, depending on circumstances(From the Whiskey Rebellion to Gun People today) ○ Medicare and Medicaid • United States Constitution • Items Stated Above ○ Behind it all • To provide legitimacy for the state • National identity and Civic Pride • Trust and respect, not a rule through force alone • Expansion of Roles ○ Reagan and Margaret Thatcher • Prosperityand EconomicGrowth • Inflation and Unemployment(Limiting vs Encouraging, Relationships, Reform, etc.) • Redistribution (Taxes and Reform) • Nation • People with a strong psychological sense of unity based on a commonhistory, culture, territory, law, etc.  Nation Vs State □ Sociological vs Legal • Islamic State: Effort to redefine or replace the state into a whole world view • World united under Islam • Nation-State : One State, One Nation • Civil Society and the State • Civil Society has organizations that competewith one another, people have different viewpoints, free o' speech • The state is the Governmentand the Bureaucracy • The European Union • States give up somepowers to the EU, but retain others ○ British are pushing to revise agreementsto return certain powers to the states • Governing Structures: ○ The Council ○ The Council of Europe - Group of Prime Ministers ○ The Commission - The bureaucracy ○ The European Parliament - Made up of reps from each of the states decided via population ○ European Court of Justice - Judicial Review • CommonMarket ○ No barriers when it comesto trade and the movementof goods btwn member states Commonexternal trade policies ○ Commonexternal trade policies ○ Commonanti-trust policy ○ Commonagricultural policy • Schengen Agreement  Schengen is a tiny place between Germany and Luxembourg ○ EU people came together to agree on no barriers on movementbetween the areas, no passports needed  Not every memberof the EU is a part of this agreement □ Agreement shaky thanks the Syria crisis • MonetaryUnion ○ CommonCurrency (Euro) ○ Central Bank ○ Integrated Financial and EconomicPolicies Economics Justice Effectiveness Thursday, January 28, 2016 1:52 PM • Political Systems: ○ Politics is how people receive what they want within a system of gov't • Democracy • Dictatorship • Economic Systems: ○ Economicsis how the market is controlled • Capitalism ○ Private Owners working for profit ○ Market System  Produces commongoods for the whole society ○ Laissez-faire (Adam Smith and the Invisible Hand)  Minimal intervention by gov't in economy  "Night-Watchman state" • Socialism ○ Commonownership for commonwelfare (Karl Marx) ○ Private Property is the cause of injustice ○ From those who have to those who need ○ Idea of a "PlannedEconomy"  Plan exactly what you need and produce only those items • Communism (aka super socialism) ○ Ideology that does not distinguish political and economic  Capitalism - Incentives for growth  Socialism - Equality of income Winston Churchill - "Capitalism creates unequal distribution of wealth; socialism creates the equality of poverty" • Collapse of Socialism : • Central Planning and commonownership not effective • Search for alternate means for the same goals • Soros' Thesis : • Unless self-interest is temperedby commoninterest, democracyis likely to break down • Night-Watchman State or Regulatory State • Philosophical Liberalism: ○ Radical Individualism ○ American Conservatives • Communitarian Values ○ Welfare State ○ American Liberals • Constitutionalism • Only reason to limit liberty is self-protection • What is constitutional ○ Judicial Review  US, Germany ○ Sovereignty of Parliament  UK ○ Decision by the people  Switzerland • Distribution of Wealth • Distribution of Wealth • Always a political question, no science • Driven by Fairness and Greed • Rich to Poor, Young to Old, etc. • Government'sModern Role • Education, transport, other services • Social and Econ. Well being • Prosperity and EconomicGrowth ○ Inflation and unemploymentcontrol • Redistribution (Taxes and reform) • Regulatory State • Sanctions and Rewards • Extraction - ○ Direct Taxes ○ Indirect Taxes ○ Borrowing Holding Society Together Tuesday, February 2, 2016 2:01 PM • Legitimacy • People's acceptance of a state's rule ○ Putin Is the man • Democracyis one of many ways to accrue Legitimacy • Authority • The Right to make decisions and create policy/law • Governmentsmust have legitimacy to survive, regimes can lose legitimacyand a new regime will arise • PoliticalCulture • Broadly shared ways of thinking ○ Cognitive Orientations ○ Affective Orientations • PoliticalSocialization • How we get our ideas and feelings ○ Schools, family, media, etc. • Popular Sovereignty • Direct Participation • Accountable Elites (Representatives/ElectoralCollege) • Equality vs Equity • Equal Opportunity • Problem of resources • Results • Consultation • Civil Society • Open Government • Majority Rule • Winner Take All • Consensual decisions • Social Capital • Network of activitiesthat ordinary people are engaged in • Reservoirof trust and expectation of positive outcomes Designing Government Thursday, February 4, 2016 2:04 PM • Constitutions • Define the fundamental rules of the state • Reflect the consensus underlying the regime • Define structures of Gov't • Embody sovereignty of the whole community • Madisonian Democracy • Tyranny of the Minority • Tyranny of the Majority • Control of the factions • Separation of powers • Ministerial Responsibility • Federalism • National and regional gov'ts supreme in their own spheres • Regional gov't not independent • Nat'l Gov't still sovereign • Unitary Gov't • Delegated but not shared powers • All Ultimate power remains with central gov' t Electoral Process Thursday, February 11, 2016 2:08 PM • First Past the Post • Run-Off • Preferential (Australia) • ProportionalRepresentation • Consiglio Di Stato ○ Executivecouncil has 5 members ○ Candidates from 11 parties ○ Voter get 5 votes,one per member of council • Gran Consiglio ○ 90 members ○ 11 parties ○ Each voter gets one party vote, 90 candidate votes ○ Uses Hare Method  Total votes divided by total seats • German Stimmzettel ○ Each of the 16 states has elections, half party list, half first past the post ○ State Legislatures choose representatives • MajorityVote VS ProportionalRepresentation Two Party Multi-PartySystems • Stable Gov'ts Fairer Representation Political Parties Tuesday, February 16, 2016 2:10 PM • Means for making interests known • Interest Groups • Political Parties • Social Movements • Interest groups and Social movements • Attempt to effect policy • PoliticalParty • Mobilize masses • Nominate candidates • Source of political identity • Missionary: Ideological • Parties with clear set of ideals and focus as to what their goals are • Communist(USSR) • Labour (Britain before 1997) • SPD (Germanybefore 1959) • Broker: Pragmatic • Tailor ideals to what the people want • Conservative(Britain) • Democratic(USA) • Liberal Democrats(Japan) • Bases for Parties • Economic • Religious • Urban/Rural • Ethnic or Linguistic • Modern/post-modern • Party Discipline • Wisdom of the representative • Listening to the constituents • The party as representative • Party Fractionalization • One Party - Authoritarian • Two Party - Majoritarian • More Parties - require coalitions • Types of Coalitions • MajorityCabinets • Minority Cabinets • Grand Coalitions • One Party System • Monoparty(Communist) -Only Ever One Party • Hegemonic (Socialist Unity Party) - There are several parties, but only one is going to win • Dominant Party (Liberal DemocraticParty and Institutional RevolutionaryParty) Who Gets What, When , and How Tuesday, February 16, 2016 2:57 PM • Interest Articulation • Expressing needs and demands to the Government • ProtestDemonstrations: ○ More Likely the choice of the educated and wealthy ○ Less likely the route of less educated and poor • Interest Aggregation - Interest Groups and or people creating coalitions among groups • Interest Groups • Institutional ○ Group built around existing group, like around a church or military • Sectorial ○ Purpose is not public policy, but public education. Have political views. Represent a sector of the economy,combine lots of money with little actual concerns. Have other purposes besides politics  AFL, University Professors • Promotional ○ Particular idea of what they would like to do, NRA. Organized around an idea or view. Specific Values, pressures government • Anomic ○ Not very clear on what it wants, or the solutions, but very concerned anyways  Trump supporting groups, likes what he says, no policy attached. • American has very high percentage of Interest Group Membership • Success in Competition • Resources • Skills • Diverse Membership • Mobilization of Members • Coalitions among groups • Efficacy • Belief that one has power to get shit done • Confidence that a difference can be made by one person • Social Movement • Informally organized • But with purpose on someissue • And frames a perspective • Violence as politics • Spontaneous violence - Riots • Tactical Violence - Coup d' etat • Dilemma for PluralistDemocracies • People must have freedom to further their interest • People may injure others when they succeed • Consultation • Pluralist - Arrangement of groups deciding who they want in or out, freedom of people deciding what they want • Corporatist - Organized by other ways of thinking, forced organization based off religion, class, etc. Less individualistic Presidential VS. Parliamentary Systems Tuesday, February 23, 2016 2:13 PM • Locke's three functions of Government • A known and settled law • Powerto execute that law • Processto adjudicate that law • Presidential Model • Separation of Powers(Branches) • Checks and Balances • Independent Branches (Can't be a memberof more than one) • Parliamentary Model • Fusion Model • Vote of (no)Confidence • Powerof Dissolution(PM can dissolve parliament) • Impeachment • Can take place in either Presidential or parliamentary systems • Attempt to bring charges against a public official • Not what is meant by responsible government • LegislativeControl in a Parliamentary System • Vote of no confidence - Legislature no longer supports PM ○ Cabinet must resign ○ New Election follows unless parliament agrees on new cabinet • Executive Control in a Parliamentary System • Dissolution : Executivecan dissolve the legislature ○ New election is called • Responsible Government • Refers to the power of the legislature to removethe executivefor political reasons • House of Commons • Head of State: Queen Elizabeth • Head of Gov't : Prime Minister Trudeau • Responsible Government • Strict Party Discipline • Control in a Presidential System • Checks and Balances • Designed to keep governmentfrom moving too fast • Can create deadlock (filibusters, super majorityrequirements, etc.) • Role of the Legislature • Presidential : President is not responsible (not accountable to legislature) • Parliamentary: PM and Cabinet are responsible (accountable to legislature) • Organization of Powers • Presidential : no person can serve in more than one branch • Parliamentary: persons are expected to serve in multiple capacities • Coalitions • Agreements between parties, a partnership • Mixed Systems • France ○ A President with real power  CeremonialRole and Policy Role (France and Russia) ○ A Premierwith real power  Appointed by the President  Takes instruction from the President  Takes instruction from the President  Must have confidence of the national assembly ○ Working Together  Not a problem when President and the assembly are In agreement  When they aren't, Assembly can throw out Premier,but President chooses replacement Cohabitation  • Switzerland ○ Collegial executiveof seven members ○ Elected by the legislature ○ But Cannot be removedby the legislature (No Vote of Confidence option) ○ Executivecannot dismiss the legislature ○ Council government  Each member of the executiveheads a department of gov't  Together they form collective executive  Chair rotatesamong each of them each year and act as ceremonialhead of state The Courts Thursday, February 25, 2016 2:05 PM • Common Law • Used in most English speaking countries • Grew out of judicial decisions in early England • Stare Decisis - Let previous decision stand (precedents) • Equity • Legal decision based upon what is just and fair • Systems of Law CommonLaw Developedin England • Code Law Survived on the European Continent • Code Law • Organized by coded law • Created by statutes • Relies on Variants of Roman Law • Not Made by judges • CivilLaw • Governs interactions among individuals and groups • Defines legal rights in civil relationships • "You must stop at red lights" • CriminalLaw • Governs relationships between individuals and the state • Defines crimes against the public order • "You Cannot Murder" • Adversarial • Prosecutionvs Defendant (Criminal Trial) • Plaintiff vs Defendant (Civil Trial • Each side represented by counsel • Innocent until proven guilty • Judge as umpire • Guilt or innocence decided by jury • Inquisitorial • Judges as representativesof the state ○ Seek to determine the truth • Implicit assumption of guilt • Significant evidence presented by prosecutor • Accused must testify • Verdict by panel of judges Soviet Russia Tuesday, March 22, 202:05 PM  The Soviet Union o Was an authoritarian political system o Was ruled by the Communist party o Existed for 74 years o Was an empire spanning many demographics (185) nationalities, of which Russians made up the majority  Most of these groups split off and became independent when the USSR collapsed  Models of Authoritarianism o Oppressive structures o Non-accountability of elites o Subversion of democratic forms o Directed participation  Karl Marx o Labor theory of value  The only way to produce value is through labor o Owners exploit workers  They steal the value of your labor  Marxism-Leninism o Dictatorship of the proletariat o The party as vanguard of the proletariat  Democratic Centralism o The Communist Party must be highly disciplined o Discussion until decision o Obey the decision absolutely afterwards  Parallel Authorities o There is a party structure working within every level of government  The Ideology Provides the Truth o Only the Communist Party contains the truth o Multiple parties confuse the situation with lies  Totalitarianism o Independent political life is eliminated o Bureaucracies directed everything  “Here is what you must do, here is what you must not do”  “You are one cog in a machine”  Results o Political oppression o Economic stagnation o Individuals need the opportunity to decide so that they can explore multiple solutions, and therefore have a better chance of finding the correct solution  Reforms o Gorbachev proposed restructuring in order to overcome these problems o Perestroika: restructuring the economy o Glasnost: openness as a democracy  Transition from a Communist State o National identity  There are 185 different nationalities in the USSR Privatization of the economy o Privatization of the economy  How do you do this Do you sell them If so, to who o Creation of political structures  The Russians borrowed from the French  Economic Transition o 2 options:  Shock therapy: do it suddenly; this hurts the people, especially the poor, but should balance out well in the long term  Gradualism: hopefully, this should avoid the hurt of shock therapy, though it is slow  Russians o Alienated from politics  Feel no need to participate o Intensely concerned about the future regardless o Wanted democracy o Wished for strong leadership  Adaptation of the Elite o The nomenklatura (bureaucracy) continues, often as the new capitalist entrepreneurs o Some turnover  Political Culture o Trust and distrust o Very low social capital  Russians don’t think that they can make a difference o Recruiting new elite o From statism to pluralism o Interest groups being censored • Whither Russia Thursday, March 17, 2016 2:07 PM 1990 - 2016 - •Superpower •Weak Country •Relative Peace •Plagued with Violence •Desire for Democracy •Undemocratic •Desire for Capitalism •Failing Economy •Friendly with the West •Antagonistic to the west • Two kinds of Russian conservatives • Old style communists • Traditionalists, nationalists ○ Both Argue :  Anti-Privatization  Anti-Western  Anti-Democratic □ Value Hierarchy, some people should be in charge ○ Orthodox Catholics  Roots of the East West conflict lie in the Great Schism • The Other Side • The classical liberals • For market economy,not state ownership • For democratization,not authoritarianism • Parties of Power • Designed to support a particular candidate ○ United Russia = Putin's Party • More interested in power rather than ideology • Goal is to gain a majorityin the Duma • Executive • President • Prime Minister and Government • Security and Defense Councils • Legislature • Council of the Federation • State Duma • Judiciary • The courts • The Procuracy ○ Organization of governmentthat examine cases and determine the truth • The Constitutional Court • Federal Structure • Various kinds of units ○ Ethnic national territories ○ Russian Territories  Comparable to US territories (Puerto Rico, Guam, etc.) • Represented in the National Legislature • Transition to Democracy • From statist to pluralism (emphasis on the importance of people) • Rise and fall of a party system • Enduring presence of the secret police • Enduring presence of the secret police • Bureaucratic State • Control of Media • Efforts to Create Legitimacy • Putin's exhibition of how awesomehe is • Developmentof the economy • Show of power in Syria • Reliance upon Orthodox Church and Russia's history • Opposition: A Dying Species • Mikhael Gorbachev • Boris Yeltsin • Vladimir Putin, followed by Putin • Dmtirii Medvedev • Putin again • Manipulation of the Democratic Structures • Dismissal of the governors • From Prime Minister to President then back again • Working the courts - Trials of Mikhail Khodorkovsky • Rigging Elections ○ Making up results ○ Control all Media ○ Bureaucratic attacks • Foreign Policy • Intervention in Syria • Support of authority • Removalof Bombing Mission Iran Monday, March 21, 2016 9:13 AM • What is authoritarian gov't and how do you get it • Persia • Very long history • Zoroastrianism • Language - Farsi ○ More like western language than Arabic • Pride in their culture • Cult of Personality ○ Particular people have more of a right to respect than others • Shi'ism • Islam • Political order and the religious order are one ○ Theocratic • Politics is judged by religious principles • Shari'a • Rulers do not need to make new laws • Nor Do the need to repeal old law • All laws in the Qur'an are final • Four Main Sources of Shari'a • The Qur'an - Main Source of Law • Sunnah of the prophet (the Hadith) - Speaking's of Mohammed • Consensus of Scholars (Mullah) • Oiyas - Interpretation not clearly coveredby the Qur'an or the Sunnah ○ Last two differ from school to school • Two Branches of Islam • Sunni - Party of Abu Bakr • Shi'ite - Party of Ali • Sunni Islam • Religion under the domain of the state • Ulama's work under aegis of state ○ Ulema = Islamic Scholars who interpret Qur'an • Shi'ite Islam • Religion skeptical of the state • Ulama not traditionally identified with political power • Iran • Center of Shi'I islam • Unlikely grounds for religious effort to reform the political system • Shi'ite religiousleaders historicallyoutside politics • Developeddistinct corporate identity • Became independent political force • Took over state in 1979 ○ Iran Hostage Crisis • The Ulama • Clerical establishment ○ Primarily Shi'ite ○ Not always united politically ○ Supportive of the current regime • PoliticalCulture • Authoritarian • Authoritarian • Conspiratorial view of politics • Islamic desire for egalitarianism ○ Easy for fundamentalists to gain legitimacy among uma • Revolt • Rejection of the liberal nationalism of Mossedeq • Rejection of the authoritarian developmentplans of the Shah • Insistence on rule of the Shari'a • Ayatollah Khomeini • Divine mission to create an Islamic State • A gov't of eternal and absolute laws • A Faqih, knowledgable about Islamic laws, to rule • No Secular monarch needed • Velayat-e Faqih • Absolute authority derived from Allah • Veto power over all political and economicdecisions • Morality and spirituality, not commerceand liberty • Alms giving as a doctrine (Like Tithes) • Theocracy • State governed by divine guidance • Rejection of modern civil and penal laws • Reversionto the direct rule of the Shari'a • The Shah's Wealth for the disinherited • PoliticalDecisions • Made by the Ulema, but ultimately by the Faqih • State w/in the state for religious control • Armed committeeas police • Revolutionaryguards as army • Revolutionarycourts to maintain Islamic Order South Africa Tuesday, March 29, 2016 2:25 PM • Authoritarianism • Authority - reliable, right to decide • Authoritarianism - Unquestioned Obedience • Authoritarian personality - rectitude obedience to those above, domination of those below • A Dark Past • Multiple Ethnicities ○ Many Tribes ○ Early Dutch Settlers (Afrikaans) ○ Later British Settlers ○ Even Later Indian Settlers ○ Subsequent Mixed People • Boer War • Dutch Settlers in Transvaal and Orange Free state • English settlers in Natal and Cape Colony • British Annexation at end of war • 1910 - Union of South Africa as Dominionof British Empire • Union of South Africa • Dominatedby english speakers • Afrikaner National Party dominant from 1948 • African National Congress banned in 1960 • Apartheid Afrikaner Policy • Afrikaner party response to many cultures living together • Strict separation of races • Discriminatorylegislation • Forced migration to native homelands • Enormousinequality and segregation • Rising Opposition • Identity Politics • Nelson Mandela • Potential Civil War • • Negotiation • 1990-93 • President F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela talk • A managed revolution • New constitution was written • Slow movementtowards new constitution • New Regime • Multiple racial Election • ANC majority • Several parties, still ANC dominant Building State and Nation (South Africa Cont.) Thursday, March 31, 2016 2:12 PM • New Regime • Full civil and political rights for all • Rule of Law • Mending the Inequities • Importance of EconomicGrowth • Protectionof minorities • Legitimacy • New Regime ○ Black middle class Support ○ Less support from other groups • Government • National Assembly: ○ Represents the people ○ "Lower"house ○ Has morepower • National Council of Provinces ○ Represents the districts ○ Kinda sort of not really like the US Senate • Provinces ○ Limited Powers ○ Not a federal system • Proportional Representation • Whole country as a single district for lower house • Nine districts for representation from nine provinces • Five year terms for each house • Nelson Mandela's Presidency • Initial power sharing, guarantees • Rights to private property • Restraints upon radical blacks • Truth and justice commission • Archbishop Desmond Tutu • To document the crimes committedby all sides during apartheid • To use the truth for healing the wounds of a dark era • Partial reconciliation • Presidency • Head of State • Chief of Gov't • Can be dismissed by a voteof no confidence by the National Assembly ○ President Thabo Mbeki was declared unfit to serve • Cry, the Beloved Country • Jacob Zuma - Corrupt and incompetent • Since his election in 1909,public debt increased from 26 to 50% • Debt almostto junk bond status • Zuma dimly aware of the situation • ANC adopted goals of open marketand fiscal discipline, but Zuma junked it • ANC social programs endangered • Presided over much corruption • Constitutional Court • All eleven justices ruled that Jacob Zuma failed to uphold the Constitution and failed as a • Constitutional Court • All eleven justices ruled that Jacob Zuma failed to uphold the Constitution and failed as a watchdog on corruption • Used 23 million dollars of public funds to build his own palace • Demanded partial repayment within 45 days • Current Debate • DemocraticAlliance is insisting that Zuma be removed • The ANC is divided, concerned about best option for the upcoming election Early Mexico Thursday, April 7, 2:29 PM  Pre-Columbian Civilizations o Temple-pyramids o They were very skilled with mathematics and astronomy o A rich culture with the fine arts o Advanced agriculture and engineering  Early Settlers o Small groups of hunter-gatherers in the north (the US) o Larger tribes of farmers in Central America and South (Meso-America) o Developed civilizations with urban centers for religion  Major Civilizations o Olmecs—2300 BCE o Teotihuacan—300-150BCE  The Spaniards Arrive o Aztecs: militaristic and bureaucratic o Conquered other tribes and demanded tribute and service from the defeated o 1519—Hernando Cortez with 200 men and a few horses o 1521—The Spanish return and overthrow the Aztecs  Spanish Colony o Religious institutions (missionaries) o Royal land titles for Spaniards o Haciendas (plantations) with Indian labor o Mexico achieved its independence from Spain in Spain  Authoritarian Political Control o Catholic Church is central to Mexican identity o Foreign investment and modernization depended on the government o Land grants:  95% of rural farm owners became landless o Liberals opposed the dictatorship  Nueva Espana o Absolutist victory o Symbiosis of church and state o Hierarchy and sharp class distinctions o State direction of economy  Mexican War of Independence o 9/16/1810: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, a Catholic priest of Spain initiated the war o Mexico at the time included Mexico, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and California  Northern Neighbor o US-Mexico War: 1845-1848 o Mexico lost over half its territory o Afterwards the French tried to assume control, but the Mexicans defeated them  Mexican Revolution (1910-1915) o Removed the corrupt dictators of the feudal system o The revolution was both a political and cultural movement o Driven by socialists, nationalists, and anarchists o Ended feudalism o Even afterwards, violence continued, with 1,000,000+ deaths  New Governments  New Governments o Strong, central military governments (1920s-1940s) o Six-year monarchy (1929-1997)  President serves a single 6-year term, and chooses his successor who is then “voted” in  Political Culture o State is dominant over civil society  The institutions have a great deal to say in what happens in your life  Statism, as opposed to individualism o The people have little respect for the inefficient government o Charismatic leaders and camarillas are loved by the people o Low personal and political trust o Authoritarianism and intolerance  Major Conflicts in Mexico o Church v state issues  This was a conflict before there was an independent Mexico o Indians and Mestizos v Spanish descendants o Richer v poorer regions  Difference in political pull seems based on wealth o Center v periphery  Constitution of 1917 o Driven by nationalism o Explicit in regards to social justice o Statism o Political liberalism o Military was placed under the control of civil power  Not always the case, but more so now  Statism o You are a part of something bigger than yourself (the state) and the president is the embodiment of the state (captain of the state) o Interest groups work with the executive o State and the president as omnipotent Mexico Thursday, April 7, 20162:08 PM • Presidency • Elected by simple majority • 6 year terms • Unchecked powers • No Vice President • No Reelection • Appoint and dismiss cabinet officials and almostall employeesof executiveBranch • Presidency falls vacant • During the first two years of a sexenio ○ Congress designates interim president ○ Call a special election • Last four years ○ Congress provides provisional election • Legislative • Bicameral legislature ○ Upper: Chamber of Deputies ○ Lower : Senate • Congress can pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, and approve national budget • Permanentcommitteeconsisting of 37 members • Senate • Addresses all matters of foreign policy • 64 members ○ 6 year term ○ 4 members from each state and district ○ 1 seat to second party • Chamber of Deputies • Addresses all matters of budget and public spending • 500 members ○ 200 elected by proportional representationsfrom large multi member districts ○ 300 from small single memberdistricts ○ 3 year terms • Impeachment • House of Deputies prosecutes • Senate acts as jury • Deputies elect provisional president • Judicial Branch • Based on Spanish law ○ CommonLaw ○ Strict legal codes, little jurisprudence • Independent from the Pres • Supreme Court • Powerof judicial review • No use until recently • Under influence of dominant political party • Federal Republic • 31 States and a federal district • President may dismiss a governor • Increasing trends of federalism • Increasing trends of federalism • State Government • Divided into 31 states • Led by governors elected by majority for 6 terms and one term limit • Each state has its own constitution, modeled on national charter, with right to tax and pass law. • State legislature is unicameral • State gov'ts depend on Mexico city for revenue • Municipalities • Municipal governmentsheaded by a mayoror municipal president and a municipal council are popularly elected for three year terms • Public services, including water and sewage • Three Major Parties • National Action Party (PAN) ○ Liberal Party, favors private enterprise • Institutional revolutionaryparty (PRI) ○ Most Powerful, ruled for 71 consecutiveyears ○ Party of revolution and very centrist • Party of the DemocraticRevolution(PRD) ○ Favors a populist, state-led economy • Statism • Statism is dominance of the state • In Mexico,Business Leaders are closely identified with the state. State officials work very closely with businesses in return for cash money. ○ Corruption is a thing • Statism can be a tool for reform ○ PRD wants to use statism to impose changes, in favor of the people • My boy Enrique Pena Nieto • Brought PRI back in power, which somepeople like, others fear • Lots of grassroots politics UK of Great Britain Thursday, April 14, 2016 2:21 PM • UK of Great Britainand Northern Ireland • Great Britain is made up of ○ England ○ Scotland ○ Wales ○ Northern Ireland • Timeline: 1707 Scotland united with England ○ 1800 UK Annexes Ireland 1922 Irish Republic Established • English Beginnings • Saxons lad foundations of the English gov't • Divided England into "Shires" • Each shire was further divided into regions called "hundreds" • Each shire was ruled by a noble called an "Elder man" • Middle Ages • King Ruled by divine right • Warriors who fought successfully were awarded by the monarchy and nobility • For legitimacy and resources,king relied on the rich and the church • When King John ignored feudal law to extort money,sell offices, and increase taxes, the nobles rebelled • In June 1215,King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in order to stop the abuses • Magna Carta • Kings could not rule arbitrarily, they had to obey rules of English Law • Traditional rights and privileges of the church and aristocracyto be protected • Free men could be arrested without lawful judgement by his peers ○ Fair trial by jury of your peers • Gradual Growth of Democratic Power • From 13th century on, Parliament is in power • To raise money for war, king called a parliament of nobles and knights and burgesses • Many towns given charters that gave town people rights • 17th century • Parliament vs the Monarchy • King James I and the divine right of kings • Charles I was more insistent on control • In a civil war, Charles was captured, and beheaded. • Glorious Revolution • King James II insisted upon remaining catholic and Britain insisted upon being protestant • Parliament declared the throne vacant and appointed William and Mary s joint monarchs • The Bill of Rights (1689)states :No Monarch • Parliament was now ultimate authority ○ No tax law without parliament consent • Unitary Gov't • State with a supreme central gov't • Sub-units exercise only powers granted from the center • In the UK, some powers are devolved Scottish Parliament, Assemblies in Wales and N. Ireland ○ Scottish Parliament, Assemblies in Wales and N. Ireland • Fusion of gov't • The monarch • Prime Minister • Cabinet • House of Commons • House of Lords  No Branches • Prime Minister • Most senior minister in the cabinet ○ Responsible for cabinet meetings, selecting cabinet ministers, making gov't policies • Performsother Executive Functions • Leader of the MajorityParty in Casa de Commons • Increasingly like an American President • Gov't VS Parliaments • The gov't runs the country, has responsibility for developing and implementing policy and drafting laws • Parliament is legislative authority in the UK, has responsibility for checking the work of the Gov't ○ Vote of Confidence, Powerof Dissolution • Political party that wins majority in the House of Commonsforms new governmentand its leader becomesthe PM • If no party wins a majority,then the largest party may form a minoritygov't, or a coalition will be formed • PM appoints ministers who work in various governmentaldepartments, mostsenior is that of the Cabinet • BritishGov't • PM • Cabinet Ministers • Junior Ministers • MajorityParty • Opposition Party • Policy Making • Initiaties from the civil service • Ministers in the cabinet ○ Loyaltyamong ministers and the PM • Increasing role of committees • Party Discipline • Whips ensure votesin Parliament for their Party • One Line ○ Be nice to vote, get along • Two lines ○ Important, get there • Three Lines ○ If you die, vote first • Supremacy of Parliament - 1688 • No judicial Review • Parliamentsinterprets constitution • Now European Law ○ Supreme Court advises Parliament • Supreme Court • More limited that high courts in most countries • Historically House of Lords was the Highest Court • From Oct 1, 2009:Supreme Court of the UK British Electoral Systems Tuesday, April 19, 2016 2:07 PM • Electoral Systems • First Past the Post in single memberconstituencies (Mostof what Counts) • Some proportional representationin Northern Ireland • Proportionalrepresentation for membersof the European Parliament • PoliticalParties • Dominatedby the conservativeand labour parties • Third largest - The Scottish Nationalist • Liberal Democratscome and go ○ Old liberals, formerlythe whigs • Plaid Cymru • Northern Ireland Parties ○ DemocraticUnionists ○ Social Democrats ○ Ulster Unionist • UK Independence Party • Green Party • Conservatism • Values old institutions • Emphasizes community • Insists on authority and hierarchy • Generositytowards disadvantaged • Old Tories • For Church and Crown • For Aristocracy and Gentry • For a societyof ranks, orders, and degrees • Source of Ideology - ○ From classical liberalism, preference for limited gov't, lower taxes, and private enterprise ○ From classical conservatism - an affection for old values like authority and community • My Boi David Cameron • Civil Partnerships ○ Marriage legal in 2014 • National Health Service ○ Safe for generations to come • Labour Party • Karl Marx - RevolutionaryOverthrow • Fabian Society - Gradual reform • Cooperativemovement - economiccooperation • Socialism • British pragmatism too strong to allow ideologyalone to determine policy • Finding solution that benefit people • Socialism in Practice [1945 - 1951] • Nationalism of Industry • Creation of the health service • Efforts at central planning ○ Thatcher tookBritain back to extremeCapitalism  Health Service stayed • New Labour • Tony Blair Deletion of Clause Four ○ Deletion of Clause Four  Manifesto of the Labour party that called for gov't ownership of the means of production ○ Alternative means to improve life • Labour in Reverse • Jeremy Corbyn ○ An old style socialist ○ Chosen in preferential vote system ○ Disaster in General Election of 2015 • Liberal Democratic Party • Personal Liberty • Protectionof Environment • Social Justice • Decentralization • Electoral Reform • More positive approach to the EU • Scottish Nationalism • 1707 - Union btwn Scotland and England • 1999 - Scottish Parliament • Scottish National Party • Referendum for Independence • Future of Nationalism • UK Independence Party • Fervently opposed to British membership in the EU • Populist - Increase Social Care and lower taxes • Controlling borders, reduce immigration • Patriotism first • Legitimacy • Strong support for constitution • Less support for current gov't • Concern about terror

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Chapter 6.4, Problem 27 is Solved
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Textbook: Calculus: Early Transcendentals
Edition: 2
Author: William L. Briggs
ISBN: 9780321947345

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 128 chapters, and 9720 solutions. Calculus: Early Transcendentals was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321947345. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Calculus: Early Transcendentals, edition: 2. Since the solution to 27 from 6.4 chapter was answered, more than 234 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 27 from chapter: 6.4 was answered by , our top Calculus solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:24PM. The answer to “2732. Shell method Use the shell method to find the volume of the following solids. A right circular cone of radius 3 and height 8” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 25 words.

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2732. Shell method Use the shell method to find the volume