1746. Trigonometric substitutions Evaluate the following integrals. L dx 11 + x223>2
Cultural Anthropology Study Guide Exam 2 Kinship and Family Kinship: The complex system of social relationships based on marriage (affinity) and birth (consanguinity) Relevance in the modern world: although kinship has changed it is still relevant in the US. An example of this is the American Legal system Principle of affinity: marriage the socially approved union of two people that confers sexual rights and legitimizes children Principle of consanguinity: birth Nuclear family: fairly universal, parents and children Extended family: culturally defined Kinship Diagrams Circle: female Triangle: male Square: ego (you) Descent: a cultural rule tying people together based upon supposed common ancestry Patrilineal descent: through male side of the family (father) Patrolocal society: marry and live at the husband’s house/family Bhil in India Matrilineal descent: through the female side of the family (mother) Na in China Mother’s brother assumes the role of father in the household Bilateral/bilineal: our typical descent structure Tracing kinship through both the father’s and the mother’s ancestors to some degree No different names for grandparents Elements of both Kinship traced regardless of gender or side of the family All male and female children are members of both their father's and mother's families Social conventions of marriage Incest taboos: people who are related consanguineally Exogamy: outside the family group Endogamy: within the family group Parallel cousins and cross-cousins Why would you have cross-cousin marriage Keep wealth and land within the family Protect children Arranged marriage McCurdy - the Bhil of India Kinship-centered society Marriage is too important to be left to kids to decide U.S. Marriage Based on love, friendship, other emotional reasons Express cultural values: personal independence, individualism Love is socially constructed Serial monogamy: Only one partner at a time Neolocal: get their own place Matrilocal or patrilocal: with whom you live after you get married Number of partners Monogamy: only one partner Polygamy: multiple partners Polygyny: multiple wives Polyandry: multiple husbands Tibetan polyandry o Wealthy landowning families, all brothers marry one wife so the wealth doesn’t get divided o Feudal system Brideprice/bridewealth: parents of groom to parents of bride Bride service: when instead of gifts, a man works for hisprospective in-laws for a while to “earn” rights and privilegeof marriage to their daughter Dowry: from parents of bride to parents of groom Societies where women are not working, not economic profit Gender The “opt-out” phenomenon: women quiting their jobs to take care of kids Traditional gender/family norms The glass ceiling: form of discrimination that limits women’s advancement The second shift: work that women do to maintain and sustain the household in addition to their paid employment Sex vs. Gender vs. Sexuality Sex: relates to the biological distinction between male and female Gender: a socio culturally rather than biologically constructed attribute; may or may not be binary ;involves a process of attributing meanings and values to biological and sociocultural differences among women and men Gender is preformed Sexuality: Capacity for and expression of sexual pleasure Intersexuality (or to be intersexual; XX vs. XY etc.) Gender socialization and some basic examples (toys, colors, behavior, chores, careers) Men without Sawmills Traditional gender norms Women often rejected men, but not because they had a problem being the bread-winner Women often rejected men because of substance abuse and domestic violence Do Muslim women need saving from the burqa (or hijab) Burqa as “mobile home” Clean vs dirty Portable seclution Accepted by muslim women Sign of class, respect, piety Race and Ethnicity Race: A biological myth Human genetic variation based on location, heritage, genes but there is very little genetic variation Skin color, eyes, has changed through time like other genes because of the influence of the location and challenges that people face, natural selection Blood types show that there is no relation between the color of the skin and the genetic composition of a person A black and a white person can both have the same blood type, and they might be more similar that two black or two white There is no such thing as a racial disease Sickle cell anemia and tay-sachs are examples of natural selection within a genetic pool Social construct Colonialism and racial classification Slavery The color line Rule of hypo-descent: children inherit the least prestigious category Anti-miscegenation laws: not marry outside race Conception of race changes in different cultures A social reality Maintain separation of race Red linning: not giving loans for black people Housing segregation and discrimination Race in the work place Discrimination based on race Favoring white candidates Channeling applicants No legal racism Race in media Ethnicity Nationality: group of people who share identity Intersectionality: overlap of forms of social difference. You cannot talk about race or ethnicity without mentioning gender.