Explain how the Ratio Test works.
\ '\ / Examill.FlO PsyIOIC/F Psychology 101C/F, McDermott Autumn 2010, Exam I: Version B Fill in the bubbles for your name, student # and test version on your scantron form. Choose the best answer. Mark you answer on this exam, then transfer your answers to your scantron form. Save your exam as a record of your answers. Show this exam to the proctor when you hand in your scantron form. I. Antoine is interested in studying the relationship (among American college students) betw.eJ:.n_hoursspent il1!!:IIlet.sucling-andnumber of social encounters. He randomly assigns participants to three groups. Group #I is told to..spend-I-hour.pecday_surjinthe web; Group #2 is told to spend 4 hours per day online; and Group #____=.::.....:..:..:.~~,.;;.::;;';OO""7- Each participant is also instructed to keep track of the number of social encounters during the week of the study. How can this study be described ~ a double-blind correlational study ~ a true experiment using between-subjects design ~ a placebo-controlled experiment using within-subjects design ~ a double-blind experiment using between-subjects design 2. A graduate student designed a study to test the effect of stress on cognitive performance in which different levels of stress were induced by using varying levels of unavoidable electric shock - low, medium, or high. She recorded the galvanic skin response (GSR) as a measure of the participants' level of stress. After receiving the shock, the study participants were asked to solve a puzzle and the time it took to finish the puzzle was recorded. In this study, the ~ependent variab,e (DV) is and is operationalized as the _ a. stress; magnitude of the GSR of each subject b. time to finish the puzzle; level of cognitive performance c. stress; level of shock given to each subject d. cognitive performance; time taken to finish the puzzle 3. Kittens were raised either in normal light or in total darkness. Kittens in both groups received the same amount of food, lived in the same-sized cages, and were petted for the same amount of time each day. Alter a few months, their visual acuity was assessed by how quickly they could navigate a visually confusing maze. Which of the following was a cpntrol yariablr in this study a. number of errors made navigating the maze b. amount of light deprivation during early development @ amount of petting received each day d. time required to navigate the maze 4. A variable that the researcher failed to control and which is later discovered to affect the dependent variable is called: a. the independent variable. (b) a confounding variable. c. the dependent variable. d. a control variable. 101'6 Exam IB,F~ , PsylOIC/F 'I 5, Dr. Freitas conducted a study to detennine whether a new drug (Zydox) designed to treat depression has "- stronger efficacy than other drugs. She randomly assigned the subjects to receive either Zydox, Prozac (a drug commonly used to treat depression), or a sugar pill. At the completion of the study she calculated the change, ifany, between the subjects' depression prior 19 treatment and after treatment. Then the average c~ inJjepression scores of each grOUPwas compared. If neither die subjects nor the research assistants who administer the Zydox, Prozac, and the sugar pIli were aware of which drug was given to which subject, the experiment is using a procedure. a. within-subjects b. placebo c. meta-analytic d. double-blind 6. Random assignment of subjects to either the ~erimental or control groups: a. ensures that the value of control variables in the study sample are the same as for the population. b. relies on chance to equalize the effects of potentially confounding variables in al1groups. , is poorly suited for large study samples compared to other methods of assignment. "'Q...is used primarily to establish that the results are generalizable beyond the current sample. 7. A study has high external validity when the: J ) results can be generalized to other people, settings and conditions. b. conclusions are widely accepted by the scientific community. c. operational definitions are valid: d. potential1y confounding variables have been control1ed. 8. If a research participant has undergone infonned consent procedures, they should understand that they have the right to al1of the following EXCEPT: a. withdrawing their participation at any time. b. keeping their participation confidential. c. knowing about any risks or benefits that may result from participation. @ knowing whether they have been assigned to the control or experimental c.ondition. 9. A negative correlation: \ a. indicates that higher scores on one variable predict random scores on the other variable. I db) of -.87 indicates a stronger relationship between variables than a positive correlation of +.63. "c. indicates that no causal relationship exists between the variables considered. "G .. indicates that ~confounding (or third variable) is negating the relationship between variables. 10. All of the fol1owing would be of theoretical interest to a psychologist with a sociocultural perspective EXCEPT: '1h.prior learning and rewards and punishments. b" \0e:.....r C,••••• 'b. )ndividualism versus collectivism. ""-...racism, sexism, and ageism. 'tho.Andrea Yates' roles of dutiful wife, devoted daughter, diligent mother. II. Tina is a troubled teenager. A psychodynamif psychologist would be most interested in the impact of: a. the fam.ilY.-\!!19.!'~urreof jealousy and competition during childhood. "9.. positive and negative messages she receives from her current social group about body image. ,media messages (e.g., advertising, movies) on her feelings of self-worth. , reproductive/sex honnones on her behavior, thoughts and feelings. 20f6 ExamlB, FlO PsylOIC/F 12. Dr. Xi l$pd.a.r.!=p.otf the effect of alcohol usage on level of depression in which the score on the Beck Depression Inventory (BOI) was used as the measure of depression. Dr. Xi had done similar research but had used the Seligman Measure of Depression (SMD) because she believed it had better construct validity than the BDI. Dr. Xi's study differs from the one she read in that her study uses a different: a. dependent variable. b. independent variable. c. operational definition of the dependent variable. d. operational definition of the independent variable. 13. Which concept is matched CORRECTLY with its theoretical perspective a. positive psychology - humanist perspective b. object relations - cognitive perspective c. innate needs - biological perspective d. inclusive fitness - behavior perspective 14. Dr. Wu found that people with high scores in math also ate big breakfasts. Dr. Wu concluded that math score and size of breakfast - - - - a. covary in the same direction. b. are causally related. c. when plotted produce a line with a negative slope. d. have a zero correlation. 15. FMRl st.lJ,diesof intact brains, as well as studies of individuals with brain damage (e.g., stroke, c0I:JlQli~sW'olomy),support the idea that all of the following functions are dominant in the right cerebral hemisphere, EXCEPT: "ll1subtle humor and imagery Wernicke's area, Broca'~_area, motor cortex. c. Wernicke's area, angular gyrus, Broca's area. d. angular gyrus, Wernicke's area, motor cortex. 30f6 • ExamlB, FlO PsylOIC/F 19. In class we watched a short film about Paulette, who suffered damaged to her right visual association cortex and suffered from prosopagnosia. What deficit did she demonstrate Q She couldn't recognize familiar faces. b. She had an inability to remember people's names. c. She couldn't recognize most facial emotions. d. She had trouble identifYing facial features. 20. A split-brain patient is blindfolded so he cannot see his hands. A pair of scissors is placed in his left hand. When asked what is in his left hand, he will most likely: (,d+ ;.fv"u,c:¥) a. deny awareness of the object. b. correctly name the object as scissors. I''1Vt' ; ,fo-"" c. use his right hand to write the answer "scissors". d. use his right hand to select scissors from a collection of objects. 21. If the heritability coefficient for intelligence is .50 we can conclude that: a. DZ twins have a higher trait concordance for intelligence than MZ twins. b. approximately half of your intelligence stems from genetic influences. c. half of the variation in IQ scores can be attributed to genetic variation within a group. d. environment and genetics have a comparable influence on the development of intelligence. 22. Which of the following structures is matched INCORRECTLY with its function a. amygdala - activates fear and aggression b. hippocampus - involved in various aspects of memory c. corpus callosum - involved in sleep and arousal d. thalamus - serves as a sensory switchboard between sensory organs and cortical sensory areas 23. Dendrites: a. contain the biological structures that keep neurons alive. b. are the location of the receptor sites which collect messages from neighboring neurons. c. conduct electrical impulses to other neurons. d. are insulated with a myelin sheath. 24. Neurolransmil/ers: a.• are usually stored in vesicles in the soma (cell body) awaiting release into the synapse. b. .typically have an inhibitory effect when they bind to receptors on pther neurons. c. are released into the synapse when a graded potential reaches the terminals. ',. d. may be deactivated by being reabsorbed into the presynaptic neuron (by reuptake). 25. The part of the nervous system that collects information about the body such as temperature, pressure and pain is the: a. parasympathetic branch of the somatic nervous system. b. sensory branch of the somatic nervous system. c. sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. d. limbic branch of the central nervous system. 40f6 Ex.mIB. FlO PsyIOIC/F 26. Which brain area is CORRECTLY identified as performing the indicated functions while you are reading these questions and marking your answers a. prefrontal cortex - keeping you alert and involved as you work b. reticular formation - keeping good postural control as you sit in the chair c. thalamus - filtering, highlighting, directing attention to sensory information d. cerebellum - reasoning and remembering as you chose an answer 27. Ifan individual carries 2 different allele values ofa specific gene that individual is with regard to that gene. a. dizygotic b. recessive c. heterozygous d. polygenic 28. Which individual is LEAST likely to have language structures in the right cerebral hemisphere a. a right-handed male b. a left-handed female e. a blind person who reads Braille d. a person who reads Chinese characters 29. Compared to dreams in stage 5 sleep, dreams in stage 2-4 sleep are: a. less likely to be remembered. b. more likely to awaken the dreamer from sleep. e. more likely to occur during the later part of the night, just before morning. d. more vivid, emotional and detailed and last longer. 30. A researcher from the biological perspective, would be most interested in testing the theory that dreams: a. are windows into the unconscious mind. b. and REM are key to the storage of long-term memories. e. have meaningful latent and manifest content. d. are a random artifact of brain activity while sleeping. 31. Which paring of sleep disorder with symptom is CORRECT " sleep apnea - irresistible REM sleep attacks during waking b.'narcolepsy - repeated awakepLng from terrifying dreams -s...insomnia:... repeated awakening and difficulty resuming asleep d. night terrors - suffocation causing repeated awakening in order to breathe 32~Which is TRUE of hypnosis ~ The capacity to enter a deep hypnotic state is called post-hypnotic suggestion. @ Research supports the effectiveness and biological substrate of hypnosis for pain reduction. '" Hypnosis increases both the number of details and the accuracy of memory. d. The dissociative theory conceptualizes hypnosis as an intense state of role-playing. 33. Signal Detection Theory: """,. '" f 'i1l:>"",15"Cjil. a. asserts the most important variable influencing perception is the strength of the distal stimulus. b. assumes that a person's motivation will play little role in the detection of a supraliminal stimulus. (Q assumes that if reward for a correct rejection is high, the rate of correct yes's (hits) will also be high. d. is the study of factors influencing sensory judgments with broader ramifications for perception 50f6 ExamlB, FlO Psy lOlC/F 34. Jonathan is a freshman in college, and due to various activities, commitments, etc., he sleeps only about Jour hours every night whereas in high school !le-sloflt llbottl-6i.ght.hQursevery nig_ht. Due to chroni~ short-sJee'P Jonathan willlikcly do all of the following EXCEPT: a. experience a buildup of ccll waste products and resulting problems with alertness. b. have impaired memory formation and decision-making. c. experience irritability, dcpressed mood, and inattentiveness. d. over-estimate his own impairment due to lack of sleep. 35. When elements that would make a figure appear complete are perceived as being part of the figure (even though the clements are not present) the Gestalt grouping principle of is active. - - - - - - - - a. proximity b. closure c. similarity d. continuity 36. processing occurs when individual stimulus units are assembled into wholes by the nervous system, while processing takes place when stimuli are interpreted relative to pre-existing expectations and knowledge. a. Bottom-up; sensory b. Top-down; bottom-up c. Bottom-up; top-down - d. Top-down; perceptual 37. The tendency for our perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations (e.g., size, shape and color) is called: a. bottom-up-processing. b. object constancy. c. constancy of the distal stimulus. d. the figure-ground principal. 3S. The rat-man and young/old women visual illusions are examples of: a. perceptual set. b."bottom-up-processing. c. constancy of the proximal stimulus. d. perceptual adaptation. '-;.,0--- " . 39. Which theory of consciousness is CORRE CTLY matched with its attribute . a. original psychodynamic - unconscious consists of material is that out of immediate awareness but is easily accessed ~. biological - consciousness arises from executive function integrating output from brain modules C\. modem psychodynamic - consciousness arises from the 2 parallel processes of emotion and motivation d. cognitive - the unconscious is benign and easily accessible through normal memory processes 40. Sleep stages 2-4 are characterized by , while stage 5 is characterized by _ a. low amplitude, low frequency brain waves; high amplitude, high frequency brain waves. b. rapid eye movements; no cye movements. c. restoring energy; expending energy. d. active mind; quiet mind. 60f6