7077. Convergence parameter Find the values of the parameter p 7 0 for which the following series converge. a _ k = 2 a ln k k b p
Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide, Chapters 8, 9, and 11. Chapter 8: Memory: The persistent learning over time through storage and retrieval of information and skills. Three measures of retention: Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, such as Fill in the blanks. Recognition: Multiple choice sort of questions. Relearning: how much less work to relearn something a second time. encoding: the processing of information into the memory system. Storage: the info is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved. Retrieval: reactivating and recalling information, producing in a form similar to what was encoded. sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system. short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten. Often stored by rehearsal or repetition. Includes our executive functions, such as toning out distractions, and our visiospatial sketchpad. long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. Is stored for later retrieval. Working memory: the part of consciousness we can’t turn off. Our present awareness. explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory.) implicit memory: retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.) effortful processing: encoding that requires attention and conscious effort. automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information, Procedural memory: automatic learned skills, such as how to ride a bike. Info on space: knowing where things are when not seeing them at the present time. Info on time: Knowing when something happened in the past. Info on frequency: observing the repetition of something: “everyone is texting” Capacity of short term memory: 7+/-2 About 12 seconds. iconic memory: a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second. echoic memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices. Hierarchies: composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts. spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long- term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice. Cramming for an exam is not helpful. Take shorter amounts of study time more often! testing effect: enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. shallow processing: encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words. Deep/semantic processing: we are more likely to retain information by focusing on the meaning and definition, not just how it appears or how it rhymes. We are more likely to retain information if we make it meaningful to us in some way. Self-reference effect. The brain has overlapping neural networks. There is an unlimited amount of storage, the brain gets more elaborately rewired as we learn more information. Memory is not only found in one section of the brain; it is stored in different areas. Encoding and storage of explicit memories happens in the hippocampus. Retrieval and use of explicit memories is directed by our frontal lobes. hippocampus: a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage. flashbulb memory: a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event. priming: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception, memory, or response. “invisible memory” mood-congruent memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood. State-dependent memory: We recall information better if we are in the same state as we were when we learned it. “Learn Drunk, remember drunk” Chapter 9: cognition: all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. concept: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, and people. prototype: a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories. (ex: a four legged chair) Problem Solving methods: Trial and error: trying different things over and over until something finally works. Thomas Edison tried thousands of light bulb filaments before stumbling upon one that worked. algorithm: a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. heuristic: a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. insight: a sudden realization of a problem’s solution confirmation bias: a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence. mental set: a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past intuition: an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought. availability heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common. overconfidence: the tendency to be more confident than correct belief perseverance: clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited framing: the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments creativity: the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas. convergent thinking: narrows the available problem solutions to determine the divergent thinking: expands the number of possible problem solutions single best solution. Robert Sternberg and his colleagues believe creativity has five components: Expertise: A well-developed base of knowledge Imaginative thinking and skills. A venturesome personality. intrinsic motivation: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake. A creative environment. language: our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning. phoneme: in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit. morpheme: in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) grammar: in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. babbling stage: beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language one-word stage: the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words. two-word stage: beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in two-word statements. telegraphic speech: early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram —”go car”—using mostly nouns and verbs. aphasia: impairment of language, usually caused by left-hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding) Broca’s area: controls language expression— an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech. Wernicke’s area: controls language reception—a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe In processing language, as in other forms of information processing, the brain operates by dividing its mental functions–speaking, perceiving, thinking, remembering–into subfunctions. linguistic determinism: Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think. intelligence: mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations. general intelligence: (g) a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. savant syndrome: a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. Robert Sternberg developed a series of three intelligences: Analytical: (school smarts; traditional academic problem solving) Creative: (the ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas) Practical: (street smarts; skill at handling everyday tasks, which may be ill defined, with multiple solutions) emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions. aptitude test: a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn achievement test: a test designed to assess what a person has learned. mental age: a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as an average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8. Stanford-Binet: the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test. intelligence quotient (IQ): defined originally as the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100 . Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale : the WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests. standardization: defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group. normal curve: (normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the middle and fewer and fewer near the extremes. reliability: the extent to which a test yields consistent results validity: the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to. content validity: the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest. predictive validity: the success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age. fluid intelligence: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood. intellectual disability: a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life. Down syndrome: a condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. stereotype threat: a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Chapter 11: Stress stress: the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging. Stress reaction: any emotional and physical reaction to the stressors. There are three main types of stressors: Catastrophes: natural disasters, war, famine, etc. Significant life changes: marriage, college, moving, etc. Daily hassles: living in poverty, being bullied, etc. A brief experience of stress can improve the immune system, motivate us to action, and provide a challenge to help growth. A prolonged experience of stress can cause immune weakening to the point to sickness, and mental and physical issues. general adaptation syndrome (GAS): Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases—alarm, resistance, exhaustion. Alarm: Fight or flight response: increased heart rate, adrenalin and respiration. Resistance: Cortisol is produced (the primary stress hormone.) You are fully engaged, summoning all your resources to meet the challenge. Exhaustion: With exhaustion and no let up from stress, you become more vulnerable to illness or death. Women tend to be more open about stress, and tend to bond and become more empathetic when they are stressed. tend and befriend: under stress, people often provide support to others (tend) and bond with and seek support from others (befriend). Men tend to socially withdraw, use alcohol, and act aggressively and less empathetically when they are stressed. health psychology: a subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine. Those involved in health psychology are curious in seeing how stress affects us emotionally and health wise. psychoneuroimmunology: the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health. Surgical wounds heal more slowly in stressed people. Stressed people are more vulnerable to colds. The stress response suppresses the immune system and worsens the chances of getting AIDS. It may also weaken the body’s resistance to cancer. People who are depressed/stressed are more likely to get heart disease. coronary heart disease: the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many countries. Type A: competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people. Type A people tend to have more heart attacks and be more stressed out. Type B: easygoing, relaxed people. People who are pessimistic tend to get heart disease more. coping: alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods problem-focused coping: attempting to alleviate stress directly—by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor. emotion-focused coping: attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one’s stress reaction. learned helplessness: the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. external locus of control: the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. internal locus of control: the perception that you control your own fate. Excessive pessimism can lead to depression, and excessive optimism can lead to narcissism. aerobic exercise: sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety. aerobic exercise: sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety. Lifestyle modification: To slow down life’s pace, accept imperfections, and renew faith. Many studies have shown that religiously active people tend to live longer and have a more healthy lifestyle than non-religious active people. feel-good, do-good phenomenon: people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood. positive psychology: the scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive. subjective well-being: self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. adaptation-level phenomenon: our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience. relative deprivation: the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself. Money can make people happier only when they are lifted out of extreme poverty. Happy people tend to rate their self-esteem higher, have good social support of friends and family, be optimistic, participate in a job or hobby that they enjoy, participate in religious activity, and get enough sleep and exercise.