5964. Derivatives Consider the following parametric curves. a. Determine dy>dx in terms of t and evaluate it at the given value of t. b. Make a sketch of the curve showing the tangent line at the point corresponding to the given value of t. x = cos t, y = 8 sin t; t = p>2 6
Psychology Exam #3 Study Guide- Professor Cate’s Class Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Idea Highlight = Key Term CHAPTER 7: LEARNING Topics in this Chapter: Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Biological and cognitive components of learning Observational learning Learning: the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring info or behaviors. How does learning happen other than through language/words We learn from experience: When we learn to predict events we already like or don’t like by noticing other events or sensations that happen first. When our actions have consequences. When we watch what other people do. We learn by association: When two stimuli (events or sensations) tend to occur together or in sequence. When actions become associated with pleasant or aversive results. When two pieces of info are linked. Associative and Cognitive Learning Classical conditioning: learning to link two stimuli in a way that helps us anticipate an event to which we have a reaction. Operant conditioning: changing behavior choices in response to consequences. Cognitive learning: acquiring new behaviors and info through observation and information, rather than by direct experience. Operant and Classical Conditioning are different forms of Associative Learning Classical conditioning: involves respondent behavior, reflexive, automatic reactions such as fear or craving. These reactions to unconditioned stimuli (US) become associated with neutral (then conditioned) stimuli. The experimental (neutral) stimulus repeatedly precedes the respondent behavior, and eventually triggers that behavior. Sign Tracking: want to hang out with the things you like (ex: when you’re bored, you would immediately go to the fridge to search for food.) Operant conditioning: involves operant behavior, chosen behaviors which “operate” on the environment. These behaviors become associated with consequences which punish (decrease) or reinforce (increase) the operant behavior. The experimental (consequence) stimulus repeatedly follows the operant behavior, and eventually punishes or reinforces that behavior. Cognitive Learning Cognitive learning refers to acquiring new behaviors and info mentally, rather than by direct experience. This occurs by: observing events and the behavior of others. using language to acquire info about events experienced by others. Ivan Pavlov’s Discovery While studying salivation in dogs, Ivan Pavlov found that salivation from eating food was eventually triggered by what should have been neutral stimuli such as: Just seeing the food Seeing the dish Seeing the person who brought the food Just hearing that person’s footsteps Before conditioning: Neutral Stimulus (NS): a stimulus which doesn’t trigger a response (ex: NS-a bell) Unconditioned stimulus (US) and response (UR): a stimulus which triggers a response naturally, before/without any conditioning (ex: US- delicious dog food UR- dog salivates) During conditioning: The bell/tone (NS) is repeatedly presented with the food (US) (ex: bell+ food= dog salivates) After conditioning: The dog begins to salivate upon hearing the tone (neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus). (ex: Conditioned (formerly neutral) stimulus Conditioned response: dog salivates) Conclusion: The UR and the CR are the same response, triggered by different events. The difference whether conditioning was necessary for the response to happen. Conclusion: The NS and the CS are the same stimulus. The difference is whether the stimulus triggers the conditioned response. Ivan Pavlov’s Legacy: Insights about conditioning in general: It occurs in all creatures. It is related to biological drives and responses. Insights about science: Learning can be studied objectively, by quantifying actions and isolating elements of behavior. Insights from specific applications: Substance abuse involves conditioned triggers, and these triggers (certain places, events) can be avoided or associated with new responses. John B. Watson and Classical Conditioning: Playing with Fear 9 month old Little Albert was not afraid of rats. John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was presented to Albert. Albert acquired a fear of rats, and generalized this fear to other soft and furry things. Watson Prided himself in his ability to shape people’s emotions. He later went into advertising. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning involves adjusting to the consequences of our behaviors. Examples: We may smile more at work after this repeatedly gets us bigger tips. We learn how to ride a bike suing the strategies that don’t make us crash. How it works: An act of chosen behavior (a “response”) is followed by a reward or punitive feedback from the environment. Results: Reinforced: behavior is more likely to be tried again. Punished: behavior is less likely to be chosen in the future. Response: balancing a ball Consequence: receiving food Behavior is strengthened Thorndike’s Law of Effect Edward Thorndike- Thorndike’s law of effect: behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. B.F. Skinner: Behavioral Control B.F. Skinner: Skinner envisioned societies where desired behaviors were deliberately shaped with reinforcement. How can we more carefully measure the effect of consequences on chose behavior What else can creatures be taught to do by controlling consequences What happens when we change the timing of reinforcement Reinforcement: Reinforcement: feedback from the environment that makes a behavior more likely to be done again. Positive + reinforcement: the reward is ADDING something desirable. Negative – reinforcement: the reward ENDING something unpleasant. Shaping Behavior: Shaping: guiding a creature toward the behavior by reward behavior that comes closer and closer to the desired behavior. Example: Seal is rewarded with fish whenever it balances a ball on their nose for a long time. Operant Effect: Punishment Punishments have the opposite effects of reinforcement. These consequences make the target behavior less likely to occur in the future. Positive + punishment: You ADD something unpleasant/aversive (ex: spank the child) Negative – punishment: You TAKE AWAY something pleasant/desired (ex: no TV) When is punishment effective Works best in natural settings when we encounter punishing consequences from actions (ex: reaching into fire). Operant conditioning helps us to avoid dangers. Less effective when we try to artificially create punishing consequences for other’s choices Severity of punishments is not as helpful as making the punishments immediate (signs showing your speed) and certain. Summary: Types of Consequences Adding stimuli Subtract stimuli Outcome Positive + Negative – Strengthens target Reinforcement Reinforcement behavior (You get candy) (I stop yelling) (You do chores) Positive + Negative – Reduces target Punishment Punishment behavior (You get spanked) (No cell phone) (cursing) CHAPTER 10: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behaviors and directs it towards a goal. Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory Evolutionary Perspective Drive-Reduction Theory Arousal (Optimization) Theory Hierarchy of Needs/Motives Different ways of thinking and the way motivation works relate to “push” of biological processes and the “pull of culture, social forces, and ideals. Do instincts direct human behavior Instinct: a fixed (rigid and predictable) pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body. (ex: nesting behavior) Drive Reduction: A drive is an aroused/tense state related to a physical need such as hunger or thirst. Drive-reduction theory refers to the idea that humans are motivated to reduce these drives, such as eating to reduce the feeling of hunger. This restores homeostasis, a steady internal state. Need (food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst) Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Seeking Optimum Arousal: Curiosity, as with kids and these monkeys, may seek stimulation to reach an optimum arousal level. Curiosity can be a basic need or drive to get to know one’s environment to improve the chances of survival. A hunger for stimulation, novelty… Performance and Arousal Level: What happen when we succeed at raising our arousal levels Yerkes-Dodson Law: Arousal levels can help performance but too much arousal can interfere with performance. (ex: taking the exam-moderate arousal is best) The effect of arousal on performance depend on how comfortable we are with the task. Hierarchy of Needs/Motives: Abraham Maslow proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied; then, they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on this hierarchy. Another Motivation: “To Belong” What do people need besides food and sex Aristotle: social life Alfred Adler: community Wretched means to ‘be without kin nearby’ Roy Baumeister, Mark Leary, and Abraham Maslow say we need: “TO BELONG” Belonging: being connected to others, part of a group or family or community. Why do we need to belong Evolutionary psychology perspective: seeking bonds with other aids survival in many ways. Keeping children close to caregivers Mutual protection in a group Cooperation in hunting and sharing food Division of labor to allow growing food Emotional support to get through crises Balancing Bonding with Other Needs: The need to bond with others is so strong that we can feel lost without close relationships. However, we also seem to need autonomy and a sense of personal competence/efficacy. There is a tension between “me” and “us”, but these goals can work together. belonging builds self-esteem, and prepares us for confident autonomy. Need to Belong Leads to: Loyal to friends, teams, groups, and families. However, the need to belong also leads to: Changing our appearance to win acceptance. Staying in abusive relationships. undermine our autonomy and our sense of self- efficacy/competence. (less likely to leave an abusive relationship) Joining gangs, nationalist groups, and violent organizations. Social Networking = Social connection Do updates and tweets build connection Use of social networking can become a compulsion, sacrificing face-to-face interaction and in-depth conversation. Research shows: Portrayal of one’s self online is often close to one’s actual sense of self. Research shows: Online social networking is associated with Narcissism/self-centeredness Less connection to neighbors More connection to people who share our narrow interests and viewpoints. Motivation to excel in work: Achievement motivation, a desire for: Accomplishment of goals Mastery of skills Meeting of standards, control of resources What helps us satisfy our achievement motivation Discipline: Sticking to task despite distractions 10-year rule: Having enough experience to develop expertise in a field Grit: passionate persistence at a goal Hardiness: resilience under stress Introduction to Emotion Physiological Arousal: Comes before emotion (James-Lange theory) Comes with emotion (Cannon-Bard theory) Becomes an emotion when cognitive appraisal/label is added (Schacter-Singer two-factor theory) Emotions and the brain: sometimes cognition is bypassed in emotional reactions Emotions and the body: The Autonomic Nervous system Emotions with different brain and body response patterns Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition Someone cuts you off on the road. You may feel the emotion of anger. Emotions are a mix of: Expressive behavior: yelling, accelerating Bodily arousal: sweat, bounding heart Conscious experience: (thoughts, especially the labeling of the emotion) “What a bad driver! “I am angry, even scared” “better calm down.” An emotion is a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation. Emotion and mood is not the same thing. Mood is NOT a response to a situation, and an attitude, which is a predisposition to act in a certain way in a situation. Differentiates an emotion from one’s affect, which are the outwardly expressive signs, especially facial expression and other nonverbal behaviors, that seems to be related to emotions. Is Experienced Emotion as Universal as Expressed Emotion Carroll Izzard suggested that there are ten basic emotions: those evident at birth plus contempt, shame, and guilt. Joy (mouth forming smile, cheeks lifted, twinkle in eye) Anger (brows drawn together and downward, eyes fixed, mouth squarish) Interest (brows raised or knitted, mouth softly rounded, lips may be pursed) Disgust (nose wrinkled, upper lip raised, tongue pushed outwards) Surprise (brows raised, eye widened, mouth rounded in oval shape) Sadness (brow’s inner corner raised, mouth corners drawn down) Fear (brows level, drawn in and up, eyelids lifted, mouth corners retracted) Embodied Emotion: The role of the autonomic nervous system The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system (arousing), which triggers activity and changes in various organs. Later, the parasympathetic division (calming) calms down the body. Embodied Emotion: How Do Emotions Differ in Body Signs It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing and perspiration. There is also a large overlap in the patterns of brain activity across emotions. There are some small differences; for example, fear triggers more amygdala activity than anger. A general brain pattern: hemispheric difference Positive “approach” emotions (joy, love, goal-seeking) correlate with left frontal lobe activity (good for analyzing details). Negative “withdrawal” emotions (disgust, fear, anger, depression) correlate with right hemisphere activity (good for understanding the big picture). Expressed and Experienced Emotion: Detecting emotions in others Gender, emotion, nonverbal behavior Culture and expressed emotions Using context to read emotions Are there universally recognized emotion Do facial expressions affect feelings Detecting Emotions in Others People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes (“the window to the soul”) and the faces. Introverts are better at detecting emotions; extroverts have emotions that are easier to read. We are primed to quickly detect negative emotion words. Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry. Detecting Lies and Fakes: Polygraph (detecting physiological arousal) fail sometimes at correctly identifying when people are lying. Visible signs of lying: eye blinks decrease, and other facial movements change. Gender and Emotional Expression and Detection: Women seem to have greater and more complex emotional expression. Women are also more skilled at detecting emotions in others. People tend to attribute women’s emotionality to their dispositions, and attribute men’s emotions to their circumstances. Culture and Emotional Expression: Are There Universally Recognized Emotions There seem to be some universally understood facial expressions. People of various cultures agree on the emotional labels for the expressions on the face. People in other studies did have ore accuracy judging emotions from their own culture. Emotion Detection and Context Cues: Faces are exactly the same but the emotion changes based on context: the situation, gestures, and the tears. Linking Emotions and Expressive Behaviors: Facial Feedback: The facial feedback effect: facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel. Examples: In one study, people whose faces were moved into smiling or frowning positions experienced a change in mood. Extending a middle finger or thumb while reading led to seeing characters with hostility or positive attitude.