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Solved: 45. Intersecting planes Find an equation of the

Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780321947345 | Authors: William L. Briggs ISBN: 9780321947345 167

Solution for problem 4 Chapter 12

Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition

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Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9780321947345 | Authors: William L. Briggs

Calculus: Early Transcendentals | 2nd Edition

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Problem 4

45. Intersecting planes Find an equation of the line of intersection of the planes Q and R. Q: 2x + y - z = 0, R: -x + y + z = 1

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Lecture Notes: 1/19/16 What is an organization ­ Making order out of chaos in a sense What is a frame ­ A mental model. ­ A set of assumptions, knowledge or background info we bring to a situation ­ Many time it is an unconscious prospect. We do it without even realizing it. Why is framing important to managing organizations ­ Using the idea of framing to effectively manage different people in different ways within an organization. ­ Developing an awareness and understanding of different ways of doing things and bein able to apply them to different situations. ­ People see things from different points of view. Basic Structural Tensions ­ Differentiation ­ Identifying roles/tasks/jobs ­ Creating sub­units by grouping jobs together ­ Integration ­ Coordinating and controlling differentiated jobs/units ­ Vertical coordination (More formal) ­ Typically associated with hierarchies, authority, rules/policies, and control ­ Lateral coordination (Less formal) ­ Typically associated with meetings, ad hoc groups, and matrix or network structures. Mintzberg’s Five­Sector “Logo” Model ­ Operating Core ­ Product Level Workers ­ Administrative Component (a.k.a. “Middle line”) ­ Middle managers ­ Strategic Apex ­ Top­level management ­ Technostructure ­ Standardization and measurement (information and financial systems) Support Staff ­ Perform necessary support tasks (custodial, scheduling, internal/external communication) Structural Configurations ­ Simple Structure ­ Only two levels ­ Strategic Apex ­ Operating Core ­ Types of organizations ­ Small, narrow focus ­ Start­ups ­ Machine Bureaucracy ­ The “classic” ­ All components evident and important ­ Types of organizations ­ Large ­ Narrow product line or rely heavily of routinization ­ Professional Bureaucracy ­ Large technostructure ­ “Experts” in the operating core exert a great deal of control in and over their areas of the organizations. ­ Types of organizations ­ Universities ­ Hospitals ­ Law firms ­ Divisionalized form ­ Structures within Structures ­ Divisions operate as mini­organizations within the larger framework ­ Types of organizations ­ Multi­industry or highly diversified corporations Adhocracy ­ Characterized by a lack of formal structure ­ Low differentiation, high integration ­ Types of organizations ­ Generally smaller ­ “Creative” industries (music, advertising, consulting) Structural Dilemmas ­ Differentiation vs. Integration ­ Gap vs. Overlap ­ Underuse vs .Overload ­ Lack of Clarity vs. Lack of Creativity Lecture Notes: 1/26/16 Assumptions 1. Organizations exist to serve human needs rather than the converse 2. People and organizations need each other  Organizations need ideas, energy, and talent  People need careers, salaries, and opportunities ­ Compare to:  Structural ­­ Organizations increase efficiency and enhance performance through specialization an appropriate division of labor. ­­ Suitable forms of coordination and control ensure that diverse efforts of individuals and units mesh. ­ When the fit between individual and system is poor, one or both suffer ­­ Individuals are exploited or exploit the organization – or both become victims ­ Compare to:  Structural ­­ Troubles arise and performance suffers from structural deficits, remedied thorough problem solving and restructuring. ­ A good fit benefits both ­­ Individuals find meaningful and satisfying work ­­ Organizations get the talent and energy they need to succeed ­ Compare to:  Structural ­­ Organizations work best when rationality prevails over personal agendas and extraneous pressures ­­ Effective structures fit organizations current circumstances (including its goals, technology, workforce, and environment) Theories of Motivation  Two Questions 1. What motivates people 2. How can managers motivate employee  Two­Factor Theory (Herzberg)  Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow)  Theory X and Theory Y (McGregor)  Person­structure conflict (Argyris) Herzberg’s Two­Factor Theory  Motivation is influenced by two sets of factors 1. Motivators (linked to “satisfaction”) ­ Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and pay ­ Managers should strive to increase satisfaction 2. Hygiene factors (linked to “dissatisfaction”) ­ Company policies, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, pay. ­ Managers should strive to decrease dissatisfaction Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Physiological >> Safety >> Love/Belonging >> Esteem >> Self­Actualization McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  Theory X ­ Assumptions about people ­­ Passive and lazy ­­ No ambition ­­ Prefer to be led ­­ Resistant to change ­ Motivational tools ­­ “Hard” approach: coercion, tight controls, threats, and punishments ­­ “Soft” approach: conflict avoidance, appeasement  Theory Y ­ Assumptions about people ­­ They have needs (see Maslow) ­­ These needs are sometimes aligned and sometimes conflicted with organizational goals. ­ Motivational tools ­­ Identifying and prioritizing individual needs ­­ Creating jobs that fulfill individual needs ­­ Aligning individual needs with organizational interests Lecture Notes: 1/28/16 Person­Structure Conflict (Argyris)  Employee “solution to inhibiting structures ­ Physical withdrawal (not showing up or quit altogether) ­ Psychological withdrawal (not caring about their work ­ Sabotage (intentionally doing a bad job ­ Ascension (try to get promoted to a better job) ­ Alliance formation (unionization) Lecture Notes: 2/11/2016 The Symbolic Frame: ­ Organizations as Templates (or Circuses) and the Power of Symbolic Action Symbolic Frame Assumptions  What is most important is not what happens, but what it means  Activity and meaning are loosely occupied  People create symbols to reduce uncertainty and confusion  What an event/process expresses is more important than what is produced  Culture (as opposed to structure, motivation, or conflict) forms the superglue that bonds an organization. Types of Symbols  Myths/vision/values  Heroes/Heroines  Stories and fairy tales  Rituals  Ceremonies  Metaphor/humor/play Myths, Values, and Visions  Myths ­ Typically about the origins of an organization ­ Not factual histories or even fully developed narratives ­ Often convey some sort of lesson or communicate values  Values ­ Ideas/qualities that the organization stands for  Vision ­ Builds on values to shape an organizations image of the future ­ What will the organization become Heroes and Heroines  People as symbols  Embody organizational values ­ Can be the central figures in organizational myths  Heroes/heroines re often leaders, but don’t have to be  They are exemplars whose example can provide direction I time of uncertainty ­ What would do Stories and Fairly Tales  Narratives that are usually used to convey organizational myths and values  Often used in conjunction with other types of symbols ­ Stories communicate myths/values ­ Stories are often about heroes/heroines ­ Telling stories is often central to organizational rituals/ceremonies Rituals  Repetitive (even mundane) actions that have some sort of deeper meaning ­ Occur relatively frequently – daily, weekly, monthly  Engaging in rituals helps provide structure, stability, and predictability to an organization Ceremonies  Rites and celebrations that are convened regularly or for special occasions  Occur less frequently than rituals and are more elaborate ­ Can often be comprised of several distinct rituals and symbols  Done well, ceremonies can be very powerful symbols to those within the organization well as to external stakeholders Metaphor, Humor, and Play  Informal methods of communicating ideas, lessons, and values  Metaphor ­ The organization is an ……  Humor/Play ­ Signifies a willingness to accept small failures in exchange for creative ideas ­ Puts things in perspective (i.e. reduce stress) ­ reduces hierarchical differences/barriers Lecture Notes 3/1/16 Analytically Speaking  Key Questions to consider: ­ How did the organization define the problem (informed by research) ­ How could have the organization defined the problem (analytical insight) ­ Did the organization define the problem well or appropriately (evaluation) ­ What would change if the problem was redefined (recommendation) What Is a Problem “An undesirable situation that is significant to and may be solvable by some agent, although probably with difficulty” 1. A gap between preferences and reality 2. The importance of remedying the gap 3. The expected difficulty of doing so A problem is rooted in reality, but is inherently subjective ­ Decision­makers will define problems in different ways Significance of Problem Definitions  Type I Error – solving a problem that wasn’t really a problem  Type II Error – not recognizing that there is a problem  Type III Error – solving the wrong problem ­ Problem definitions defend against Type III Error Types of Problem Definitions  Gap Specification ­ The U.S. won fewer medals than the U.S.S.R. in 1972  Difficulties and Constraints ­ Coaches/team managers didn’t understand Olympic rules  Ultimate Values and Preferences ­ The U.S. cannot be seen as weaker than the Soviet Union on any front  Goal State Specification ­ The U.S. team needs to win more medals that the U.S.S.R. (or any Eastern bloc nation)  Means and Strategies ­ We need to legislate an organizational framework for U.S. amateur sport  Casual diagnosis (associated with attribution) ­ The underlying problem is a lack of organizational coherence/coordination  Knowledge specification ­ The Soviet team receives governmental support ­ U.S. amateur sport is governed by several organizations (USOC, NCAA, AAU, etc.) ­ We believe that sport should not be directly supported by the government.  Perspective setting (associated with framing) ­ We need to beat the Soviets in international sport but avoid adopting their methods

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Chapter 12, Problem 4 is Solved
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Textbook: Calculus: Early Transcendentals
Edition: 2
Author: William L. Briggs
ISBN: 9780321947345

Calculus: Early Transcendentals was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780321947345. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Calculus: Early Transcendentals, edition: 2. Since the solution to 4 from 12 chapter was answered, more than 233 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “45. Intersecting planes Find an equation of the line of intersection of the planes Q and R. Q: 2x + y - z = 0, R: -x + y + z = 1” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 33 words. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 128 chapters, and 9720 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 4 from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Calculus solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:24PM.

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