Explain how to compute the divergence of the vector field F = 8 f, g, h9.
Notes from March 28 & 30 Sport for International Relations Lecture Notes from Monday, March 28 SPTE 201 with Dr. Heere 1. 1945-1990s communism v. capitalism a. ex. Forrest Gump – “ping pong diplomacy” b. used playing ping pong in China to begin diplomatic relations 2. Why did the Chinese want to host the ping pong championships a. Distracted from famine (used as propaganda) b. National sport of China c. National success/victory/pride d. Eventually helped end the Cold War 3. South Africa – “apartheid” a. All the resources go to the white citizens and the other races suffer b. Ended by Nelson Mandela c. One of the last segregated countries 4. Korea/Japan cohost 2002 World Cup a. Rocky history i. In 1910, Japan invaded Korea ii. Stayed and occupied until 1940 b. Korean success in the tournament semifinal loss i. Increased morale and nationalism ii. More liberal VISAS = more international travel = less hostility/stereotypes iii. “The Korean Wave” iv. Overall improved relationship between Japan and Korea 5. Olympics a. Everyone watches their own nation b. Only knows their native athletes c. Only watch the sports in which their nation excels 6. Problematic use of sport a. Soccer War (El Salvador v. Honduras) i. Used the final game of the series between teams as a distractions to bomb the country b. Germany v. Holland (soccer) c. Serbian army- recruited soccer fans/players and used them for violence 7. Applications for sports diplomacy a. Unofficial reason/location for world leaders to meet and talk b. Shows the world the host country’s culture, can be used to educate c. Bridge cultural differences to find common ground i. Ex. Obama goes to Cuba for baseball game d. Create a platform for legislation/trade agreements e. Create awareness of international relationships through sports ambassadors i. Ex. Yao Ming (China) f. Create a legacy for the host country, improving international image 8. Conclusions about international relations created by sport a. Sport alone does not have the power to improve international relations i. Can be used as a vehicle to get the discussion going however ii. Grabs attention and is popular to make a population notice a need for change iii. Helps find people that are “like us” – find similarities with people abroad Sport for Economic Development Lecture Notes from Wednesday, March 30 SPTE 201 with Dr. Heere 1. Mega sport events are not good for economic development (ex. Olympics/World Cup) a. Only offer modest employment gains b. Tourism is temporary and can be replaced with another industry c. Facilities used for these events are often useless afterwards (too large) d. Having deadlines for construction often increase the overall price e. South Africa World Cup 2010 i. Interviewed small business owners 1. Didn’t profit from the events/new industry 2. Sponsors buy all inventory/branding rights a. i.e. “World Cup” can only be used by Nike 3. other cultural events (art, music, etc.) present better opportunities for profit 2. Building new sports stadiums are not necessarily good for economic development. a. Create seasonal jobs = low return on employment (minimum wages) b. Revenues are made by non-local companies (larger franchises rather than local businesses) c. If the team is unsuccessful, it will stay empty (no one likes a losing team) d. Sports teams increase a sense of community/togetherness e. New infrastructure can create a more attractive work environment i. Englewood, CA (LA Rams new stadium) 3. The greatest return on sports events comes from participation-based events a. Participants are more willing to travel than spectators (who can watch on TV) b. Participants spend more $ at the event and in the surrounding city (hotel, restaurant, shopping) c. Participants stay on-site at the event longer (come earlier, stay later) d. Participants represent a more desirable demographic i. Can afford to spend money (on the event and surrounding area) e. Participation-based events = cheaper to host than elite sport events i. Ex. Marathon v. Super Bowl