Find the solution u(r, ) of Laplaces equationurr + (1/r)ur + (1/r2)u = 0outside the circle r = a, that satisfies the boundary conditionu(a, ) = f(), 0 < 2,on the circle. Assume that u(r, ) is single-valued and bounded for r > a.
Industrial Notes 01/08/2016 ▯ Notes 1/08/16 Smart goal o S: Specific o M: Measurable o A: Attainable o R: Relevant o T: time bound ▯ Try and get notes from 1/11/16 4 primary goals of industrial psychology o describe o explain o predict o control Talked about what industrial psychology is Focused on prediction, who can preform behaviors ▯ Notes 1/13/16 Evidence-Based I-O Psychology o I-O psychologists have become increasingly focused on making evidence-based decisions in their work in organizations o This includes using a decision-making process that combines critical thinking with use of best available scientific evidence o I-O psychologists are well positioned to develop and utilize evidence-based practices as they have adopted the scientist- practitioner model to guide the field o Making sense of data and evidence is very important and how you put these things together to make an informed decision Your gut/intuition is a very poor predictor of success How This Course Can Help youst o Knowledge about 21 century workplace Course will address issues such as selection, performance evaluation, and training Exercise o How can the jobless be brought back into the workforce How effective are welfare-to-work programs which require work in return for government subsidies What can be done to increase the probability of today’s welfare recipient becoming tomorrow’s full-time employee Does paying welfare recipients less than minimum wage increase or decrease the likelihood of moving from welfare to full-time work o (Higher sense of well being benefits society as a whole) o Plan: For people who do want to work, need to influence the government to implement but organizations need to comply and be open to placing these persons in positions in things such as the welfare-to-work programs. To increase the probability of today’s welfare becoming tomorrow’s full time employee its important to motivate people to want to be better ▯ Notes 1.15.16 Module 1.2: The Past, present, and future of I-O psychology o The past- Important Dates/Events in I-O Psych o The present- Demographics and Career Paths o Future Challenges to I-O Psychology Brief History of I-O Psychology o 1876-1930 Huge Munsterburg, James McKeen Cattell, Walter Dill Scott & Walter Van Dyke Bingham( really trying to focus on access qualities of people that would cause them to be strong performers in the workplace) World War 1: Army Alpha(literate) and Army Beta(illiterate) Tests, Wanted Smartest People to be the officers, in charge of others, not on the front lines, but we didn’t know how to do this at this time. We needed a systematic way to test large groups of people in order to place them into jobs, duties, positions, etc. 1917-First Ph.D. In I-O awarded to Lillian Gilbreth Research in time and motion study Human Engineering 1930-1964 Hawthorne Studies(trying to alter the environment to make it better for people to perform. What ended up causing productivity was that the people knew they were being watched whether the light got better or worse. Increases the desire to do better when being observed), Human Relations(we have this opportunity to influence peoples behaviors in the Human Relations Movement below) Human Relations movement Theories of motivation Emotional world of the worker Studies of job satisfaction WWII Back to the idea that we have to accurately asses people and place them in the right position. We started to find interesting trends that we had very waspish organizations, especially in the upper levels. White, male, Anglo-Saxon. The selection practices weren’t being fair, however. Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title 7- you cannot discriminate against people of color, religion, etc. Title VII Specified demographic groups to be protected from employment discrimination Groups name in 1964 o Race o Color o Gender o National Origin o Religion 2 additional protected groups added later o ADEA (age) persons 40 and older 1967 o ADA (disability) 1990 ▯ Notes 1/20/16 Demographics of I-O Psycholog o In 2000, I-O psychologists represented about 6% of all APA members o In 2000, 30% of I-O Psychologists in APA were women o Average salaries Ph.D. in I-O psychology: $90,000 Masters in I-O psychology: $67,000 Preparing for a Career o Education and training o Getting into a graduate program Consideration of GPA and GRE scores Relevant coursework, ex: Statistics More emphasis on coursework than major Challenges in I-O in 21 century o I-O psychology needs to be Relevant Useful Grounded in the scientific method Multicultural and Cross-Cultural Issues in I-O psychology (We lived in a globalized world so certain techniques wont work universally) o Multiculturalism Culture defined System in which individuals share meaning and common ways of viewing events and objects Sharing of meanings and interpretations o Why should multiculturalism be important to you Why is multiculturalism important for I-O psychology Issues surrounding the global economy Theory of Cultural Influence (hofstede) Things are very different depending on the countries in terms of the following things o Table 1.5 look in book Individualism/collectivism: the degree to which individuals are expected to look after themselves versus remaining integrated into groups (usually the family) Power distance: The degree to which less powerful members of an organization accept and expect an unequal distribution of power Uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which members of a culture feel comfortable in instructed situations Masculinity/femininity: the distribution of emotional roles between the genders, with the masculine role being seen as “tough” and the feminine role seen as “tender.” Masculine cultures tend to emphasize accomplishment and technical performance, while feminine cultures tend to emphasize interpersonal relationships and communication Long-term versus short-tern orientation: The extent to which members of a culture expect immediate versus delayed gratification of their material, social, and emotional needs( ex. US seems to be very short-term focused like profit this quarter, this year, today, etc.) (Assignment on Culture) ▯ Notes 1/25/16 st Work in the 21 Century Chapter 2 Methods and Statistics in I-O Psychology New Assignment: Go back into LMX and set a new goal for myself( Goal Title 364 Test 1: Master material from 1 and 2) o Module 2.1 Science What is Science Approach that involves the understanding, prediction, and control of some phenomenon of interest Science has common methods Science is a logical approach to investigation Based on a theory, hypothesis, or basic interest Science depends on data Gathered in a laboratory or the field o Common Methods Continued Research must be communicable, open and public Researched published in journals, reports or books 1). Methods of data collection described 2). Data reported 3). Analyses displayed for examination 4). Conclusions presented o Common Methods Continued Scientists set out to disprove theories or hypotheses Goal: Eliminate all plausible explanations except one Scientists are objective Expectation that researches will be objective and not influenced by biases or prejudices. o Role of Science in Society Expert witnesses in a lawsuit Permitted to voice opinions about organizational practices Often a role assumed by I-O Psychologists o Module 2.1. continued Why do I-O psychologists engage in research Better equip HR professionals in making decisions in organizations Provide an aspect of predictability to HR decisions o Research Designs, o 3 different techniques we can use to test the hypotheses we have Experimental Random assignment of participants to conditions Conducted in a laboratory or the workplace Non-experimental Does not include manipulation or assignment to different conditions 2 common designs o observational design: observes and record behavior o survey/questionnaire design (most common) o (You don’t have any control over the environment and haven’t manipulated anything either) Quasi-experimental Non-random assignment of participants to conditions o Methods of Data Collection Quantitative methods Rely on tests, rating scales, questionnaires, and physiological measures Yield results in terms of numbers Qualitative methods Includes procedures like observation, interview, case study, and analysis of written documents Generally produce flow diagrams and narrative descriptions of events/ processes Not mutually exclusive (which is better) Triangulation Examining converging information from different sources (qualitative and quantitative research) o Generalizing in research ( need to be able to generalize something for the entire population from a subset or sample of the population with the goal to be able to generalize out to the broader population) Generalizability: Application of results from one study or sample to other participants or situations The more areas a study includes, the greater its generalizability Every time a compromise is made, the generalizability of results is reduced Of the key features of generalizability is sampling Sampling Domains for I-O Research (Figure 2.1 Sampling Domains for I-O Research) Characteristics to consider Participants, job titles, time, organizations o Control in research Experimental control Eliminates influences that could make results less reliable or harder to interpret Statistical control Statistical techniques used to control for the influence of certain variables ▯ Notes 1/27/16 Describing a Score Distribution o Variability Standard deviation o Lopsidedness or skew (when there are a lot of scores at one end and less at the other instead of the “normal” distribution” Mean is affected by high or low scores, median is not Mean pulls in direction of skew o We have a histogram with a distribution of scores o Normal distribution, tails of the distribution o Correlation coefficient can range from -1 to 1 o How strongly are two variables related What dictates the strength How close the correlation coefficient is to 1 or -1 o Correlation does not equal causation Ex positive correlation between ice cream consumption and murder ▯ Notes 1/29/16 – Test will have 50 multiple choice questions Scatterplots of various degrees of correlation o The closer the dots are to the line the stronger the correlation Curvilinear Multiple Correlation o Multiple correlation coefficient Overall linear association between several variables and a single outcome variable Module 4: Interpretation o Reliability Consistency or stability of a measure Test-retest reliability Calculated by correlating measurements taken at Time 1 with measurements taken at Time 2 o Continued Equivalent forms of reliability Calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of the same test Internal consistency Assesses how consistently items of a test measure a single construct o Continued Inter-rater reliability( basically have 2 people rate the same construct or idea) Can calculate various statistical indices to show level of agreement among raters Values in the range of .70 to .80 represent reasonable reliability Generalizability Theory Simultaneously considers all types of error in reliability estimates o Validity All about accuracy, does this conclusions accurately reflect what we think it does Whether measurements taken accurately and completely represent what is to be measured Criterion-Related Validity Correlate a test score (predictor) with a performance measure; resulting correlation often called a validity coefficient Two ways to predict Predictive validity design Time lag between collection of test data and criterion data Test often administered to job applicants o ▯ Notes for Exam 2 ▯ 2/3/16 ▯ Individual Differences and Assessment Introduction to Individual Differences o Dissimilarities between or among 2 or more people Background o 1890- Cattell and concept of “Mental Test” o Different psychology o Psychometrics o World War 1 and intelligence tests o “g” or general mental ability Varieties of Individual Differences o Cognitive ability and the g-ocentric model o Physical ability, o Personality, personable/outgoing o Interests reading, sports, politics o Knowledge, intelligent but because hardworking o Emotion, flexible, All of the individual difference domains we have bring about behavior in organization and outcomes Fundamental Assumptions in Applying Individual Differences Model o Adults have variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time o People differ with respect to those attributes o Relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training o Different jobs require different attributes o These attributes can be measured (KSAOs) KSAO is an acronym for knowledge, skill, ability, and other characteristics ▯ Notes 2/5/16 ▯ Broad Categories that cause our behaviors Disposition and Situation Human Attributes o Taxonomy of abilities Fleishman’s taxonomy of 52 abilities-divided into broad categories of: Cognitive abilities Physical abilities Perceptual-motor abilities Cognitive abilities: Definitional Issues in Intelligence Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonymous for one another. We will make some distinctions: IQ is a historical term that stands for “intelligence quotient”; term is popular with laypersons but is generally not used by scientists Mental ability and cognitive ability are current terms that scientists often use interchangeably Cognitive ability and mental ability often refer to specific abilities such as memory or reasoning; intelligence refers to general intellectual capacity (often called “g” for GMA) Cognitive abilities Intelligence as “g” Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, and learn from experience Is “g” important at work Yes Intelligence (or “g”): broad general capability describes persons ability to learn from experiences Increase in job complexity= increase in predictive value of general intelligence tests Carroll’s Hierarchical Model More specific Is it possible that you could have really strong fluid intelligence and really weak crystalized intelligence Fluid intelligence Crystallized intelligence General memory Visual perception Auditory perception Retrieval ability Cognitive speediness Sensory Abilities Vision, touch, taste, smell, hearing, kinesthetic feedback ▯ Notes 2/8/16 ▯ Ability: capacity to learn something ▯ Determined by genes Model of Physical Abilities: Hogan’s General Factors o Muscular Strength, Cardiovascular endurance, movement quality o Then broken down into more specific categories o See chart Figure 3.3 Psychomotor Abilities o Also called sensorimotor or motor abilities o Physical functions of movement, associated with coordination, dexterity and reaction time Arm-hand steadiness Manual dexterity Finger dexterity Control precision Response orientation Rate control Reaction time Wrist-finger speed Table 3.1. The Five Factor Model (Based on Digman 1990) IMPORTANT FOR TEST , Important in personality psychology o Factor: Conscientiousness: Responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented Extraversion: Sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic Agreeableness: Good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly Emotional Stability: Secure, calm, poised, relaxed (also called neurotism) Openness to experience: curious, imaginative, independent, creative OCEAN for acronym or CANOE o One that best predicts your behavior in the work setting is conscientiousness Sometimes this can be a problem in the workplace if you are “too careful” because in this way you will get nothing done if you are too careful Talking about behavioral tendencies with personalities Some jobs might desire certain tendencies more so than others It can be very difficult to capture data on personality Practical issues associated with personality measures o Faking Self-presentation(how you present yourself to others, this can be very intentional and wear a “mask” in order to present yourself in a different light than your real personality) Social desirability(bias that we all have where we want to figure out how we are supposed to behave, and then respond by behaving in this particular manner) Does faking really matter Additional Proposed Individual Differences o Skills Practiced Acts Technical and non-technical o Knowledge Collection of discrete but related facts and information about a particular domain Tacit knowledge “Street smarts” Procedural knowledge knowing “how” (knowing how to do something) Declarative knowledge knowing “that” (what we are all picking up right now in class, learning facts, etc.) ▯ Missed Notes on 2/10/16 ▯ ▯ Notes 2/12/16 Cognitive Ability Tests continued (used in NFL testing) o Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) Tests of specific abilities o Bennett Test of Mechanical Comprehension o Spatial Relations Tests for Firefighters o Physical Ability Tests for Firefighters ▯ Notes 2/15/16 Personality o Screen-out tests Identify psychopathology Generally used for positions of public trust May only be administered after offer of employment Best known example is the MMPI o Screen-in tests Identify normal personality May be administered as pre-employment tests Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI o Emotional intelligence Controversial construct: Little agreement on definition or how to measure it Ability-based EI measures have lower overlap with Big 5 personality measures, whereas self-report EI measures overlap strongly with Big 5 Integrity Testing o Overt Integrity Test Asks questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.) o Personality Based Integrity Test Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, and social responsibility) o Examples of Overt and Covert Integrity Test Items Overt Items There is nothing wrong with telling a lie if no one suffers any harm (True or False) How often have you arrived at work under the influence of alcohol Do your friends ever steal from their employers Covert or Personality-Based Items Do you like taking risks Would your friends describe you as impulsive Would you consider challenging an authority figure ▯ Notes 2/17/16 Interviews o Structured Interviews o Situational Interviews o Unstructured interview o Tend to cover job knowledge, abilities, skills, personality, and person-org. fit Unstructured Interview o Less formal, kind of talk about yourself, etc. Not a set way of asking questions o Very low validity coefficient, do not predict job performance very well Structured o Designed to ask the exact same question of the candidates o A lot of information contained o Questions designed to capture a specific set of content o 2 major types Behavioral Descriptive Interview BDI Asking about a behavior you have engaged in in the past to predict future performance Situational Interviews SI More future oriented Assessment Centers o Collection of procedures used for evaluation, often for possible promotion o Typical Characteristics Done in groups Assessed by groups Multiple methods of assessment employed Assessment centers have “feel” of relevance Work Sample Tests o Measure job skills by taking samples of behavior under realistic, job-like conditions o Examples: Chic fil A Situational Judgment Tests o Present candidate with written scenario, then ask candidate to choose best response from series of alternatives o Important Characteristics Job-related Well-accepted by test takers Reduced adverse impact compared to other devices Grades and Letters of Recommendation o May be able to predict job offers, but not job success ▯ Notes 2/29/16 ▯ Chapter 5, Performance Management Basic Concepts in Performance measurement o Uses for performance information Criterion Data Employee Development Motivation/satisfaction Rewards Promotion Layoff Types of Performance Data Objective Personnel Judgmental o Performance Measurement Cont Relationships among performance measures Hands-on performance measures Employee engages in work-related tasks Include carefully constructed simulations Walk-through testing Employee describes in detail how to do a job Electronic performance monitoring Commercial driving fleets Improving performance Computer usage at work Worker Attitudes What steps should employers take to improve attitudes o Performance Management Emphasizes link between individual behavior and organizational strategies and goals 3 Components of Performance Management Definition of performance Actual measurement process Communication between supervisor and subordinate about individual behavior and organ. Expectations o Perceptions of Fairness in Performance Measurement Factors associated with fairness measurement Appraisal frequency positively related to fairness perceptions Joint planning with supervisor to eliminate weaknesses enhances fairness perception Supervisor’s knowledge of duties of person being measured Supervisor’s knowledge of actual performance of person being rated Distributive justice Fairness of outcomes related to decisions ▯ Notes 3/04/16 Performance Ratings o Trait ratings-a warning E.g. I am aloof, abrasive o Task-based ratings Effectiveness of employee in accomplishing duties Most easily defended in court o Critical incidents method Examples of critical behaviors that influence performance o Structural characteristics of performance rating scale Extent to which duty/characteristic being rated is behaviorally defined Extent to which meaning of response categories is defined Degree that person interpreting ratings can understand response that rater intended Rating Formats o Graphic rating scales (most common) Graphically display performance scores running from high to low o Checklist List of behaviors presented to rater who places a check next to items that best (or least) describe the ratee o Weighted Checklist Included items have assigned values or weights o Forced-Choice Format Require that the rate choose two statements out of four that could describe the ratee o Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Rating format that includes behavioral anchors describing what the worker has done, or might be expected to do, in a particular duty area o Behavior Observation Scale (Almost never-almost always) Employee Comparison Methods o Involve the direct comparison of 1 person with another o Simple Ranking Employees ranked from top to bottom according to assessed proficiency o Paired Comparison Each employee in a group is compared with each other individual in the group o Useful in making layoff or downsizing decisions o Feedback is difficult because there is no clear standard of performance o Difficulty in comparing individuals in different groups Notes 3/07/16 Module 3: Performance Rating-Process o Rating sources Supervisors Most common information source Many actively avoid evaluation and feedback Gets rating of maximal performance Peers More likely to know about a worker’s typical performance Conflict of interest likely when competing for fixed resources Self-ratings Discussion of ratings with supervisor increases perceptions of procedural fairness Potential for distortion and inaccuracy Minimized with supervisor discussion Conflict of interest if used for administrative purposes Subordinate ratings Customer ratings o 360 degree systems collect and provide an employee with feedback that comes from many sources often used for feedback and employee development Use it when you want to grow, develop yourself Would not use a 360 feedback for promotions or making decisions about employees( lack of consistency/reliability) o Rating distortions ****(Study guide) Central tendency error Raters choose mid-point on scale to describe performance when more extreme point is more appropriate Leniency-severity error Raters are unusually easy or harsh in their ratings Halo error Same rating is assigned to an individual on a series of dimensions, causing the ratings to all be similar; lack of identification of strengths and weaknesses A “halo” surrounds the ratings o Rater Training Some distortions (errors) may be corrected through training Administrative training Important for uncommon rating systems (e.g., BARS-Behaviorally anchored rating scale) or if 1 or more structural characteristics are deficient Psychometric training Makes raters aware of common rating errors in hopes of reducing such errors Frame of reference training Based on assumption that rater needs context for providing rating Basic steps o 1. Provide information about multidimensional nature of performance o 2. ensure raters understand meaning of scale anchors o 3. engage in practice rating exercises of standard performance o 4. provide feedback on practice exercise o Reliability and validity of Performance ratings ***(Study guide) Reliability Currently the subject of lively debate Inter-rater reliability considered poor but this isn’t necessarily bad considering each rater relies on a different perspective Validity Depends on manner by which rating scales were conceived and developed Social and Legal Context of Performance Evaluation o Motivation to rate Suggestion that raters use process as a means to an end, either personal or organizational Performance appraisal as a goal-directed activity with 3 stakeholders Rater goals Task performance Interpersonal Strategic Internalized Ratee goals Information gathering Information dissemination Organizational goals Between-person uses Within-person uses Systems-maintenance uses ▯ Notes 3/9/16 Biases we see o Halo, central tendency, leniency-severity Goal Conflict o When single system is used to satisfy multiple goals from different stakeholders, rater must choose which goal to satisfy before assigning a rating o Possible Solutions Use multiple performance evaluation systems Obtain involvement of stakeholders in developing the system Reward supervisors for accurate ratings Performance Feedback o Problematic when same information is used for multiple purposes o Feedback (especially negative) should be stretched over several sessions o “Praise-criticism-praise sandwich” o Employee more likely to accept negative feedback if he/she believes Supervisor has sufficient “sample” of subordinate’s actual behavior Supervisor and subordinate agree on subordinate’s job duties Supervisor and subordinate agree on definition of good and poor performance Supervisor focuses on ways to improve performance o “Destructive Criticism” feedback that is cruel, sarcastic, and offensive usually general rather than specific often directed toward personal characteristics of employee leads to anger, tension, and resentment on part of employee apology best to repair damage of such criticism o Performance Evaluation and the Law Ford motor company and its forced distributing rating system Evaluators were required to place managers into performance categories based on predetermined percentages Ford sued by managers and eventually paid over 10 million to litigants ▯ Staffing Decisions Conceptual Issues in Staffing o Associated with recruiting, selecting, promoting, and separating employees Sequential View of the Staffing Process o (Look at PowerPoint’s) Impact of Staffing Practices on Firm Performance o High performance work practices Include use of formal job analyses, selection rom within for key positions, and use of formal assessment devices for selection o Staffing practices have positive associations with firm performance Stakeholder Goals in the Staffing Process o Line Managers o Co workers o Applicants ▯ Notes 3/23/16 Evaluation of Staffing Outcomes o Validity: Accurateness of inferences made based on test or performance data o Validity designs: Criterion-related Content-related Construct-related o How are you going to support implementing o Recruiting, hiring, terminating, o How are you going to demonstrate effectiveness(if they are meeting standards or improving, etc.) o Build a case for utilizing lots of data o Ex: retention rates, criterion related validity o Content validity: am I getting everything within the domain o Construct validity: performance is a construct and is domain specific o Criterion-validity: does our predictor actually result in higher levels of performance ▯ Notes 3/28/16 How to test for criterion-validity o What method have we used to establish the criterion validity Predictive validity design, o Does EQ actually predict performance o Look at the relationship between our outcome and our predictive variable. Criterion validity types, main difference is time when the tests are administered o Concurrent validity: outcome, time 1, predictor time 1 o Predictive validity: predictor, time 1, outcome time 2 How can validity be used to assess the effectiveness of decisions that are made Criterion related validity shown using scatterplots o If youre above the score(mean), we are going to consider hiring you, if you are below the score(mean), we are not going to consider hiring you at all o Look at scatterplots on powerpoint Concept of IQ is a construct, something that we build in our mind Athletic examples o Baseball: ▯ Notes 3/30/16 Validity continued Baseball performance is a construct o Within there are multiple things that need to happen in order to perform well o If you leave out a major component such as hitting, it affects the content validity A construct that could predict performance would be baseball knowledge Criterion: use observations about baseball knowledge to make predictions about specific behaviors I am going to see on the baseball field How do we establish construct validity o Look for construct that would be theoretically similar and dissimilar. Ie. Baseball and pageants: dissimilar, baseball and football: similar Selection Ratio (SR) o Selection Ratio Index ranging from 0 to 1 that reflects the ratio of available jobs to applicants SR= n/N n= number of available jobs N= number of applicants assessed 4 outcomes possible False Positive Applicant accepted but performed poorly False negative Applicant rejected but would have performed well True positive Applicant accepted and performed well True negative Applicant rejected and would have performed poorly ▯ Missed class 04/01/16 Cut score of cutoff score o Specified point in distribution of scores below which candidates are rejected o Raising cut score will score will result in fewer false positives but more false negatives o Strategy for determining cut score depends on situation Establishing cut scores o Criterion-referenced cut scores Consider desired level of performance and find test score corresponding to that level o norm-referenced cut score based on some index of test-taker’s scores rather than any notion of job performance Utility Analysis o Assesses economic return on investment of HR interventions like staffing or training o Utility analysis can address the cost/benefit ratio of one staffing strategy versus another ▯ Notes 04/04/16 Utility Analysis o Includes consideration of the base rate, which is the percentage of the current workforce performing successfully If performance is already high, then new staffing system will likely add little to productivity o Utility analysis calculations can be very complex Practical issues in Staffing o Staffing model Comprehensiveness Enough high quality information about candidates to predict likelihood of their success (important to establish strengths and weaknesses) Compensatory Candidates can compensate for relative weakness in one attribute through strength in another one, providing both are required by job o Combining Information Clinical decision-making An expert uses judgment to combine information and make decisions about relative value of different candidates Statistical decision making Combines information according to a mathematical formula Using multiple predictors to choose a candidate (look at chart in powerpoint) o Combining info continued Hurdle systems of combining scores Non-compensatory strategy: Individual has no opportunity to compensate at later stage for low score in earlier stage Establishes series of cut scores An approach we can use to widdle down the amount of applicants we have Doesn’t allow for a strength to make up for a weakness i.e. cutting off people who don’t have at least 5 years experience compensatory approach multiple regression analysis results in equation for combining test scores into a composite based on correlations of each test score with performance score cross-validation regression equation developed on first sample is tested on second sample to determine if it still fits well ▯ Notes 4/11/16 ▯ Chapter 7 Foundations of Training and Learning o Training Systematic acquisition of skills, concepts, or attitudes resulting in improved performance in another environment Basic foundation for training programs is learning o Learning Relatively permanent change in behavior and human capabilities produced by experienced and practice o 3 broad categories of learning outcomes cognitive outcomes skill-based outcomes affective outcomes-deal with motivation, choose to invest in a behavior for the feeling it is going to give us training can enhance our performance if we believe the training is going to increase the likelihood that it will increase the positive outcomes increases our confidence, and expectancy o organizations desire increased performance o Performance Actions or behaviors relevant to organization’s goals; can be measured in terms of each individual proficiency Can often be directly observed We assume learning takes place from observing performance o Training, learning, and performance Training increases probability of learning, and learning increases probability of better job performance o Goldstein and Ford’s (2002) training model o Training needs analysis 3-step process organizational analysis examines organizations goals, available resources, and organizational environment to determine where training should be directed takes into account of organization and its submits task analysis examines what employees must do to perform job properly can consist of o developing task statements o determining homogenous task clusters o identifying KSAOs required for job May also include assessment of competencies person analysis identifies which individuals within organization should received training and what kind of instruction they need assessments of trainee personality, ability, and experience increasingly being used as part of needs analysis required to develop systematic understanding of where training is needed (organizational), what needs to be trained (task), and who will be trained (person) Learning process in training o Trainee characteristics Goal orientation Performance orientation Concerned with doing well-stand out from everyone else Mastery orientation Concerned with increasing competence- goal is to develop and to grow Experience level Trainee motivation Trainee readiness o Performance and Mastery Approach and Avoid o Performance- focused on an outcome that you get for your behavior (can perform to avoid getting an F or perform to try to get an A(approach)) Avoid F Approach A o Mastery Avoid Approach o Mastery goal orientation, then failure=an opportunity to learn from these mistakes o Goal orientations have a dramatic effect on desire and willingness to learn ▯ Notes 4/13/16 Learning and Motivational Theories Applied to Training o Reinforcement Theory Learning results from association between behaviors and rewards Positive reinforcement- adding something positive in response to a behavior Desired behavior followed by reward Negative reinforcement- already a negative stimulus, engage in a behavior to remove the stimulus. Ex. Headache, take an advil, popping the pill is the behavior, pill removes the headache and then the next time you have a headache, you take another pill. Stimulus, behavior, consequence or result Behavior modification Simple recognition and feedback can be effective in increasing performance Positive and Negative punishment Positive punishment o Getting spanked when a kid lie, adding an undesirable stimulus in order to prevent something from happening again Negative punishment o Removing a positive stimulus, i.e. removing recess from a child who has gotten in trouble Big Bang Example, the water spraying and electroshock would not be negative reinforcement but instead positive punishment o Social learning theory proposes that there are many ways to learn including: Behavioral modeling 1. Observe actual job incumbents demonstrate positive modeling behaviors 2. Rehearse before using role-playing 3. Receive feedback on rehearsal 4. Try behavior on the job o Cognitive and Social Learning Theory Broad approach including: Self-efficacy Belief in one’s capability to perform- your confidence is a key predictor of your success or performance Goal setting Specific, difficult goals direct attention and improve performance Feedback Knowledge of results of one’s actions Enhances motivation, learning, and performance ▯ Notes 4/15/16 Principles of Learning o Active practice Actively participating in training/work tasks o Automaticity Occurs when tasks can be performed with limited attention; likely to develop when learners are given extra learning opportunities (overlearning) after they have demonstrated mastery of a task Fidelity o Extent to which task trained is similar to task required by job Physical fidelity Extent to which training task mirrors physical features of task performed on job Psychological fidelity Extent to which training task helps trainees develop KSAOs necessary to perform job Principles of Learning continued o Whole learning When entire task is practiced at once More effective when complex task has relatively high organization o Part learning When subtasks are practiced separately and later combined More effective when complex task has low organization E.g., surgeons and pilots o Massed practice Individuals practice task continuously and without rest (e.g. cramming for test) o Distributed practice Rest intervals between practice sessions Generally results in more efficient learning and retention than massed practice Learning Organizations o Companies that emphasize continuous learning, knowledge sharing, and personal mastery o Additional features 1. Emphasizes problem solving and innovation 2. Develop system that enhance knowledge sharing 3. Encourage flexibility and experimentation 4. Value well-being and development of all employees 5. Encourage employees to find or make opportunities Module 7.2. Content and Methods of Training o Training methods 4 basic principles 1. Present relevant information and content to be learned 2. Demonstrate KSAOs to be learned 3. Create opportunities for trainees to practice skills 4. Provide feedback to trainees during and after practice o On-Site Training Methods On the job training Trainees observe and learn from more experienced employees Apprenticeship Formal program used to teach a skilled trade Job rotation Employees move to various jobs, departments, or areas of company o Off-site training methods Classroom lectures Programmed instruction Linear programming Branching programming Simulators Controlled reproducibility Safety considerations Learning considerations ▯ Notes 4/18/2016 Transfer of Training o Degree to which trainees apply knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in training to their job Transfer of training climate o Workplace characteristics that either inhibit or facilitate transfer of training Horizontal Transfer Vertical Transfer Module 7.3 Evaluating training programs o Training evaluation Systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information that can be used to make effective training decisions o Several purposes of training evaluations Training Criteria o Kirkpatrick’s 4-level model Reaction criteria (level 1) --- Internal Criteria Learning criteria (level 2) --- Internal Criteria Both take place in the training environment Behavioral criteria (level 3) --- External Criteria Result criteria (level 4) -- External Criteria o Augmented framework of Kirkpatrick’s model 1) Reaction Affective reactions Utility judgments 2) Learning immediate knowledge Knowledge retention Behavior/ skill demonstration 3) Transfer 4) Results Management and Leadership Development o Coaching (question on the test) Practical, goal-focused form of personal, one-on-one learning for busy professionals Practical, flexible, targeted form of individualized learning Specialized Training Programs o Sexual harassment awareness training Quid pro quo-“ you scratch my back ill scratch yours” and exchange relationship, you do this for me I’ll do this for you or if you don’t do this for me I’ll do this for you, like give a raise, etc. Hostile working environment- not asking for specific favors, but instead inappropriate behavior that makes the employee to feel uncomfortable o EEOC encourages following steps: what you can do to eliminate or reduce sexual harassment Clearly communicate a zero tolerance policy Establish an effective grievance process Take immediate and appropr