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In each of 7 through 10, assume that all eigenvalues are

Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780470458310 | Authors: William E. Boyce ISBN: 9780470458310 168

Solution for problem 10 Chapter 11.1

Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems | 10th Edition

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Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780470458310 | Authors: William E. Boyce

Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems | 10th Edition

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Problem 10

In each of 7 through 10, assume that all eigenvalues are real.(a) Determine the form of the eigenfunctions and the determinantal equation satisfied by thenonzero eigenvalues.(b) Determine whether = 0 is an eigenvalue.(c) Find approximate values for 1 and 2, the nonzero eigenvalues of smallest absolute value.(d) Estimate n for large values of n.y y = 0, y(0) + y(0) = 0, y(1) = 0

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Biology Final Exam Review Practice Test 1. Evolution is… A. The progression of a species as it reaches a higher form B. The tendency for organisms to become more complex C. Change in gene frequencies of population over time D. The elimination of one allele due to the rise of another 2. Which of the following is NOT a rule that helps guide evolution A. Individuals must evolve before the population B. Variations are present in a population before evolution C. A population evolves over generations D. Selection is not random 3. In a genetic bottleneck, a factor diminishes population size, that population size then rebounds but…. A. Individuals in the population are infertile B. The genetic diversity in the population is very low C. Genetic diversity rebounds at the same pace as population size D. Population size crashes again 4. A student named Jim holds the belief that organisms exhibit properties and characteristics that do not change. The belief is known as.. A. Essentialism B. Scala Naturae C. Transformism D. Uniformitarianism 5. Which of the following is NOT a belief held by Lamarck A. Transformism B. Steady evolution C. Inheritance of acquired characteristics D. There is no extinction 6. Two closely related birds who are variants of domestic species will show ________ morphological differences than species in the wild who are just as closely related A. Less B. No difference C. More 7. A farmer takes and breeds two cows who have excellent milk production and skin pigmentation. The farmer breeding these two cows based upon their positive characteristics is an example of what A. Artificial selection B. Natural Selection C. Choice mating D. Evolutionary pressure 8. The idea that reproduction rate outpaces resources and individuals are forced to compete is an example of whose idea A. Cuvier B. Darwin C. Malthus D. Lamarck 9. Which of the following is NOT one of Darwin’s four postulates A. Variation B. Inheritance C. Extinction D. Differential Survival E. All of the the above are one of Darwin’s postulates 10. Darwin’s idea that all living things shared a common ancestor is exemplified by… A. Evolutionary descent B. Like descent C. Concept evolution D. Common Descent 11. Mendelian theory helped explain holes in Darwin’s theories by explaining… A. Heredity B. Dominance C. Speed of evolution D. Species involved in evolution 12. Which of the following is part of Mendel’s Law of segregation A. A trait that is unobservable in an individual may still be passed on to the next generation B. Traits are separated based on which is the most beneficial C. Traits are only passed via one unit from one parent D. Alternate alleles do not account for variation in inherited traits. 13. During gamete formation, this process works to increase works to increase diversity by mixing pairs and unit factors. A. Evolutionary difference B. Genome splitting C. Independent Assortment D. Chromosomal Randomization 14. Two dogs are breeding. The male is Homozygous dominant (SS) for spots and the female has no spots (ss). The phenotype of having spots is produced by homozygous dominant genotype(SS). What is the probablilty that the offspring of this pair will have spots A. 25% B. 50% C. 100% D. 0% 15. The ultimate source of genetic variation arises as a result of… A. Natural Selection B. Extinction C. Mutation D. Heterozygote advantage 16. In roses, when two different alleles form a heterozygous rose with a different phenotype than both of its parents, the rose is expressing… A. Co-dominance B. Incomplete dominance C. Shared Traits D. Heterozygote advantage 17. Scientists in a lab are attempting to isolate the gene A4 in mice which changes eye color. After altering this gene the scientists also find that their change has altered the color of the mouse’s fur. The gene A4 is an example of… A. Epistasis B. Pleiotrphy C. Polygenic D. Environmental gene interjection 18. A pair of twin dogs are separated from birth and adopted by two separate families. Both dogs however have very different temperaments towards people petting them. This difference in behavior is most likely a result of… A. Cross fostering B. Genetic factors C. Gene expression differences D. Environmental similarity 19. The sum of allele frequencies is equal to… A. p^2+q^2 B. 2pq C. 1 D. 0 20. A population of fruit flies has the homozygous dominant genotype RR for red eyes, a population of another species of fruit fly with white eyes that have genotype rr migrates to mate with the population of red eye flies. What is the probability the offspring will be heterozygous A. 50% B. 100% C. Hardy Weinberg cannot be used here D. 0% 21. The requirements for Hardy Weinberg equilibrium are A. Large population size, no natural selection, no mutation, no immigration/ gene flow, random mating B. Population size over 10, no natural selection, no mutation, no immigration/ gene flow, random mating C. Large population size, no natural selection, no mutation, no immigration/ gene flow, sexual selection D. Hardy Weinberg requires no specific parameters 22. A species of salmon swims upstream in order to lay its eggs. Which of the following is not an example of reproductive output A. The amount of eggs laid B. Number of reproductive cycles per year C. Age of reproductively viable salmon D. Where the salmon lays the eggs 23. The bubonic plague spreading was a deadly communicable disease that spread across Europe killing millions. The plague is a________________________. A. Density independent factor B. Density dependent factor C. Neither A or B 24. A species of horseshoe crab has a very dense population size due to the ability for its individuals to carry a very large number of gametes. Which component of fitness is being exemplified here A. Mating Success B. Gamete Viability C. Fecundity D. Preferential selection 25. A drought on an island quickly kills off any bird species with beaks too weak to crack open nuts. Quickly, the allele frequencies for larger beaks begin to increase. What type of selection is taking place here A. Stabilizing B. Random C. Directional D. Disruptive 26. True or False: An adaption must improve fitness A. True B. False 27. Two separate species of beetle exhibit similar horn phenotypes. However, the beetles are located on separate hemispheres which suggest little of a most recent common ancestor. The horns are an example of what type of structure and evolution A. Homologous structure & Convergent evolution B. Analogous structure & Convergent evolution C. Analogous structure & Divergent evolution D. Homologous structure & Divergent evolution 28. In humans, the tail once served a purpose in more primitive ancestors but now does not serve a functional purpose, the human tail is now a… A. Pre-adaption trait B. Post-adaption trait C. Vestigial Structure D. Exaptation 29. In a population undergoing genetic drift where alleles have no preference for selection, the population will eventually______________ A. Drift towards homozygosity B. Drift toward heterozygosity C. Not change D. Favor the recessive allele 30. Genetic polymorphism is a result of the ratio of __________ and ____________ A. Founder effect, genetic evolution B. Mutation rate, evolution rate C. Drift rate, extinction rate D. Drift rate, mutation rate 31. True or False: Drift increases genetic variation A.True B.False 32. A species of paramecium reproduce asexually, once the species come in contact with a disease or other deleterious allele, the rapid accumulation of this allele is reflective of what concept A. Malthian concept B. Darwin evolutionary theory C. Muler’s rachet D. Essentialist asexual theory 33. When a population of microbacteria are confronted with genetic drift and Muler’s rachet, what is most likely to happen to the population A. The population will remain stagnate B. The population will rapidly decrease C. The population will decrease over a very long period of time D. The population will slowly increase 34. A species concept that relies on the sexual reproduction of members of a tiger species as opposed to their visible differences would be the __________ species concept. A. Morphological B. Biological C. Differential D. Phylogenetic 35. Which of the following is NOT a commonality of all species concepts A. Populations lined by history are species B. Individuals are characterized by shared derived characteristics C. Genetic morphology is maintained by interbreeding D. Species exhibit at least 5% similar genome 36. In order for a group to speciate, the population must be… A. Evolve to the point where there are visible morphological differences B. Reproductively isolated C. Undergoing genetic drift D. Moving with gene flow 37. Two species of fish have the ability to interbreed and produce offspring. However, the fact that the breeding seasons of these fish occur at different times prevents them from interbreeding. This is an example of A. Prezygotic barrier B. Temporal Isolation C. Habitual Isolation D. Ethological isolation E. Both A & B 38. Which of the following is not an example of a post-mating pre- zygotic barrier A. Mechanical Isolation B. Gametic Isolation C. Hybrid Mortality D. Lack of fertilization 39. The same species of reptile resided in South America and Africa when the two continents were once connected. Upon separation of these continents the two species could no longer reproduce and speciated. This form of allopatric speciation is known as… A. Dispersal B. Parapatry C. Sympatry D. Vicariance 40. In a new island with abundant biodiversity and abundant ecological niches, there is a species of small birds, which theory states that these birds will speciate to fill the different niches the island has to offer A. Sympatric speciation B. Parapatric speciation C. Ecological divergence theory D. Bird diversity doctrine 41. Horseshoe crabs rely on spawning in order to sexually reproduce. In order for this form of reproduction to be successful, there must be… A. Extensive parental care B. Physical contact C. Gamete recognition mechanisms D. Strong sea currents 42. In a group of wild cats, the larger female individual chooses from males which compete for her access. The female is referred to as a… A. Polyandry B. Polygyny C. Intrasexual selection D. Alpha female 43. A good friend of mine has a thing for women who are very phenotypically similar to him. The is an example of ____________ mating. A. Positive assertive mating B. Negative assertive mating C. Random mating D. None of the above 44. In a species of turtles the male turtle has fewer gametes and usually invests more time in raising the offspring. Given this, it can be inferred that the _________ is the pickier sex. A. Female B. Offspring C. Male D. Choice is same for male and female 45. Male peacocks that have extravagant tail feathers are very easily spotted by predators, but the larger their feathers are, the more appealing to women. They additional threat of predation can be seen emphasizing_______________ A. Malthus’s extinction theory B. Zahavi’s handicap hypothesis C. Muler’s Rachet D. Darwinism 46. The “sexy son hypothesis” is A. When a female chooses a mate because he has desirable characteristics that will not be passed on to her offspring B. When a mother prefers younger partners as opposed to old ones C. When a male father has offspring identical to himself D. When a female chooses a mate because he has desirable characteristics that will be passed on to her offspring 47. When males evolve exaggerated phenotypes to the point of harming their own fitness, but selection is not present to work against this process, this is known as ______________ A. Intense sexual selection B. Unchecked sexual selection C. Runaway sexual selection D. Rapid sexual selection. 48. If a koala compromises it’s own fitness in order to help and protect the offspring of the koalas (both related and unrelated) this is known as… A. Inclusive fitness B. Helper evolution C. Altruism D. Nash equilibrium 49. In Hamilton’s kin selection theory, he states that the more related organisms are… A. The less inclined they are to help each other B. The more inclined they are to help other unrelated individuals C. The more inclined they are to help each other D. An organisms relatedness has no bearing on their altruism 50. In a diploid case, a female dolphin is debating on whether or not to stay with her sister, who is having four kids, or leave to have three children of her own. Based on Hamilton’s rule, what decision would equate to higher fitness for the female dolphin. A. To stay with her sister B. To leave C. To leave but not produce offspring of her own D. None of the above 51. In a population of elephants, despite not being related to one another, the assistance from one elephant to another in helping raise offspring and fend off predators usually results in the same reciprocal behavior or one of equal generosity. This is an example of… A. Hamilton altruism B. Reciprocal altruism C. Unrelated altruism D. True altruism 52. A Z6 gene in a species of fish determines how and when the Z3 and Y7 genes in that same fish are also expressed. The Z6 gene is… A. Dominant B. Recessive C. Master/ HOX genes D. Conservation gene 53. Genes that are similar in structure and sequence are referred to as A. Like genes B. HOX genes C. Gene groups D. Gene families 54. The origin of life is commonly accepted to have begun in the ____________ period A. Archean B. Precambrian C. Proterozoic D. Cambrian explosion 55. The theory that aerobic bacteria “ate” a host cell for form eukaryotic cells is known as ____________ and supported by the fact that _________________ A. Eukaryotic cell theory, mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genomes B. Endo-symbiotic theory, mitochondria and chloroplasts are in all cells C. Endo-symbiotic theory, mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genomes D. Multicellular progression, mitochondria and chloroplasts are in all cells 56. In early ancestral cells, cells eventually were forced to stop growing and instead develop into a network of tissue. This was a result of surface area to volume ratio, which states as a cell grows larger… A. Cells find it harder to reproduce B. Cells struggle to diffuse nutrients and waste C. Cells cannot produce enough CO2 D. Cell water production outpaces food consumption 57. The sudden rapid emergence of diversity in animals is referred to the… A. The Cambrian divergence B. Biodiversity explosion C. Evolutionary big bang D. Cambrian explosion 58. The Miller-Urey experiment holds a large amount of significance in theories of the origin of life because it… A. Synthesized organic matter from inorganic matter B. Proved that Archea were the first lifeforms on earth C. Shows how aerobic bacteria eventually evolved into eukaryotic cells D. Provided the basis for modern abiogenesis 59. The idea that extraterrestrial matter brought organic matter to earth which eventually gave rise to life is known as the … A. E.T. Hypothesis B. Outerspace Hypothesis C. Panspermia Hypothesis D. Spontaneous space collision 60. Of the three domains, which two are similar in the fact they have no nucleus and are single celled A. Chordata & Cnidaria B. Eukaryotes & prokaryotes C. Bacteria & Eukaryotes D. Bacteria & prokaryotes 61. A bacteria found in the gut is long and cylindrical in its shape. This bacteria is classified as… A. Spirillum B. Bacillus C. Coccus D. Circular 62. A form of unicellular prokaryote is found both in a volcano, and at the depths at the ocean where oxygen is minimum and temperatures approach absolute zero. This is most likely… A. Bacteria B. Virus C. Archaea D. Eukaryotic cell 63. Which of the following is not a characteristic of all Eukaryotic cell A. Chimeric genome B. Mitochondria C. Nucleus D. Chloroplasts 64. One thing that all protists have in common is that they are all A. They are autotrophic B. They are mixotrophic C. They are eukaryotic D. They have chloroplasts 65. True or false: Fungi are more similar to plants than animals A. True B. False 66. Which of the following is NOT a way that fungus can be used A. Economically B. Ecologically C. Gastronomically D. Biofuel 67. Plants originally were indigenous to marine environments, but in order to live on land they needed to evolve features that helped them… A. Reproduce without water B. Stand up without falling over C. Absorb nutrients D. All of the above 68. Bryophytes are the minority among plants, and lack… A. Roots B. Chloroplasts C. Vascular tissue D. Both A and C 69. Plants that develop vascular tissue use _________ to transport food downward, and __________ to transport minerals and water upward A. Xylem, phloem B. Phloem, xylem C. Lycophytes, pterophytes D. Leaves, stem 70. Vascular plants that have seeds that are naked and easily observable on the exterior are known as A. Angiosperms B. Ferns C. Gymnosperms D. Trees 71. The two sterile whorls on the flowers of angiosperms are… A. Stamens and Carpels B. Stigma and stamen C. Sepals and leaves D. Sepals and petals 72. The female carpel reproductive structure is made up of… A. Ovaries, style and stigma B. Filament, style, and stigma C. Filament, anther, and style D. Sepal, petal, and style 73. Because a species of bat relies on a flowering plant for nectar, and the bat relies on the plant to spread pollen for reproduction, it can be inferred that if the plant evolves… A. The bat will evolve to change with the plant B. The bat will not change C. The plant species will die D. The bat species will die 74. The only animal phyla that does not have true tissue is… A. Cnidaria B. Annelids C. Ecginoderms D. Porifera 75. If an organism can be divided by multiple planes into symmetric sections it exhibits… A. Bilateral Symmetry B. Radial Symmetry C. Trans symmetry D. Unilateral Symmetry 76. Blastopore fate is an important characteristic in animals and the majority of phyla in Animalia are protostomes, which means that… A. The anus forms first B. The mouth forms first C. The mouth and anus develop at the same time D. There in only one tubular gut 77. Protostomes can also be categorized based upon if they shed an exoskeleton. Protostomes that go through this are known referred to… A. Lophotrochozoans B. Ecdysozoans C. Annelids D. Molluscs 78. Which is not a trait of Mollusca A. Triploblastic B. Protostome C. Ecdysozoan D. Bilateral symmetry 79. One differences cephalopods exhibit from gastropodas is… A. The presence of tentacles B. The muscular foot is on the head C. Cephalopods are diblastic D. All of the above E. A & B 80. The largest difference between nematodes and annelids is that… A. Nematodes are triploblastic B. Annelids are protostomes C. Annelids always have segmentation D. Both can be marine or terrestrial 81. This phylum is regarded as the most diverse/ successful… A. Chordata B. Annelid C. Archaea D. Arthropoda 82. A particular is changing from lava to butterfly and skips the pupa stage. This type of metamorphosis is known as… A. Complete B. Incomplete C. Dominant D. Rapid 83. Echinodermata use ________ for locomotion. A. Tube feet B. Cilia C. Flagella D. Feet 84. Which of the following characteristics is not a unique requirement to be in the chordate phylum A. Post-anal tail B. Dorsal Nerve chord C. Notochord D. Gill slits E. All of the above are requirements 85. In an ecosystem, an example of an abiotic factor would be… A. Predators B. Prey C. Plants D. The wind 86. Which of the following is not a type of symbiosis A. Parasitism B. Commensalism C. Co-evolution D. Mutualism 87. In the sea a species of coral benefits from clownfish droppings and the coral provides the fish with nutrients and shelter. The type of symbiosis illustrated here is… A. Mutualism B. Parasitism C. Commensalism D. Propagation 88. The act of host and parasite lineages diverging in unison is known as… A. Evolutionary tandem B. Community ecology C. Cospeciation D. Divergence theory 89. A forest fire burns down the community within the forest only leaving the soil in tact. Which type of succession is this illustrated by A. Primary B. Secondary C. Tertiary D. None of the above 90. The type of population growth that takes into account environmental resistance is known as… A. Logistic growth B. Exponential growth C. Steady growth D. Steep decline Answer Key 1. C 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. B 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. E 10. D 11. A 12. A 13. C 14. D 15. C 16. B 17. A 18. A 19. C 20. C 21. A 22. D 23. B 24. C 25. C 26. A 27. B 28. C 29. A 30. D 31. B 32. C 33. B 34. B 35. D 36. B 37. E 38. C 39. D 40. A 41. C 42. A 43. A 44. C 45. B 46. D 47. C 48. C 49. C 50. B 51. B 52. C 53. D 54. A 55. C 56. B 57. D 58. A 59. C 60. D 61. B 62. C 63. D 64. C 65. B 66. D 67. D 68. D 69. B 70. C 71. D 72. A 73. A 74. D 75. B 76. B 77. B 78. C 79. E 80. C 81. D 82. B 83. A 84. E 85. D 86. C 87. A 88. C 89. B 90. A

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Textbook: Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems
Edition: 10
Author: William E. Boyce
ISBN: 9780470458310

Since the solution to 10 from 11.1 chapter was answered, more than 238 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “In each of 7 through 10, assume that all eigenvalues are real.(a) Determine the form of the eigenfunctions and the determinantal equation satisfied by thenonzero eigenvalues.(b) Determine whether = 0 is an eigenvalue.(c) Find approximate values for 1 and 2, the nonzero eigenvalues of smallest absolute value.(d) Estimate n for large values of n.y y = 0, y(0) + y(0) = 0, y(1) = 0” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 65 words. Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780470458310. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 76 chapters, and 2039 solutions. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 10 from chapter: 11.1 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:36PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value Problems, edition: 10.

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In each of 7 through 10, assume that all eigenvalues are