What is psychologys historic big issue?
Nutrition 2000: Exam 3 Study Guide Part I: Write the correct word that corresponds with the given definition. 1. Decreased bone mass due to aging, genetic background, and a poor diet. ____________________________ 2. A condition resulting from protein deficiency, characterized by edema, mild to moderate weight loss, maintenance of some muscle and subcutaneous fat, growth impairment, a fatty liver, and onsets quickly. _______________________________ 3. Water that is inside the cell. ______________________________ 4. The hardening of the cornea and drying of the surface of the eye, which can result in blindness. _____________________________ 5. A condition caused by a vitamin D deficiency; characterized by bowed legs, enlarged head, joints, and ribcage, and a deformed pelvis.______________________________ 6. A condition resulting from protein deficiency, characterized by severe weight loss, wasting of muscle and fat, severe growth impairment, and develops gradually. _________________________________ 7. The movement of water across a semipermeable membrane. _________________________ 8. When the skin turns a yelloworange color, particularly on the hands and the soles of the feet. _____________________________ 9. Anemia that eventually leads to death. ___________________________________ 10. The softening of bones in adults due to a vitamin D deficiency. ____________________________ 11. Water that is outside of the cell. ________________________________ Part II: True/False: Write true or false on the following statements. If the statement is false, write the correct answer or statement in the space provided. 12. Proteins regulate and maintain body functions and provides the essential form of nitrogen. 13. The proteins in our bodies are made up of twenty different amino acids; eleven are essential, nine are nonessential. 14. The fat soluble vitamins are B and C. 15. Vitamin D deficiency is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. 16. Vitamin D helps to regulate blood calcium levels and bone metabolism. 17. Water makes up 3060% of the body’s weight. 18. Ions control the movement of water between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. 19. Iron is the most abundant mineral in the body. 20. Zinc deficiency was first discovered in the 1960’s in the Middle East. 21. Humans absorb 60% of the sodium they consume. 22. Chloride is a major negative ion in the extracellular fluid. 23. Vitamin E acts as a fatsoluble antioxidant. Part III: Short Answer. Answer the question entirely. 24. What are the general functions of proteins 25. In ages 5065, what is a low protein diet associated with 26. In ages 66+, what is a low protein diet associated with 27. What are the building blocks of proteins and what is their chemical structure 28. Is protein shape necessary for function 29. How is a protein’s primary structure determined 30. What does mRNA do 31. What is the amino acid structure What makes an amino acid its own 32. How are amino acids connected 33. How can a protein be denatured 34. What acid in the stomach denatures the proteins during digestion 35. What enzyme breaks down the peptide bonds Where is it released and how does it work 36. What hormone regulates the enzyme from question 35 How is it released 37. What does the hormone CCK do 38. What is Celiac Disease What is its prevalence in the US 39. How are amino acids absorbed 40. How are amino acids used in the liver 41. What are the functions of proteins in the body 42. What do amino acids leave behind in the body and how is it excreted 43. What is the RDA for protein 44. What are the top five contributors of protein in a western diet 45. What are the alternatives to a high protein diet 46. What are the two proteinenergy deficiencies discussed in class What are the symptoms 47. What are vitamins Do they produce energy 48. What are the fat soluble vitamins 49. What are the water soluble vitamins 50. What are the functions of vitamins 51. What are the function of Vitamin A 52. What are the functions of Vitamin D 53. What are the functions of Vitamin E 54. What are the functions of Vitamin K 55. What are the functions of Vitamin C 56. What are the B vitamins that we discussed in class Briefly describe their function. 57. What controls fluid movement 58. What are the functions of water 59. Describe what happens at the percentages of water loss. 60. What is aldosterone 61. What does over consumption of water lead to 62. What does bioavailability depend on 63. What are the two mineral binders discussed in class 64. What are the major minerals 65. What are the functions of calcium 66. How can you maintain bone density 67. What are the functions of sodium 68. What are the functions of chloride 69. What are the functions of potassium 70. What are the trace minerals 71. What are the two types of iron 72. What can iron deficiency cause 73. How can excess iron hurt the body 74. What are the functions of zinc 75. How is zinc absorbed 76. What are the functions of selenium 77. What are the functions of iodide 78. What can iodide deficiency cause 79. What are the functions of copper 80. How is copper absorbed 81. What is Wilson’s disease Part I: Write the correct word that corresponds with the given definition. 1. Osteoporosis 2. Kwashiorkor 3. Intracellular Fluid 4. Xerophtalmia 5. Rickets 6. Marasmus 7. Osmosis 8. Hypercarotenemia 9. Pernicious Anemia 10. Osteomalacia 11. Extracellular Fluid Part II: True/False: Write true or false on the following statements. If the statement is false, write the correct answer or statement in the space provided. 12. True 13. False; NINE are ESSENTIAL and ELEVEN are NONESSENTIAL. 14. False; the fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. 15. False; Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. 16. True 17. False; Water makes up 5070% of the body’s weight. 18. True 19. False; Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. 20. True 21. False; we absorb 100% of the sodium we consume. 22. True 23. True Part III: Short Answer. Answer the question entirely. 24. Regulates and maintains body functions and provides essential form of nitrogen (In the form of amino acids) 25. DECREASED mortality rates 26. INCREASED mortality rates 27. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Amino acids contain nitrogen bonded to a carbon 28. Yes; Primary structure lead to the protein higher order structure. This causes the protein to get into a specific shape. This shape is necessary for the protein to function properly 29. The protein's primary structure is determined by the DNA. DNA is kept in the cell's nucleus. 30. The information of the protein's primary structure gets transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome (rough ER) where the protein gets translated (made). 31. One central carbon surrounded by an acid group, an amino group, some sort of side group, and hydrogen. The side group for each amino acid is different, making each amino acid unique. 32. Amino acids are connected together by a peptide bond. 33. By heat, strong acids, bases, and heavy metals. 34. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 35. Pepsin (enzyme) breaks the peptide bond of proteins resulting in protein fragments. Pepsin is released in the stomach by cells in the stomach and is activated by the acidic environment. 36. Gastrin regulates the release of Pepsin. It's released in response to thinking about food and chewing and digesting food. 37. CCK causes pancreas to release proteolytic enzymes that cleave proteins 38. Incomplete gluten breakdown in small intestines leaving small peptides and amino acids. Results in an inflammatory response to peptides and amino acids. Prevalence in the US: 1 in 133 39. Amino acids are taken up by the capillaries and taken to the liver by the portal vein. 40. Used as building blocks for liver proteins, broken down for energy, can be released into the blood, and can be converted into nonessential amino acids, glucose, or fat. 41. Producing vital body structures Body is in a constant state of turnover. Producing proteins and disassembling proteins. What happens in protein inadequacy Producing proteins slows down Muscles, blood proteins, and vital organs decrease in size. Brain resists breakdown o Maintaining Fluid Balance Blood proteins attract fluids. If protein are inadequate, the fluid shifts into the tissues called edema. o Contributing to acidbase balance Act as buffers maintain pH within a narrow range Keeps blood in an alkaline state. o Forming Hormones and Enzymes Hormones allow us to communicate between cells. Enzymes catalyze reactions in the cells. Transport and signaling receptors o Transport brings nutrients into the cells. Signaling receptors are used for communication in the cell o Contributing to the Immune Function Antibody production If there is protein deficiency, there is a decrease in immune function. o Providing Energy Is need for prolonged exercise and calorie restriction However, cells use primarily fats and CHO More efficient way to get energy. It wastes calories to metabolize amino acids for energy. o Forming Glucose Amino acids can converted into glucose when blood sugar is low. During Starvation: Muscle wasting and edema results from protein breakdown. Glucogenic Amino Acids are the only ones that can be used for glucose. Use both nonessential and essential amino acids o Contributes to Satiety Proteins provide the highest feeling of satisfaction after eating. May contribute to calorie control during weight loss 42. The breakdown of amino acids leave behind ammonia. Ammonia is turned into urea in the liver and then excreted by the kidneys during urination. 43. 0.8 grams per kilogram per body weight. 44. Beef, poultry, milk, white bread, and cheese. 45. Vegetarian or a Vegan diet. 46. 47. Essential organic substances needed in small amounts in the diet for normal function, growth, and maintenance of the body. Yield no energy. 48. A,D,E,K 49. B,C 50. To facilitate energy yielding chemical reactions and function as coenzymes. 51. Promotes vision, prevents drying of the skin and eyes, maintains epithelial cells, promote immune function, and promotes growth. 52. Helps regulate blood calcium levels and bone metabolism. It works with the parathyroid hormone, helps to regulate calcium and phosphorus absorption from the intestine, regulates the deposition of calcium in the bone and regulates the excretion of calcium from the kidney. 53. Acts as a fatsoluble antioxidant to help protect the components of cells. 54. Vital for blood clotting, and also activates proteins present in bone, muscle, and kidneys to give calcium binding ability to the organs. 55. Formation of collagen which strengthens tissues, formation of other compounds (carnitine, serotonin, norepinephrine) and acts as an antioxidant. 56. What are the B vitamins that we discussed in class Briefly describe their function. Folate: Functions as a single carbon supplier or donor, and adds a coenzyme to help for DNA and metabolize various amino acids and their derivatives. Vitamin B6: Needed for the activity of many enzymes, important in amino acid metabolism, necessary for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, important for hemoglobin synthesis, and is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin. Vitamin B12: Required to convert folate into its active form and maintains the myelin sheaths that insulate neurons. Thiamin (B1): Helps release energy from carbs. Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3): Both aid in energy metabolism and are coenzymes. 57. Ions control the movement of water in between the intracellular and extracellular compartments. 58. Solvent for chemical reaction in water, helps regulate temperature, helps remove waste products, cushions and lubricates. 59. 12%: Thirst mechanism occurs 4%: Muscle lose strength and endurance 1012%: Heat tolerance is decreased. 20%: A coma and perhaps death. 60. Released from the adrenal glands when blood volume decreases and communicates with kidneys to conserve water and salt. 61. Dilutes the sodium levels causing nausea, confusion, vomiting, headaches, muscle weakness, and convulsions. 62. The soil it’s grown in and our ability to absorb it. 63. Oxalates: Found in spinach; binds calcium Phytates: Found in grains; binds calcium, iron, zinc, others. 64. Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chloride, and Magnesium. 65. Regulates transport of ions across the cell membrane, helps maintain blood pressure, essential for muscle contractions, essential for secretion of hormones, enzymes, neurotransmitters, etc., & is essential for blood clotting 66. Get an adequate amount of calcium and vitamin D in your diet, exercising and estrogen. 67. Fluid balance between compartments, nerve impulse conduction and absorption of glucose. 68. A major negative ion for extracellular fluid and is used in producing stomach acid. 69. Important in fluid balance and nerve transmission. 70. Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, Copper, Chromium, Fluoride, etc. 71. Heme and NonHeme iron 72. Anemia 73. Impaired physical and mental activity, fatigue, loss of appetite, decreased learning ability, attention span. 74. Growth, wound healing, sexual maturity, taste perception 75. Absorption depends on body needs. Phytic acid binds to zinc and limits availability. High calcium intake decreases zinc absorption. Zinc competes with iron and copper for absorption. 76. Indirect antioxidant, works with vitamin E to help protect cell membranes from oxidizing agents. Binds to enzymes to protect against oxidation. May have anticancer properties. 77. Used in the production thyroid hormone 78. Cells of the thyroid enlarge in attempt to trap more iodine. Called Goiter. People are sluggish and gain weight. During pregnancy, deficiency can cause extreme and irreversible mental and physical retardation of developing baby. 79. Involved in the metabolism of iron by functioning in the formation of hemoglobin and transport iron. Also involved in the formation of connective tissue. Is a cofactor for antioxidant enzymes. 80. Absorption is highly variable. Higher intakes associated with lower absorption efficiency. Phytates, fiber, excess zinc and iron supplements interfere with absorption. 81. A genetic disorder that results in accumulation of copper in the tissues. Characterized by damage to the liver, nervous system, and other organs.