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How do hindsight bias, overconfidence, and the tendency to

Myers' Psychology for AP | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9781464113079 | Authors: David G. Myers ISBN: 9781464113079 170

Solution for problem 4 Chapter 2

Myers' Psychology for AP | 2nd Edition

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Myers' Psychology for AP | 2nd Edition | ISBN: 9781464113079 | Authors: David G. Myers

Myers' Psychology for AP | 2nd Edition

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Problem 4

How do hindsight bias, overconfidence, and the tendency to perceive order in random events illustrate why science-based answers are more valid than those based on intuition and common sense?

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StudyQuestionsfortheTextbook:Unit 3 Gingerich PSY325 Spring2016 Hilighted=keytermsHilighted=payattentiontoHilighted=importantpeople Chapter8 1. WhathappenedwhenPenfieldstimulatedthesubstantianigraofa65-year-oldwoman • Surgeonsunexpectedlydiscoveredthatstimulatingthisareaofthebraincould producesymptomsofdepression • Shortlyafterstimulation,thewomanleanedover,begancrying,reportednothaving purposetoliveanylonger. o Lessthan90secondsaftertheelectrodeswereremoved,herdepressionwent away,andwithin5minutesshewashappyandcheerfulagain 2. DistinguishbetweenEEG,MEG,PET,andfMRI.Howwouldbrainresearchersusethemto learnaboutpersonalityWhataresomeofthedifficultiesininterpretingemotional responsesindicatedbythesetechniquesAlso,whatdoesTMSdo a. EEG:electroencephalography:electrodesareplacedonthescalptopickupelectrical signalsthataregeneratedwhenthebrainisactiveunderneathelectrodes b. MEG:magnetoencephalography:usesdelicatesensorstodetectmagnetic(as opposedtoelectricalwithEEG)indicationsofbrainactivity i. BothEEGandMEGareusefulfordeterminingwhenthebrainisactive,but notspecifictojustwhereinthebraintheactivityisconcentrated c. PET:positronemissiontomography(PET):createsamapofbrainactivitybyfollowing thelocationofaradioactivetracerinjectedintothebloodstream i. Harderthebrainworks=morebloodpumpingthrough,soresearcherscan learnwherethebrainismostactiveduringcertainactivities d. fMRI:functionalmagneticresonanceimaging:monitorsmagneticpulsesgenerated byoxygeninthebloodtomapwherethebrainismostactiveatagivenmoment e. Nooneofthesemethodsisthebest,andeachservesauniquepurpose f. TMS=transcranialmagneticstimulation;usesrapidlychangingmagneticfieldsto temporarilyturnoffareasofbrainactivity i. Thisallowsresearcherstocreateavirtuallesiontoseewhatareasofthebrain arenecessaryforapsychologicaltask 3. Doestheamygdalaonlyplayapartinnegativeemotion a. No,thefunctionoftheamygdalaisalsorelatedtopositiveemotions,suchassocial attractionandsexualresponsiveness i. Italsoeffectsreactionstopleasurablestimulisuchasphotographsofhappy scenesandpleasanttastes ii. Afterthebrainassessesasituation,theamygdalamayrespondbymaking heartbeatfaster,raisingbloodpressure,andreleasingcortisoland epinephrine 4. Personalitypsychologistsarequiteinterestedintheactivityoftheamygdalaaswellasthe insulaandanteriorcingulate.Explain. a. Thefunctionoftheamygdalahelpstoexplainthewidevarietyofpersonalitytraits thatappearrelevanttothese3structures 2 i. Theserelevanttraitsincludechronicanxiety,fearfulness,sociability,and sexuality—whichallrelatetowhetherornotpeopleareseenasattractiveor threatening b. TheimportanceoftheamygdalawasillustratedinthecaseofCharlesWhitman,who shothiswife,hismother,andthenmanyothersfromthetopofabuilding i. Hehadatumorinthebasalganglianexttotheamygdala 5. HowdothestoriesofCharlesWhitman,PhinneasGage,andElliott(andlaterinthe chapter,RosemaryKennedy)showtheconnectionbetweenbrainanatomyand personality a. Animportantlessonfromallofthesecasesisthatemotionandcognitionare intimatelyintertwined,andwhentheybecomedetached,consequencescanbe severe 6. DescribeCapgrassyndrome. a. Capgrassyndrome:personsuffersasevereinjurytotherightfrontallobe,which affectsemotionalresponsegreatly i. Whenthesepatientsrecognizealovedone,theyfailtofeelanyemotional responsetothisrecognition(usuallybelievetheirlovedoneshavebeen replacedbyimposters) 7. Whatismeantby“theneuralcontexteffect” a. Theactivitiesofthebraininindividualareasmaynotbeanverymuchintheabsence ofknowledgeaboutwhatotherareasofthebrainaredoingatthesametime i. Theeffectofcontextisimportanttokeepinmind;withoutit,brainscienceis indangerofdevolvingintoasimplisticattempttomattraitsandbehaviors ontospecificlocationsinthebrain(p.279). 8. Howmighttheexperiencesonehasearlyinliferelatetodopamineandextroversion a. DopamineworksincombinationwiththenucleusaccumbenstoformtheBehavioral activationsystem(BAS),whichproducesandreinforcesthemotivationtoseek rewards b. Peoplewhohavehadanabundanceofrewardingexperiencesinearlylifemay developmuchmorecells,causingthedopaminergicpartofnervoussystemtobewell developedandactive i. Asaresult,theywillseekoutmorerewardsandarecapableofenjoyingthem strongly ii. Theyalsobecomemoreassertive,dominant,andoutgoing(extraverts) 9. InBigFiveterms,whatpersonalitychangesmightoccurwhensomeonetakesanSSRIlike Prozac a. SSRI=selectiveserotoninreuptakeinhibitor b. Peoplebecomemoreextravertedandobtainedlowerscoresonaneuroticismtest i. Reportfeelinghappierandlesshostile c. Thesecanbeclassifiedas“antineurotics”ratherthanantidepressants 10. HowdidShelleyTaylorthinkmenandwomenmightresponddifferentlytothreat a. Duringprehistoricera:menhadachoicetostandandfight,orrunaway,whereasa womanwasmaternal,andtheoptiontoeitherfightorrunawaymightputherand herchildrenatanunacceptablerisk. 3 i. Itmademoresenseforawomantocalmeveryonedownandbandpeople togethertofendoffthethreat—alsocalledthetend-and-befriend b. Oxytocin:releasedinstressresponseandinfemales,promotesnurturantand sociablebehavioralongwithrelaxationandreductionoffear(theoppositeoffightor flight) 11. Whichhormoneplaysaroleinsexuality,aggressiveness,anddominanceWhichoneis calledthe“lovehormone”andassociatedwithmother-childbondingandloweringof anxietyWhichone,inhighexcess,mightleadtochronicanxietyandevenbraindamage a. Testosterone=aggression,sex,dominance b. Oxytocin=thelovehormone,mother-childbonding,romanticattachment,andsexual response c. Excesscortisolproductionininfantscanleadtodevelopingsocialphobias i. Inadults,responsetostressreleasescortisol,andthisexcessproducedbytoo muchfearandanxietyincreasesriskofheartdiseaseandmay(overtime) evenmakeone’sbrainsmaller 12. AresomeoftheneurotransmittersandhormonesinthischapterassociatedwithBigFive traitsSeeTable8.1. a. Yes,hormonesandneurotransmittersareassociatedwithBFItraits. b. HighCortisol=lowinnarcissism c. Highoxytocin=moreextraverted(lessfearfulofstrangers) Chapter9 1. WhatisaheritabilitycoefficientWhataretheapproximateheritabilitycoefficientsofthe BigFivetraitsCheckoutTable9.2forheritabilitiesofmorepsychologicaltraits.Which psychiatricillnesseshavethehighestandlowestheritabilitycoefficients a. Heritabilitycoefficient:thedegreetowhichvariationinbehaviorisduetogenetic (thinkofitasapercentage) b. Schizophreniahasthehighestcoefficientof.80 c. Phobiashavethelowesfrom.20-.40 i. Butthelowestnotarangeisgeneralizedanxietydisorderof.30 2. Dosharedfamilyenvironmentshaveaninfluenceonpersonality a. Amajormeta-analysisdoneshowdthatthesharedfamilyenvironmentwas importantinthedevelopmentofmanypsychopathologybetweenchildhoodand adolescence,including: i. Conductdisorder,rebelliousness,anxiety,depression(p.308) 3. Explainthestatementonpage310thatdivorceisheritable,inrelationtopersonality. a. Ifoneormoreofyourcloserelativeshavebeendivorced,youaremorelikelytoget divorcedthanifnoneofyourrelativeshavebeendivorced—evenifyou’venevermet them b. Theseresultsimplythatoneormoregeneticallyinfluencedtraitsarerelevantto divorce i. Wedon’tknowwhichtraitstheseareorhowtheyinteracttoinfluence divorce 4. Dosinglegenesleadtopersonalitytraits 4 a. Example:the5-HTTgeneisassociatedwithserotonintransporterprotein i. Has2alleles:shortandlong ii. Peoplewithshortallelescorehigheronmeasuresofneuroticism,isrelevant toanxietyandoverreactiontostress 1. Theiramygdalaalsoshowsstrongerresponses iii. Thegenealsoappearstoregulatethedegreetowhichtheamygdalaand prefrontalcortexworktogether,whichmayofferacluetothebrainstructure ofdepression 5. Explainhowabetterintellectualenvironmentforeveryonewouldleadtohigher heritabilitycoefficientsforIQ.AreheritabilitiesforIQdifferentinhigherandlowerSES groups a. Inanenvironmentwhereintellectualstimulationvaryalotbetweenchildren,IQwill varytooandismoreincontroloftheenvironment b. ChildrenwhoarestimulatedandeducatedwillgrowuptohaveanIQnearthe maximumoftheirgeneticpotential c. Childrenwhoaren’tstimulatedwillgrowuptohavealowerIQ,andheritabilityofan IQwillbelow(heritabilitycloseto0). d. ChildreninlowSESfamilies:varianceinIQwasaccountedforbytheirenvironments e. ChildreninhighSES:varianceinIQwasduetogenes 6. InCaspi’sstudies,certaingenesinteractedwithstressandabuse.Giveageneral explanation,anddiscusstheissueofreplication. a. Results:maltreatedboyswhohadthealleleofagenethatinfluencedfunctioningof stressneurotransmittersandlowMAOA(thegene)activityshowedthat85% demonstratedsomeformofantisocialbehavior i. Thesefindingswerereplicatedfoundthat15%ofboyswithadverse backgroundsandthehighMAOAgenedevelopedantisocialbehaviors, whereas35%ofboyswithadversebackgroundsandthelow-activityformof thegenehadthisoutcome ii. Inconclusion:thelow-MAOAgenemorethandoubledtheriskofdeveloping antisocialbehaviors,butonlyifthechildhadsufferedmaltreatment(p.316). 7. Howwouldyouanswertheauthor’squestion:“Wheredoesneuroticismcomefrom” a. Neuroticismisaresultofmanycomplextransactions i. Apersonmayhaveabiologicalvulnerabilitytostressthatisgenerally influenced,probablybydifferentgenes ii. Mayalsohavepsychologicalvulnerabilitycausedbyenvironmentalfactors b. These2influencescancombinetoproduceageneralinabilitytohandlestresswell, whichisthedefinitionofneuroticism(essentially) 8. Congratsonbeing“thelatestinalong,unbrokenchainofwinners!”Speakingof evolutionarypsychology,whywouldself-esteembeimportanttosurvivalDepression a. Accordingtothesociometertheory,feelingsofself-esteemevolvedtomonitorthe degreetowhichapersonisacceptedbyothers i. Humansarehighlysocial,andtheworstpotentialthingistobeshunnedby thecommunity 5 ii. Ifwearen’taccepted,selfesteemdecreases,andwearemotivatedtodo better iii. Peoplewhodidn’tbetterthemselvesfailedtosurviveandreproduce b. Depressionpromotessocialreactions(crying,heartbreak,etc.)orfailurereactions (fatigue,shame,guilt),allofwhichpromotesurvival i. Thepainoffailureorwhensomethinghasgonewrong,signalsthatchances forreproducingorevensurvivingmaybeatrisk 9. Theauthorstatesthatsomemenarecharacterizedby“theDarkTriad”oftraits.Explain howthosetraitsmightrelatetoevolutionarytheory. a. TheDarkTriad:narcissism,psychopathy,andMachiavellianism b. Amalemaysucceedinhavingthegreatestreproductivesuccessbyhavingasmany childrenbyasmanywomenaspossible(justpassontheirgenesinnumbersisthe goal) c. Menarepronetocertainkindsofwishfulthinkinginwhichtheyarequickto concludethatwomenaresexuallyinterestedinthem 10. Whatdoweknowaboutmenwhoscorehigherandlowerinsociosexuality a. Bothmenandwomenwhoscorehighonthistraitareespeciallyinterestedinthe physicalattractivenessandsocialvisibilityofpotentialpersonality b. Menhigherinsociosexualityalsoaremorelikelytoengage“conspicuous consumption”—buyinganddisplayingexpensiveobjectstotryandattractwomenfor short-termencounters c. Menlowerinsociosexualitywerechosenlessasapartnerbywomenthanthemen whoarehigherinthistrait 11. Whatdoyouthinkofthe“sexyson”hypothesis(Seethetopofpage334,too.) a. Afewwomentaketheirchancesbymatingwithanunstablebutattractivemale(as opposedtoastablebutunattractiveone). b. Thetheory:iftheyproduceaboy,andthefatherleaves,thesonwillbejustlikehis dad i. Whenthesongrowsup,hewillspreadnumerous“sexy”children(including themother’sgenes)inthesameirresponsible,albeiteffectivemannerashis father c. However,thistheoryconvenientlyleavesoutthefactthatwomenconsistentlyseek stablemates,andtheempiricalfactthatsomewomendotheopposite(p.334) i. So,thesexysonhypothesisisabittooconvenient(p.334) 12. What’stherelationshipbetweenevolutionarypsychologyandindividualdifferences a. Thebasicmechanismofevolutionrequiresindividualdifferences b. Specieschangeonlythroughtheselectivepropagationofthegenesofthemost successfulindividualsinearliergenerations,whichcan’thappenifeveryoneisthe same 13. Howmightthetraitsofpeoplewithslowlife-historiesdifferfromthosewithfastlife histories a. Slow-lifehistory=reproducingslowlywithnofearofdyingquickly(mosthumans) 6 b. Fast-lifehistory=reproducingmultipletimesatyoungagebutdoesnotdevotemany resourcestoprotectingtheoffspring;typicallydieyoungsothat’swhytheydothis (ex.Rabbits) c. Safe,predictableenvironmentspromoteslow-LHindividualswhomarrylate,have fewchildren,andputlotsofresourcesintoprotectingthem i. Behaviors:considerate,kind,hard-working,andreliable ii. Alsosociallyawkward,insecure,andovercontrolling d. Dangerousenvironmentsleadtofast-LHlifestyles,whohavechildrenyoungbut oftenabandonthemwithoutraisingthem i. Behaviors:hostile,manipulative,andimpulsive ii. Butalsotalkative,sociallyskilled,dominant,andcharming e. NeitherLHstrategyis“better”—therearetradeoffstoboth 14. Whatdoyouthinkaboutthe“stresstests”oftheevolutionaryperspective(5) a. Methodology:speculatingbackwards;i.e.,whatcircumstancesinthepastmighthave producedabehavioralpatternweseetoday i. Evolutionarypsychologistsarereadytoputthesetheoriestoempiricaltestif possible b. ReproductiveInstinct:evolutionarypsychologyassumesthateveryonewantsas manychildrenaspossible i. Why,then,doweusecontraception ii. Forthetheorytobecorrect,itisnotnecessaryforpeopletoconsciouslydo whatthetheorysaystheirbehaviorsaredesignedtodo 1. Allthatisrequiredisforpeopleinthepasttohavefollowedacertain behavioralpatterntohaveproducedmorepeopleofthepresent generationthandidthosewhodidnotfollowthatpattern c. ConservativeBias:evolutionarytheoryimpliesthatthecurrentbehavioralorderwas notonlyinevitablebutalsoprobablyunchangeableandappropriate i. Peoplehaveanissuewiththis(example:childabuseandrape=reprehensible) ii. Evolutionaryresponse:theseconcernsarenotscientificallyrelevant; scientistsdon’tassumethatwhatisnaturalisgood d. Humanflexibility:Evolutionaryideasdescribespecificbehaviorthatisgenetically programmed,whereaspsychologyteachesusthathumansareflexiblewitha minimumofinstinctivebehaviorpatternscomparedtootherspecies e. BiologicalDeterminismorSocialStructurePeopleevolvetobeflexibleclosely relatestoevolutionaryapproach i. Manybehavioralphenomenamaybetheresultofnotevolutionaryhistory, butofhumansrespondingtochangingcircumstances,especiallysocial structure(p.337) 15. DescribepersonalityusingtheanalogyofBabyRockefeller’swealth. a. Inheritanceofgenesisonething;whatone’sinhabitationintheworldandits influenceonthemdoesfortheirpersonalitycanchangeeverythingintermsof personalitydevelopment i. Justlikeinheritingmoney 7 16. HowdoesFunderanswerthequestionheposesattheendofthechapter:“Willbiology replacepsychology” a. Nope!Itprobablywon’t,eveninthedistantfuture.Biologicalapproachesto personalitytellusmoreaboutbiologythanaboutpsychology(p.341). Chapter10 1. Whatarethemainideasthatmakeuppsychoanalysis a. PsychicDeterminismandtheunconscious i. Psychicdeterminism:nothingyoudoisrandom;everythingthatyoudois determinedbyyoursubconscious b. InternalStructuresofthemind(id,ego,superego) c. Mentalenergytowardlife(libido)anddeath(thanatos) d. Psychosexualstagesoflife(wheretheenergyisdirectedtoward)andfixations e. Parapraxes(FreudianSlips) f. Anxiety,anddefenses i. Reviewdefensemechanismsonpage378 2. Onpage359,Fundersaysweshouldkeepouranalysesofotherstoourselves.Doyou agree a. Funderarguesthatweshoulddothisbecauseifwearewrong,itwillmakethem mad.Ifweareright,ifwillmakethemevenmadder. b. Thisisagoodpoint;however,hemaybespeakingfromexperiencewiththefirstdate hedidn’tknowverywell.Ibelievewhenweknowsomeonewellenough(ex:abest friendorpartner),wecanofferthesetothem,andiftheytakeitthewrongwayit mostlikelywon’truintherelationshipyouhavebuilt.And,ifyou’reright,theymay behappytohavelearnedsomethingyouobserved. 3. ExplainthedoctrineofoppositesasitrelatestoFreudiantheory. a. Thedoctrineofoppositesstatesthateverythingimplies,evenrequires,itsopposite (p.360) i. Liferequiresdeath,happinessrequiressadness,andsoforth 1. Onecannotexistwithouttheother ii. Freudiantheoryislikethisinthejuxtapositionofthelifedrive(libido)with thedeathdrive(thanatos) 4. WhatarethethreeaspectsofeachofFreud’spsychosexualstagesofdevelopment a. Oral:birthto18mos i. Psychologicaltheme:Dependence,passivity ii. Adultcharacter:dependentoroverlyindependent b. Anal:18mos-31/2years i. Psychologicaltheme:obedienceandself-control ii. Adultcharacter:obedient,obsessedwithorder,oranti-authorityandchaotic c. Phallic:3.5years-7yrs i. Psychologicaltheme:genderidentityandsexuality ii. Adult:over-orunder-sexualized d. Latency:7yrstopuberty i. Psychologicaltheme:learningandcognitivedevelopment 8 ii. Adult:N/A e. Kidsshouldbelearninghowtooperateintheworldduringthisstage i. Psychicenergydirectedtowardlearning ii. Genital:pubertythroughadulthood iii. Psychologicaltheme:creationandenhancementoflife iv. Adultcharacter:amatureadult(seldomachieved) 5. Describethe“oralcharacter”andhowthepersongottobethatway.Inwhatwayswas Freud“ontosomething,”evensupportedbymodernresearch,withregardtohisoral stageHowdoweknowifsomeonehashadanappropriateresolutiontotheoralstage a. Thepsychologicalthemeoftheoralstageisdependency b. Ifthebaby’sneedsaren’tfulfilledduringthisstage:babyisn’tfedwhenhungry, coveredwhencold,orcomfortedwhenupset,thebabymaydevelopabasicmistrust ofotherpeopleandneverbeabletoadequatelydealwithdependencyrelationships c. Asecondpotentialissueisthatthebaby’sneedsweremettooquicklyand automaticallythattheideaoftheworldrespondingdifferentlyneveroccurstothat person—thus,theincreasingdemandsoflifecomeasashock i. Thispersonmaywanttobebackattheoralstage,whereallthatwas necessarywastowantsomethinganditimmediatelyappeared 6. Describethe“analcharacter”andhowthepersongottobethatway.Onceagain:Isthere modernresearchtosupportFreud’sbasicpointWhatpatternofbehaviorwouldyou expectfromsomeonewhowasnotfixatedatthisstage a. Twothingsmaygowronginthisstagetocreatethe“anal”person: i. Unreasonableexpectationscanbetraumatic—demandsfromtheparentsthat kidscan’tmeetcancauselong-lastingpsychologicaltrauma ii. Neverdemandingthatthechildcontroltheirurges(bowelmovements)can beequallyproblematic b. Achildwillneverworkthestagethroughsufficientlyiftheenvironmentistooharsh ortoolenient c. Thesemishapsproducetheanalcharacterasanadult,whosepersonalityisorganized aroundcontrolissues 7. DescribetheOedipalcrisis,andthe“phalliccharacter.” a. Oedipalcrisis:youngboysfallphysicallyandemotionallyinlovewiththeirmothers, andbecauseofthistheyfeartheirfather’sjealousy i. Theirspecificfearisthattheirfatherswillcastratetheminretaliation b. Aphalliccharacterhasdevelopedacompletelyrigidmoralcode,onethatbrooksno shadesofgrayandnoexceptions i. Alsopossibletolackamoralcodealtogether(i.e.,theoppositeofthe extreme) 8. Describethelasttwodevelopmentalstages,andFreud’sideaofmaturity. a. Latencystage:psychologicalthemeislearninganddevelopment b. Genitalstage:verydifferentfromallotherstages;notsomethingindividualspass through,butsomethingtheymustattain i. Afterphysicalpuberty,apersondevelopsamatureattitudeaboutsexuality (however,somesimplydon’tmatureinthisway) 9 ii. Genitalrefersnotonlytothephysicalorgan,butalsotheprocessof reproductionandgivinglife 9. Whattypeofthinkingoccurs(accordingtoFreud)whensomeoneismumblinginastateof delirium 10. Whensomeoneasksyoutotalkaboutamovieyousawlastnight,yourabilityto rememberandanswerinvolveswhichofthethreelevelsofFreud’sconsciousness a. Youareusingthepreconsciousleveltorecallthis,whichconsistsofideasthatyou arenotcurrentlythinkingabout,butthatyoucanbringintoconsciousnesseasily 11. InFreudiantheory,whydopeople“forget”WhatcausesslipsWhatishappeningwhen someonedeniesthattheirforgettingorslipsmeansomething a. Slipsoccurasunintendedactionscausesbytheleakageofsuppressedthoughtsor impulses b. Themoreloudandmorevehementtheirdenialis,themoreaFreudianwillsuspecta powerfulandimportantimpulsebehindtheslip 12. Canyoudistinguishbetweenthedefensemechanisms a. Checkpg.378 13. Whichofthecriticismsdoyouthinkisthemostsignificant a. TheuntestabilityofFreud’stheoriesisaveryimportantcriticism,becauseit’strue thatit’sunethicalandcannotbedistinguishedasscientificwhenlookingtotest thingsempirically Chapter11 1. WhatwasthegistofAdler’stheoryHowdopeoplecompensateforfeelingsof inferiorityAndwhatmoderntermswereAdler’scontributions a. InferiorityandCompensationbyAdler i. Adlerwasthefirstmajorneo-FreudiantoendupatoddswithFreud b. Adlerbelievedthatpeopleattainequalitywithorsuperiorityoverothersto compensateforwhatevertheyfeltinchildhoodwastheirweakestaspect(knownas organinferiority) c. Today’sideasfromAdler:needsforpower,love,andachievementallhaverootsin earlyexperience i. Twofamiliartermswithrootsinhisideasare:inferioritycomplexandlifestyle 2. WhatideasdidJungandHorneycontribute a. CarlJungisbestknownforhisideaofthecollectiveunconscious b. Healsobelievedthatallpeoplesharedinbornhumanmemoriesandideas,mostof whichresideintheunconscious,whicharecalledarchetypes i. Archetypesgotothecoreofhowpeoplethinkabouttheworld,consciously andunconsciously c. AnotherJungideaisthepersona:thesocialmaskonewearsinpublic i. Tosomeextent,everyone’spersonaisfake,becauseeveryonekeepssome aspectsoftheirrealselvesprivate(oratleastfailstoadvertiseallaspectsof theselfequally) d. Horneyneverfeudedwiththemaster(Freud) 10 i. Shewroteaboutself-analysis,andhowitcanhelppeoplethrough psychologicaldifficultieswhenprofessionalpsychoanalysiswasimpracticalor unavailable e. HorneydisagreedwithFreudontheideaofwomenbeingobsessedby“penisenvy” andthedesiretobemale i. Shearguesthatwomenenvymenbecauseoftheirstatusandabilitytobe freerthanwomen,topursuetheirowninterestsandambitions(thinkof Horney’sgeneration—womencouldn’tyetvote) 3. TellsomeoneaboutErikson’sstages. a. UnderstandErickson’spsychosocialstages(p.400)vs.Freud’spsychosexualstages (generaldifferences,don’tneedtoknoweverystageofErickson’s) 4. Whatdoesobjectrelationstheorypositastheprimarycauseofinterpersonalproblems Whatareitsmainthemes a. ObjectRelationsTheorybyKleinandWinnicott b. Theprimaryideaofthetheoryisthatwecanonlyrelatetootherpeopleviathe imagesofthemweholdinourminds,andtheseimagesdonotalwaysmatchreality i. Mismatchbetweenthetwocausesproblems c. Relationshipsalwayscomewithamixofloveandresentment(example:youlove yourfamily,buttherearealwaysthingsthatmakeyouresentthemattimes) 5. Inobjectrelationstheory,whatismeantby“splitting”Andwhydopeopleidealize parentsorlovedones a. Splittingreferstodividingyourimportantloveobjectsintotwoparts,onegoodand onebad i. Thegoodpartpleasestheperson ii. Thebadpartfrustratesthem iii. Childrenwanttodestroythebadpartbecausetheyfearbeingdestroyedbyit 6. WhatistheniffleWhatisitspurpose a. TermderivedbypediatricianWinnicottafterapatientwhowashospitalizedand couldn’tsleepwithouthis“niffle”—apieceofclothtowhichhedevelopedan emotionalattachment(p.404) i. Whenhisnifflewaslost,hewashostile,stubborn,andannoyingtothepoint wherehisparentsbroughthimtoWinnicottfortherapy b. Winnicottthusnamedthetransitionalobject,whichthechildusestobridgethegap betweenprivatefantasyandreality 7. WhichofWinnecott’sconceptsremindsyouofJung’s“persona” a. Thenotionofthe“falseself”—whichchildren(andlateradults)learntoputonto pleaseotherpeople 8. DoesmodernresearchsupportpsychoanalytichypothesesGivesomeexamples. a. Yes,afewbravepsychologistsarepursuingresearchrelevanttopsychoanalysis,and moredoingsowithoutrealizationoftheconnectiontoneo-Freudianideas b. Examples:unconsciousmentalprocesses;self-defensivethoughtandself-deception; sexualoraggressivewishesastheyinfluencethought,feeling,andbehavior 9. Describeattachmenttheory,includingBowby’sideaabouthowweevolvedtoattachto caregivers,andthelessonswelearnfromourearlyattachments.Next,describe 11 Ainsworth’scategoriesofattachment,andhowtheserelatetopersonalities.Finally,how havemodernresearchersmodifiedherclassificationsystem a. AttachmentTheory:focusesonpatternsofrelationshipswithothersthatare consistentlyrepeatedwithdifferentpatternsthroughoutlife(p.409). b. Bowlby:thebasisofloveisattachment i. Hehypothesizedthat,duringevolution,humansevolvedastrongfearof beingalone,especiallyinunusual,dark,ordangerousplaces c. MaryAinsworth:inventedtheexperimentalprocedurecalledthestrangesituation,in whichthechildisbrieflyseparatedfrom(andthenreunitedwith)hismother i. Thechild’sreactionstobeingreunitedwithmomwilldemonstratetheir attachmentstyles(securevs.anxious/ambivalent) ii. Thesewillleadtolateradultpersonalitiesasthedevelopingattachmentstyle affectsoutcomesthroughlife d. Modernresearchersmodifiedattachmentresearch:theyhavemovedontoatwo- dimensionalmodelonwhichpeoplevaryaccordingtotheirdegreeofanxietyabout relationships,andtheiravoidanceofrelationships i. Onlyapersonlowinbothcategorieswouldbeconsideredsecurelyattached 10. ReadWesten’s“fiveneo-Freudianpropositionsthathavebeenfirmlyestablished”onpage 415.Doyouagree a. Checkoutpage415(consideryouropinion)

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Textbook: Myers' Psychology for AP
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Author: David G. Myers
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How do hindsight bias, overconfidence, and the tendency to