×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach - 8 Edition - Chapter 2 - Problem 270
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach - 8 Edition - Chapter 2 - Problem 270

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Solved: A hydraulic turbine has 85 m of elevation

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel ISBN: 9780073398174 171

Solution for problem 270 Chapter 2

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

4 5 1 425 Reviews
30
0
Problem 270

A hydraulic turbine has 85 m of elevation difference available at a flow rate of 0.25 m3 /s, and its overall turbinegenerator efficiency is 91 percent. Determine the electric power output of this turbine.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Exam3StudyGuide Chapter6:MicrobialGrowth Growthfactors: 1. Oxygen a. 2. Temperature a. Optimum,lowestandhighest i. Autoclavingtemps.,pasteurizationkillw/highheat b. Psychrophilesàmesophilesàthermophiles i. Mosthumanpathogens=mesophiles c. Refrigerationoffood:coldtempslowsgrowth(exceptListeria, discussedbelow) i. Smallercontainersoffoodbest,allowcoldairtopenetrate faster(riceexample) 3. pH a. acido-,neutro-,alkalo-(philes) b. mosthumanpathogens=neutrophiles 4. Osmoticpressure a. Highsalt/sugarusedtopreservefood:hypertonicsolnmakeswater flowoutofcellàplasmolysis,lossofturgorpressure. b. Halophiles=likesalt,moreinternalsolutestopreventplasmolysis Extremophiles=extremeloving • thermo-,halo-,baro-(highpressure),acido-,alkalo-,detergentandsolvent resistant GrowthCycle • Reproducebybinaryfission o DNAreplicates,cellelongates,wallformedbetweentwohalves, producesgeneticclones • Phases:lag,log,stationary,death.Physiologicaldifferencesbtwnsteps. o Lag=gettingusedtoenvironment o Log=exponentialgrowth,**mostAbxsensitive**. o Stationary=samerateofgrowthanddeath,constant#.Cellspollute theirownenvironment,maketoxins,useupnutrientssotherecanbe nomoregrowth.**Duringthisphase,moreAbxresistant!**(mostAbx targetgrowingcells) o Death=numbersbegintodecline,weakenedcellwalls.Don’tuseto inoculatefornewgrowth/culture,GramStainwon’twork Countingbacteriainasample 1. Directcount=Petroff-Hausser a. Hemocytometer=actuallycountingcellsunderamicroscopeusing specialviewingtool. i. Problem:can’tdistinguishbetweendeadoralive ii. Requiresatleast10^6bact.persample(needlargesamplesize 2. Viablecountmethod=CFUmethod:serialdilutions,spreadplateorpour plate i. Countcoloniesonagar,extrapolatebackusingdilutionsto determinefinalnumberofviablecellspermL. 3. MPN(mostprobablenumber) i. Usedfortestingdrinkingwaterforpresenceoffecalcoliforms (indicatoroffecalpollution) ii. Addvaryingamts.watertoTSB,observegrowth iii. Pre-setstatisticalchart,givesestimateofbacteria/100mL 4. Indirectcount a. Turbidity=usingspectrophotometer. i. Shinelightthroughsample,scatteredlightdoesn’treach detectoronotherside.Decreaseinlightreaching detector=morebacteria. ii. Requiresatleast10^6bact.persample(needlargesample size) GrowthMedia 1. Chemicallydefined:youknowexactlywhatyouputin,predetermined amountsofexactchemicals a. Minimaldefinedmedia:onlyaddingtheverybasics,usedtoobserve biosynthesis b. Alsousedforfastidious(finicky)microbes 2. Complexmedia:thingslikebeefandyeastextract,don’tknowexactamounts ofelements,roughestimate. a. Ex=nutrientagarusedinlab 3. Differential:usedtocharacterizebacteriabyaspecificproperty a. Ex:hemolysisornotwithbloodagar 4. Selective:allowsonlycertaintypeofbacteriatogrow.Manymediaareboth selectiveanddifferential. a. MacConkeyagar(MAC):bilesalts,crystalviolet i. SelectsforGram–only ii. Bilesalt=detergent,crystalvioletinhibitsgrowthofGram+ iii. CanorganismmetabolizelactoseLactoseorsorbitoladdedto MACwithpHindicator) 1. Sorbitoladded=SMACplates.UsedtotellifyouhaveE. coliO157:H7ßcausesUTIs,otherdisease. 2. Redandpinkcolonies=abletofermentsorbitol (characteristicofE.coli,butNOTO157:H7) Lightandmicrobialgrowth • Lighteitherscatteredorabsorbed. o Onlyacertainwavelengthabsorbed,duetochemicalstructureof molecule o Absorbedlightexcitese-tohigherenergylevelwhichreflectsthe energy(E)inwavelengthoflight • Lightisanenergysourceforphototrophs(photosynthesis) o Light(energy)+CO2(Carbonsource) o Oxygenic § Producesoxygen,aerobic § Cyanobacteria • AlsofixNfromair,needSandPinwatertogrow.P foundindishwasherdetergent,excessrunoffleadsto “algalblooms” • Producetoxins o Anoxygenic § NoO2,anaerobic § Green/purplepigment § Foundindepthsoflakes(noO2butstilllightpenetration) o Photosyntheticmicrobesfoundonlyinwater • PhotosystemsIandII o PhotosystemI:lightactivatesATPproductiononly o PhotosystemII:splitsH20toproduceO2 § Oxygenic=bothphotosystems,Anoxygenic=onlyphotosystem I • Cyanobacteria(CB)toxins o IncreasedriskofALS,Alzheimers,Parkinson’s(neurodegenerative diseases) § Guamexperimentandeatingflyingfoxbats o Donotdrinkorboilthewater(boilingdoesn’teliminatetoxin) o BMAA(aminoacidderivative),madeby96%CB § AbletocrossBBB,enternervoussystem o L-serine(aminoacid)protectsfromBMAAtoxin.Currentlybeing testedbyFDA(phase3trial-seetrialphasesinnotes) Chapter7:ControllingMicrobialGrowth -cidal=kills -static=inhibitsgrowth Sterile=nothingleftalive,destruction/removalofbacteriaandspore Commercialsterilization=foodindustry,getridofC.botulinumspores Disinfection=killlivingmicrobesoninanimate(non-living)surface Antisepsis=killlivingmicrobesonlivingtissue Degerming=localantisepsis(Ex.Cleaninginjectionsite) Santitization=lowermicrobecountforpublichealth(Ex.Washingdishesin restaurant Plottingthedeathcurve **Dvalue=DRT(decimalreductiontime)=howlongittakestokill90%of population** Onagraph:Straightline=singletarget SterilizationTechniques 1. Filtersterilization:usedforheatintolerantliquids(vaccines,enzymes, vitamins a. Liquidontopoffilter,vacuumtubepullsliquidthrough,filtercatches bacteriaandsterileliquidfallsthrough.(Seediagraminlecturenotes orbook) b. Poresize=.2or.45microns(bacteriatoolarge) i. Millipore=clothlike,spunfiber ii. Nucleopore=solidwithholespunchedinitbygammarays, uniformholesize c. Filtrationusedforair=HEPAfilter(highefficiencyparticulateair filter) i. Microbefreeairforuseinhospitals,military,pharmaceuticals ii. Alsousedfortestingamt.ofmicrobesinair iii. AlsousedinBSL4labs d. Filtrationusedinwaterqualitytests:passcertainvolumethrough filter,placefilteronagarplateandobservegrowth.Cantestforfecal coliformsinwater. 2. Light(UVradiation) a. Pigmentsabsorblight;pigmentedbacteriaarerarebutpigmentsmay beimportantinpathogenesis(S.aureusforexample) i. UsedtoprotectDNA b. Bactericidal=below280nm(absorbedbyDNA,damagesDNA,kills) i. Germicidallamp=254nm c. DNAdamage:thyminedimersàproblemswithreplication. i. Canberepaired,butdamagecanoccurfasterthancanbe repaired 3. Temperature a. High i. Autoclave(pressurecooker,highpressuresteam) 1. Can’tbeusedforeverything 2. Sizeofcontaineraffectstimeneeded 3. Relationshipbetweentemp,pressure,andaltitude ii. Pasteurization 1. Killpathogensinmilkwhilekeepingitdrinkable 2. LTLT=lowtemplongtime 3. HTST=hightempshorttime 4. UHT=Ultrahightemp a. Highforbrieftime,usedtomakesterilemilk(so itcanbekeptforlongtimeswithout refrigeration,likelittlecoffeecreamertubsat restaurants) iii. DryHeatOven b. Microwavesdon’tkillmicrobes!(Theheatdoes,buttheyheat unevenly) 4. pH a. Stomach=pH2(acidbarrier,protectsfrommanypathogens) i. Shigella,salmonella=highacidtolerance. b. Weakacidsasfoodpreservatives i. Sorbicacid/sorbitol,propionicacid/propionate 1. Lipophilic:changeinternalpHofcell 5. ROS(ReactiveOxygenSpecies) a. Usedbymacrophagetokill i. Engulfs,lysosomewithROSinside,pathogenkilledand digested ii. Somepathogenssurvive!(S.aureusgoldpigment=protection) b. Oxidativestress i. Toprotect,bact.needtoremoveoxidant,repaircelldamage ii. EnzymesinbacterianeutralizeROS 1. Superoxidedismutase(superoxidetohydrogen peroxideH2O2) 2. Catalase(H2O2àhydroxylOH) 3. Alkylhydroperoxidereductase(OHàwater) c. Nitricoxide(RNS=reactivenitrogen)alsoused i. Peoplewithinfectionàhighnitrateinurine 6. HighPressure a. Foodpressurized@6000atm i. Denaturesproteins,maintainsflavors,colorsandnutrients ii. Called“pascalation” 7. ElectronicPasteurization(electronbeams) a. highenergyelectronbeamskillmicrobes i. Controversial(peoplethinkfoodradioactive,butitsnot) b. CausesirreversibledoublestrandDNAbreaks c. “cold”sterilization d. usedforspices,petridishes,pharmaceuticals,U.Smail(forspores) 8. Chemicals Antibiotics Antiseptics/Disinfectants Specific,internaluse Non-specific,externaluse lowconc.,complexchemstructure Highconc,simple Natural(mademyothermicrobes) Createdbychemists a. Antiseptics b. Disinfectants i. Phenolanditsderivatives 1. Lysol,hexachlorophene(foracne,impetigo) 2. Triclosan(antibact.soap) c. Detergents i. Parthydrophobic,parthydrophilic ii. Canbe+charged(cationic)or–charged(anionic) iii. Example:ammonia iv. Soaps:physicallyremovemicrobes(don’tkill,butwash away) d. Alcohols i. Ethanol 1. Tincture=somethingmixedwithaqueousethanol 2. 70%ethanolmosteffective(not100%!!) 9. Gas–ethyleneoxide a. Penetrateintostructure,sanitizehospitallinens/mattresses b. Modifiesproteins,cancauseblindness 10.Heavymetals a. Silver(Ag),Copper(Cu) b. Burnwardsponges(blacksponge)=silver c. SolidCusurfaces=registeredantimicrobialagent i. AlsohaveliquidCucontainingsolns. Chemicalbiocides:effectiveness LeastDifficulttokill-------------------------------------------------àMost Gram+virusesMycobacteriaendosporesprions • Sporeskilledby:autoclave,electronbeams,formaldehyde,ethyleneoxide Chapter20–Antibiotics • Seetableaboveforcharacteristics • Goal:Killpathogenswithoutharminghost • Pharmacokinetics:howlongdrugstaysinbloodandatwhatconcentration o Don’tstoptakingAbxbecauseyoufeelbetter;Binbodyàresistance • Producedcommonlybysoilmicrobes,especiallyStreptomycesfamily o Filamentousbacteria,manyspecies o DifferenttypesStreptomycesproducedifferentAbxàcanbe antibacterial,antifungal,killR/C(rickettsias/chlamydias) TargetsofAbx • Cellwall o Penicillins,cephalosporins,bacitracin,vancomycin • Proteinsynthesis(ribosomes) o Erythromycin,tetracycline,streptomycin • Nucleicacidreplication/transcription o Quinolones • Synthesisofmetabolites o Sulfadrugs Penicillin • History o AlexanderFlemingdiscovered o Largescaleproduction:findingrightstrain,mutatingittoproduce more • TargetsGROWINGcellwall o Canonlykillgrowingcells!!! o InhibitsPGcrosslink • Betalactamring=functionalunit • PenicillinG o Susceptibletomanythings.Neededdrugwithsameaction,more resistance • Semi-synthetics=keepingB-lactamringstructurebutaddingdifferentside chainstoproducedesiredproperties o Acid/penicillinaseresistance,reachCNS o Amidaseusedtoisolatecommonpenicillinskeleton(theBlactamring plussome),otherthingscanbeadded Penicillinase=bacterialenzymethatmakespenicillinnon-functionalbydestroying B-lactamring -Methicillin=resistanttothis -suffix“-cillin”usedforpenicillindrugs Cephalosporins • Prefix“Ceph”or“cef”usedfordrugs • Generations,eachmorecomplex st o 1 gen–killGram+ o 2 gen-Gram– o 3 gen-CrossBBB,reachCNS(curemeningitis) Tetracyclines,Erythro/Streptomycin • Inhibitproteinsynthesis,bindtobacterialribosome(rememberthey’re differentthanhumanribosomes) o Tetracycline=attachmentoftRNA § FirstbroadspectrumAbx o Chloramphenicol=inhibitspeptidebond o Streptomycin=readRNAincorrectlyàincorrectproteins o Erythromycin=alsomesseswithproteinsynth. Quinolones • Affectnucleotidesynthesis(DNA) • DNAgyrase=makesbacthavelong,supercoiledDNA o NotpresentinEuk. o Targetofthesedrugs Fermentedfoods(picnic): • Lacticacidbacteriahelpmakefoodslikesauerkraut,sausage,cheese,yogurt, buttermilk,soysauce. o Captaincookandsauerkraut o Lacticacidbenefitsforfood:lowerpH § Addsflavor,preservative(preventspoilage) • Probiotics=goodbacteriainfermentedfoods.Replacegutflorakilledwhen you’retakingantibiotics. o EliMetchnikoff • Yeasts:bread,beer,wine Cheeseproduction: • Milk+renin+lacticacidàcurdling • Curdsandwhey(wheydisposedof) o Curdsusedtomakecheese • Curdsdrained,cooled,salted,pressed • Ripening o Unripe=cottagechz,creamchz. o Ripened=softandhardchz. • 400galmilk=150lbschz • Hardchz=wrappedairtight,nolimitonsize,anaerobicbacteriainside.25- 35%ofcasein(milkprotein)digested. o Ex:parmesan,romano • Softchz=surfacefungi,aerobic,smallsize,100%caseindigested o Ex:bleuchz,brie • Startercultures o Culturesofselectedbacteriaaddedtomilk DiseasesoftheDay Meningitis(generaltermforinfectioninCSFofcentralnervoussystem) • CSF=cerebrospinalfluid,thefluidthatbathesbrainandspinalcord.Usually sterile • BBB=bloodbrainbarrier,preventseverythingfrombloodfromgettinginto CNS.Lipophilicthingscancrossbarrier! • Brainsurroundedbymeninges(coverings)andbloodvessels. -Causedbyvirus,bacteria,fungus,protozoa -Manyofthesecausativeagentsfoundinthethroat,maybacteriaenterthrough respiratorytract.(Bacteriathatcausepneumoniaalsocancausemeningitis) • Bacteria=Hemophilusinfluenza o “heme”=blood o Needs2thingstogrow:hemeinhumanblood,NAD o Gram-,nonmotile,hascapsule.6differenttypesofcapsules § Typeb=mostvirulent! § Vaccine=Hib(H.influenzaeb) rd o TreatwithAbx(3 gen.Cephalosporin) -Diagnosed:takeCSFsample;needleintosubduralspace(spinaltap),plateCSF sample Listeria Listeriamonocyotogenes • Food-bourne,especiallydairyproducts • Cangrowatrefrigerationtempsandsurvivestomachacid o Temprangefrom4-45°C,surviveslowpHofstomach(ph2) • AbletocrossBBBandplacenta • Cansurviveinphagocytes(macrophages) o Survivesoxidativestress. • Usesactinpolymerizationasmotilitymechanism o Actin=longproteinfoundinanimalcells o Polymerizesproteinintolong“pole”itusestopushitselffromonecell tothenext o Pushesitselfoutofcellformingpseudopod,thisgoesinsideanother cellandpinchesoff. • Ubiquitous(everywhere!)insoilandwater o Soilàanimalsàmilkorfeces(whichgetsintowater,andwaste productsfrommilkprod.alsogetintowater. o Ifmilkpasteurized,Bactiskilled.Somecheesemadewith unpasteurizedmilk,causedisease. Serratiamarcesens • Bloodredpigment=prodigiosin o Pigmentonlyproducedat20-35° • Usedinstudy(likeB.globigiiinanthraxstudy),sprayedoverland o Pneumoniainelderlypeople § Opportunisticpathogenonly!(Onlypathogenifpersonis alreadyweakened) § Normallyaninsectpathogen • Causeof“Bleedinghost”–resultoflargepogroms(masskillings)ofJews, thoughttheyhaddefiledhost Irishpotatoblight • Causedbyawatermold(sporeswithflagella) o Movethroughwater • Firstdiseaserecognizedasbeingcausedbymicrobe o Stillnotbelievedmicrobescouldcausediseaseinpeople,only plants Mycoplasmas • Smallergenomesthanotherfree-livingbacteria o Degenerativeevolution § Freelivingàmycoplasmaàrickettsiasàtheoreticalminimum #ofgenes • Nocellwall,nodefinedshape(pleomorphic) • Small,cangothroughsomefilters • Low%GCbasepairs • Sterolsincellmembrane(mostprok.don’tusethese!!) • Friedeggcolonies • Causepneumonia(primarycauseofpneumonianotcausedbyS.pneumonia) • Tetracycline,erythromycin o Can’tuseAbxthatattackcellwallsbecausetheydon’thavethem! Rickettsias/Chlamydias • OBLIGATEINTRACELLULARpathogens–can’tliveoutsideofhostcell o Liveoffhostmetabolism,stealATPandotherthings • Stillareconsideredbacteria-sensitivetoAbx Typhus • Rickettsiaprowazekii o Gram– o OBLIGATEINTRACELLULAR • Fecesofbitinglice o Also,rockymountainspottedfever o 2hosts:insectandhuman • Fever,rash,bactmultipliesincellsliningcardiovascularsystem o Vesselscollapse,blocked o 30%mortalityifuntreated • treatbytargetinginsect(withDDT)orbacteria(tetracycline) • History o Military:Napoleon’sarmy,Crimeanwar o Moremendiedoftyphusthanofactualwarwounds! o Basicsanitationsaveslives o DiscoveredbyHowardRicketts Chlamydia • OBLIGATEINTRACELLULAR;energyparasite • Susceptibletotetracycline • Chlamydiatrachomatis o Leadingcauseofinfectiousblindess § Tetracyclinedropsineyesofnewborns § Cangetitfromswimmingpools,towels,fliesaroundtheeyes § Trachoma=blindness § Mostcasesofblindnessinchildren o NGU=non-gonococcalurethritis § GUtractinfectionnotcausedbygonorrhea § Morecommoninwomen • Oftenaco-infection!! o Gonorrheaandchlamydia:ifyouhaveone,youprobablyhavethe other • ConsequencesasanSTD o Sterility,damagestoGUtractcellsàmoresusceptibletovirus o Cervicalcancer o Passingontobaby • Oftennosymptoms • Rapiddetetion:PCRtests • Chlamydialpneumonias=mildinfection,50%U.SpopulationhasAbagainst • “Parrotfever”=typeofchlamydiainparrots,canbetransferredtohumans • Infectioncycle: o Elementarybodies–likespores,takenintocell o Reticulatebodies-growingcell.Converttoelementarybodiesashost celldestroyed

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 2, Problem 270 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach
Edition: 8
Author: Yunus A. Cengel
ISBN: 9780073398174

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 17 chapters, and 2657 solutions. Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780073398174. The answer to “A hydraulic turbine has 85 m of elevation difference available at a flow rate of 0.25 m3 /s, and its overall turbinegenerator efficiency is 91 percent. Determine the electric power output of this turbine.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 34 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 270 from chapter: 2 was answered by , our top Engineering and Tech solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:44PM. Since the solution to 270 from 2 chapter was answered, more than 333 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, edition: 8.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Solved: A hydraulic turbine has 85 m of elevation