A well-insulated rigid vessel contains 3 kg of saturated liquid water at 408C. The vessel also contains an electrical resistor that draws 10 amperes when 50 volts are applied. Determine the final temperature in the vessel after the resistor has been operating for 30 minutes.
EEMB 3 Diversity of microbes and fungi Bacteria and archaea Look similar under microscopes Very different genetic codes observed when studied Gaia Hypothesis- ear is a living entity and its biosphere regulates and maintains climate and atmosphere at an optimum Concentration vs time plot. Kinetic plot of reactants and products vs time. Steady state chemical equilibrium reached. Evidence of an “inert” planet. Venus- amount of nitrogen found in atmosphere is less than 2%. CO2 is about 95%.. no O2… planet is in chemical equilibrium, has been this way for a long time, and is inert… most planets exhibit this type of pattern But Earth has N-77%, CO2- about 0.03%, O2 about 21.6% Disequilibrium drives life. Driven by biology and diversity of life on Earth 97% of the diversity on earth has already gone extinct diversity driven by terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic ecosystem (97.5% is salt water. 71% of earth occupied by oceans 300x more space for life than on land or fresh water most of the biomass in the ocean is microbial iClicker question answer- microbes are responsible for the oxygen we breathe Microbial life 90% of human body are microbial cells Typically have bad reputation 10X more bacteria cells than humans help digest food help fight pathogens help provide pathogens “beneficial invisible presence” found anywhere where you find water…ice, marine,, fresh, saltwater prokaryotic microbes have the most metabolic diversity bacteria and archaea small- high surface area to volume ratio replicate very quickly influence the chemistry of their surroundings high turnover rates have very important functions we are much more dependent on these prokaryotes compared to them being dependent on us Aquatic microbes Bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, viruses Microbes and the Origins to Life Big bangs Condensation lead to galaxies and solar system 2 1. Degrading and condensation 2. 2. Comet impact- bring ice to Earth 3. asteroid impact- h2o inside asteroids brought to earth ratio of heavy: normal H2O provides clue/ evidence deuterium vs hydrogen in water study done showing that asteroids could have been the source of water on Earth. Rules out comets and whatnot due to significantly different compositions of D/H compared to Earth’s oceans Earth 4.5 by Oceans 4.2 by Oldest rock 3.8-4 by Microfossils 4.6-3.8 by So What constitutes life Essential characteristics of life- cell theory: basic unit of life Membranes Aqueous systems Monomers to macromolecules Information carriers (RNA and DNA) And translation apparatus Energy storage and flow Catalysts 4/6/16 iClicker 3 Which of the following is not true Answer: Some eukaryotic organisms are capable of obtaining energy by oxidizing inorganic compounds Photo or chemo autotroph. Restricted Microbiology- magnification, resolution Louis Pasteur – Industrial microbiology Disproved theory of spontaneous generation Pasteurization Got microbes into cultures, mixed cultures Worked on theory and practice of vaccines Proved that microbes were responsible for biodegradation Different microbes produce different waste products Took a curiosity and applied the scientific method. Did a lot for the field of microbiology Inoculated glucose with yeast, which yielded ethanol Glucose in the presence of oxygen inoculated with yeast produces ethanol Using bacteria instead of yeast yields LACTIC ACID A lot of effort put to figure out how microbes were linked to disease Koch’s postulates 1. Suspected pathogens should be present in all diseases and absent from healthy organisms 2. Suspect pathogen should be grown in pure culture 3. Cells from pure culture should cause disease inn healthy organism 4. Pathogen should be re isolated and show to be the same as the original 4 Directly linked the disease to the microbe responsible for the disease Koch- medical microbiology- developed pure culture technique 1880- 1910 many pathogens identified and isolated thanks to Koch’s technique of isolated pure cultures Alexander Flemming- 1920’s discovered antibiotic properties of penicillin and most importantly, microbe microbe interactions Penicillin Sergei Winogradsky- father of environmental microbiology Credited for discovering first idea of chemolithotropy Organisms obtain their energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds and use co2 as carbon source… they are autotrophs Layers of microbes from sulfur rich to oxygen rich gradient. Each layer uses waste products from the organism on the bottom as a substrate. Processing of waste products Iclicker question- which are TRUE Microbes can be studied with culture-less methods A presence of a gene tells a researcher that an organism has the potential to do something, not how it functions. Just because you have a gene doesn’t mean you are using it rRNA genes are useful for telling you who is there, not identifying the protein produced by specific microbes Carl Woese- number of ribosomes is linearly proportional to the specific growth rate of an organism Need a way to amplify genes 5 Kart Mullis- PCR – dancing naked Hudson Freeze and Brock Taq polymerase- isolation of microbes from hot spring source of thermally stable polymerase used in PCR- THERMUS AQUATICUS So taq polymerase is a heat stable polymerase , allows to put all the components of the reaction into one apparatus and alternate heating options since taq polymerase does not denature under high temperatures Norm Pace’s 1980- cultivation independent techniques (gene cloning) 16s rRNA gene clone library construction plasmids- secondary DNA that is independent of the chromosome lac z into plasmid along with an antibiotic resistance gene, process for gene cloning. A way to isolate molecules from a mixture of molecules plasmids introduced to ecoli blue colonies vs white cultures from pour transform white colonies are picked and placed in a media to grow (one colony per test tube) sequenced, aligned, identify STUFY GUIDE Belief of the give kingdoms of life (plantae, fungi, Animalia, Protista and monera) is updated with the idea of the three domains of life. Kingdoms are branches of domains. Microbes are found in all three 6 main domains of life, which was proven by Carl Woese’s genetic tracking using the 16s/18s rRNA gene sequence. Carl also proved that eurkaryota and archaea are more closely related to one another, which was a surpose to everyone. People typically thought that bacteria and archaea were closely related due to the similarity of their morphology. ALL PROKARYOTES ARE MICROBES, BUT NOT ALL EUKARYOTES ARE MICRBOES obviously. Only some eurkaryotes are microbes. Microbes Single cell or cluster, stand alone organisms. Don’t need the help of other organisms, yet other organisms need microbes. Grow, generate energy and reproduce independent of tissue. Open system metabolism. Eliminate waste into environment after uptaking chemicals from environment. Differentiation, such as the formation of a spore/capsule, is usually part of the life cycle. Communication is achieved by the cells interacting with one another by the release and uptake of chemicals. Self movement. Evolution. The common features of microbes is that they live in water and provide food for higher tropic levels. They also have the highest surface to volume ratio, which increases the efficiency of nutrient uptake and waste removal. Their small size means that a higher proportion of their cell is metabolically active, and they have higher growth rates. History of Microbiology Started with Van Leeuvenhawks microscope, which first observed bacteria and protists. He called this animucules. Leeuwenhoek kept the his microscope from others which held back the advancement science of microbiology for a few years. Microscopes are useful for their magnification and resolution purposes. Pasteur- father of industrial microbiology. Made many advances in the field, starting with the disprovement of spontaneous generation due to his swan neck dust experiment. Came up with the idea of pasteurization, heating things to kill off microbes. Proved that microbes were responsible for BIODEGREATION 7 Kocks postulates- Medical microbiology. Used to show that a microbe is responsible for a disease *assumption made that colonies with different shapes and colors came from different microbes 1. Pathogens should be present in all diseased organisms, and absent from all healthy organisms. 2. 2. Suspected pathogen should be grown in culture 3. those very same cells from pure culture should also cause a disease in a healthy organism 4. the pathogen should be re isolated and still be in the same form as the original Flemming discovered penicillin. Messy researcher. Shows that microbe microbe interactions are very important Winogradsky- environmental. Chemolipatropy- when organisms obtain their energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds and use CO2 as carbon source. Autototroph behavior. Mullis- Proposed PCR. Updates with the discovery of Taq polymerase by Freeze and Brock form hot spring As opposed to microbes, macrobes only really have 2 distinct physiologies- which are photosynthesis and heterotrophs. Photosynthesis- CO2 and nutrients to organic matter and O2 Heterotrophy- organic matter and O2 to CO2 and nutrients Compared to this, microbes have a vast physiological diversity. Microbe (prokaryotes) can be ammonia oxidizers, iron oxidizers, sulfur oxidizers and sulfate reducers for a means of metabolisms *hydrothermal vents. Microbes are very much associated with the nitrogen cycle Cells are in nonequilibrium 8 Lecture 8- 4/13/16 Photoautotroph can be oxygenic or anoxygenic Anoxygenic –splitting hydrogen sulfide Oxygenic- splitting water Protists and characteristics – transition to eukaryotes Lateral gene transfer 3 mechs for prokaryotic genetic recombination 1. transformation 2. Conjugation…use pili 3. Transduction-introdion of new genetic material through a virus Do not result in reproduction^^^ Things get messy due to horizontal gene transfer Prokaryotes to eukaryotes- Big changes 1. Loss of cell wall, and increase in flexibility-infolding surface area a. First step towards an organized nucleus 2. Ribosome studded internal membrane 3. Appearance of cytoskeleton- gave physical structure to big cells a. Structural integrity needed even more for big cells 4. Formation of digestible vesicles 9 a. More efficient in taking in food. Digestion can now occur in the cell itself 5. Endosymbiosis of organelles a. Ingesting but not digesting b. Helped detoxify by sucking in all the oxygen ‘ c. Carry other their ATP related functions due to this Iclicker- common ancestor of proteobactor is a photoautotroph Organisms that live in sea ice would be referred to as a psychrophile An organism that is a hypotherm folds its proteins in ways that prevent them from denaturing In the range of temperatures that an organism can surive, the temperature max is the temperature where an organism growth rate is greatest FALSE An obligate anerobe has no ability to detoxify oxygen Protists- Polyphyletic Ancient eukaryotes Defined by what they are not, plants, animals or fungi Characteristcs of protists- 1. Most are aquatic 2. Nutritional diversity a. Osmotroph- survives on osmotic absorption. Small or low molecular things getting absorbed b. Phagotroph-engulfing particles into internal environment c. Mixootrophy – capability of being an autotroph and a heterotrph Protozoa- animal like Algae- plant like Fungus like 3. Locomotion 10 a. Pseudopod i. Cytoplasmic streaming b. Cilia c. flagella Organelles and vesicles Cells can be large Surface area/ ration can be a problem Modes of ingestion (endocytosis in protozoa) Endocytosis- process of taking in food within vacuole formed by invagination of the plasma membrane If dissolved- pinocytosis If particles- phagocytosis Contractile vacuole- fresh water system organisms- solutes that are concentrated inside of your system, so by the gradient created through osmotic pressure and gradients, which makes water go into the cell and increasing the pressure which makes them get rid of the water Cell surfaces- very diverse Symbiodinium- dinoflagellate Endosymbiont with coral ^form symbiotic relationships Reproduction processes Asexual 1. Binary fission 2. Multiple fission 3. Budding 11 4. Spore formation Conjugation- genetic recombination in paramecia (sexual, not reproductive) 2 Paramecia fose together, and their micronuclei go through meiosis, some of the micronuclei die, and the micronuclei which have survived swap between the two paramecia, which results in more mitosis of more and more micronuclei, and creates a species with a distinct micro and macronuclei Reproduction processes d. Sexual reproduction- various forms i. In some only haploids are gametes ii. Hetero and isomorphic alternations of generations Euk 1. Chromalveolates a. Alveolates (ex. Dinoflagellates) have two flagella of different sizes and positions i. Red tides ii. Phytoplankton Ex. Apocomplexans- parasites of animals with unseen spores, apical complex is defining structure, used to burrow into host tissues or cells. Intricate life cycle that share two hosts – humans and mosquitos, cat and rat Ex 3. Stramenopila- diatoms iii. Caroteinds, yellow browin in color iv. Silica shells v. Important marine phyloplankton vi. Asexual and sexual reproduction- offspring get smaller each generation via asexual reproduction vii. Harmful algal blossom viii. Diatomaceous earth- used for filtration, abreasie in toothpaste, thermal insulator ix. Ex 2- brown algae 1. Macrocystis- giant kelp is brown algae 2. Photoautotrophic 12 3. Fucoxanthin pigment 4. Multicellular (seaweed) Ex. 4Alveolates: haptophyta- coccolithophorids Calcium carbonate coccoliths Autrotropic Oceana acidification will have major effect Huge blooms visible from satellites 2. Plantae- ancestral l traits: endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Include most unicellular and colonial algae. Most likely precursor to all plants. Chlorophytes (green algae) a. Rhodopyta(red algae)- have no flagellate stages. Phytcoerytherin- key pigment. All are multicellular, and some secrete calcium carbonate 3. Excavates 4. Rhizaria 5. Unikontz Summary of lecture 7 and 8: About prokaryotic diversity and protists Proton motor force established an electric gradient, with the protons being outside the membrane, making the cytoplasm acidic and positive. Prokaryotes are separated into 4 groups, depending on their carbon source and energy source. Photo vs chemo… and auto vs hetero. Photoautotrophs-use co2 for carbon source and light for energy source Photoheterotrophs – use organic C for carbon and light for energy EX- cyanobacteria are obligate photoautotrophs who have evolved to use photosystem II, and developed the source of O2 on earth 13 Chemoautotrophs Chemoheterotrophs Lecture 9- Protist continuation Monday 2:30- 3:30 office hours Excavates Mostly heterotrophs Kinetoplastids include tyranoposamafrican sleeping sickness Diplomads include giadia-lost mitochondria transition between protists and organisms which used mitochondria for its true purpose Euglenids are often mictrophic – change between chemoheterotroph and photoautotrophy Rhizaria o Mostly heterotrophics o Many have photosynthetic endosymbioonts, but most are heterotrophic o Amoeboids with complex shell skeletons Radiolarian have silica skelletons Formanifera have calcium carbonate skeletons Highly susceptible to ocean acidification Chemistry of ocean changing can be observed by studying these organisms Unikon: Amoebozoa Pseudopodial extension of cytoplasm Heterotropic- phagocytosis 14 No cell walls Ex- slime molds (2 groups) 1. Plasmodial slime mold 2. Cellular slime mold Choanoflagellida Closest relatives to animals Colonial Similar to sponges FINGI Heteritropic eukaryotes)molds, yeast, mushroom) Chitin in cell walls Chemoorganotrophs with absorptive metabolism Produce spores Characteristics of fungi Unicellular gungi-yeast Reproduce sexually or asexually budding, binary or multiple fission Many fungi can alternate between unicellular or multicellular forms via alternation of generation Multicellular in fungi (molds and mushrooms) mycelium (body) hyphae (tubular filaments) tips to mycelium o septate- incomplete cross walls haustoria-push into cells- parasites o coenocytic- no septa o haustoria-push into cells- parasites o 15 rhizoids (modified hyphae-anchor) sporangia (producing spores) grow in horizontal space- extend to better their change of nutrients Fungi are tolerant to hypertonic environments. Tolerant to low and high temperature. Good at degrading complex polymer. Cellulose, lignin, humic Produce secondary chemical byproducts Antibiotics, alkalids, toxins Ecology of fungi lakes and oceans- limited role streams-more important. Lead litter more surfaces terrestrial- prime remineralizer o filamentous growth: spread through soil translocate resources ALL ARE HETEROTROPHS- even though some are pigmented Grow towards nutrients.. nutrient gradient sense Symbiotic mutualistic relationshios Lichens- symbiotic complex of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria Pioneer organisms Fungi get carbon sometimes N from algae or cyanobacteria Algae get nutrients, water, and protection from 1. high light 2. desiccation 3. grazing erosion of rock into soil form covering 16 Arbuscular mycorrhizae (another beneficial relationship) mutualistic infections vascular plant o prevent desiccation o helps with uptake of nutrients hydrolytic enzyme released increases pH which allows the plant to take up nutrients in the soil which it could not before o increase absorbing area o protection against attack fungi o receive organic substrates reproduction and sporulation o some fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually o mating types rather than male and female o dikaryon (n+n) not diploid o half haploid, ¼ diploid and ¼ dikaryon o sexual- favorable conditions o asexual- unfavorable conditions o sporangia- produce spores o conidia- spores produce at tip of hyphae o yeast- fission or budding main groups of fungi – defined primarily by their reproductive forms and lifestyles o chytrid- no dikaryotic stage. Aquatic. Flagellated o zygomycota- coenocentric hyphae, rapid spreading growth (like mold), zygosporangia (fruit) o ascomycota – sac fungi, separate hyphae, large fruiting bodies, penicillium mold, o basidiomycota- mushrooms – nasty toxins. Colors to intimidate predators 17