Consider an air compressor operating steadily. How would you compare the volume flow rates of the air at the compressor inlet and exit?
Week 6 – Behavioral Neuroscience Tuesday Feb. 23 Question 1: What slice of the brain is this Answer: Coronal Question 2: Which direction is arrow 1 1 Answer: dorsal Question 4: What is the black space in A2row 2 Answer: Ventricles Question5: __fibers are inputs and ___ fibers are outputs Afferent/efferent Efferent/afferent Answer: A. Afferent/Efferent Question 6: What makes up white matter Answer: Myelinated axons Terminology White matter- neural tissie composed primarily of myelinated axons Gray Matter- Neural tissue composed largely of cell bodies, dendrites, unmyelinated axons, and glia Gyrus= ridges coming out towards you Sulcus= valleys between gyri Nucleus= a collection of neuron cell bodies in the Central Nervous System Nerve= a bundle of axons that are traveling together in the general direction in the PNS Tract= a bundle of axons traveling together in the same direction in the CNS Hindbrain Medulla = LIFE SUPPORT system critical part in keeping your body alive - Also, a lot of critically important nerves pass through the medulla - Damage to the medulla is HIGHLY dangerous, containing a high chance of death or life support being required. - Regulates respiration, cardiovascular system, and skeletal muscle tonus Pons (located between medulla and midbrain) - Contains nuclei that route into the cerebellum - Does a lot of things: sleep (states of consciousness), arousal, motor coordination - Contains a bunch of nuclei that relay information from cerebral cortex to cerebellum to mediate motor control - Cerebellum - “little brain” Has a lot of folds that looks quite similar to the brain Function: - Incredibly important for movement and coordination Also plays a part in: balance, posture, vestibular ocular reflex (eye movement tracking) - Suspected to have a strong part in Thought/ higher level cognition - Receives information from the cerebral cortex and sends out info to the rest of the brain - The cerebellum integrates information from the spinal cord (sensory) and the pons (motor) to calculate sequences of muscle contractions necessary to accomplish movement goals. Damage/loss: - Someone born without a cerebellum will acquire language way later in life and will be much harder to grasp. There will also be difficulty in interpreting thoughts and emotions. - Damage could result in jerky, poorly coordinated movements - Damage could impair walking, standing, and coordination Memory TIP! “Cere-balance” = Cerebellum Pon s ”Pons the Pillow” “Medi Without the medulla you would need medical attention Midbrain cal -contains nuclei that are involved in simple sensory processing and the coordination Tegmentum ( Anterior to cerebral aqueduct) - dopamine functionses voluntary movements, and signaling rewards all - Contains two nuclei/cell bodies that are important dopamine producers in the brain (In parkinsons, the degradation of these cells causes loss of dopamine in the brain) Tectum (Posterior to cerebral aqueduct) - Superior colliculus: receives visual information from the eye, it helps to coordinate motor eye movements that are stimulus driven. Responds to bright tiex. Bright flash draws your attention to it, so you look instinctively o Directed by cerebral cortex but the movement itself is performed by the superior colliculus Ex: trying to count every person in a crowd that has a red hat you will only search and look for red hats - Inferior colliculus: All auditory information passes through this at one point. It received auditory information before it projects to the forebrain o Holds a complete map of auditory space if you hear a sound you can usually orient what space it came from can be noticeably triggered by an abrupt/loud sound Story time: Mike the headless chicken Farmer Lobbed off the head but left some of the skull and the midbrain and hind brain intact. The chicken was able to stay alive. It had to be fed but other than that it could still do a lot. It could maintain its posture if you shoved it, walk along a plank, and could respond to some stimuli. It could do a lot of basic movements and stay alive as long as it was fed. Lived about 18 months. Forebrain =Perception, conscious awareness, cognition and voluntary action without forebrain you cannot have language or thought Contains: Cerebral cortex & subcortical structures Divided into diencephalon ** The diencephalon sits atop the brain stem and is composed of the hypothalamus and thalamus Hypothalamus: Collection of a bunch of nuclei with different functional roles make up this larger structure - Maintains homeostasis, “survival needs” (thirst & hunger) - Fleeing, fighting, feeding, and sexual behavior (4 F’s) - Suprachiasmatic nucleus (biological clock): Maintains your circadian rhythm, which gets set every day by the visual input (light/day and darkness) this gets thrown off by technology/screens Thalamus: Relay station for sensory information A hub that gets information from one part of the brain to the other part of the brain. - Info. goes through the thalamus when the cortex needs information - If you lose the thalamus you lose everything going INTO the cortex Amygdala: Small almond shaped structured implicated in emotional processingFEAR - Structure is for learning things that are threatening to survival & well- being - Some instinctually programmed in - Some fears can be LEARNED via association or other means phobias Hippocampus - Critical to the memory system relational memory (binds different stimuli together) - Look like two sheets that are rolled up together - Critical in forming long-term memory before it is stored elsewhere in the brain gets the memory to the cortex Memory tip: “The hippo went to camp and forgot why he was there" Basal Ganglia - Deep structure - A particular function cannot be placed on it but it has a role in movement , higher cognition, and motor planning, - The basal ganglia consists of the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra - Tones up motor movement so that it is smooth transition. o With parkinsons disease those with a damaged basal ganglia will have tremors when they move - Damage can cause cognitive deficits Cerebral cortex (neocortex/cortex) - Most critical structure for thought - Convolutions of the brain can vary but the longitudinal fissure, central sulcus, and lateral fissure will always be clearly visible o Longitudinal fissure = division between two hemispheres o Central sulcus= anatomical landmark that divides the frontal cortex (in front) from the parietal cortex (behind) o Lateral fissure = Separates the temporal lobe from the frontal llllove **Fissure is just a deep sulcus but more or less the same - Each hemisphere is divided into four lobes (parietal, occipital, temporal, and frontal) Occipital lobe - Largely deals with vision where vision begins - Vision information moves from here to the parietal and temporal lobe Parietal lobe=Visual space - Involve in processing spatial visual information and somatosensation - Primary somatosensory cortex exists in the parietal lobe Temporal lobe - Gets information from the occipital lobe - Arbitrary matching of sound to meaning - Good at recognizing faces, creates object representations Frontal lobe - Where you can find the motor cortex outputs planned body movements - Responds to a wide range of stimuli: planning, controlling, and executing voluntary movement motor areas for planning, controlling, and executing voluntary movement. Frontal cortex is further involved in a diverse set of cognitive and executive functions *The insular cortex (or insula) is the portion of the cerebral cortex within the depths of the lateral fissure. The insula plays a role in pain perception and emotion * The cingulate gyrus is the gyrus surrounding the corpus callosum. Cingulate cortex supports emotion, pain perception, motor control, and executive functions