A point charge q1 = +2.40 µC is held stationary at the origin. A second point charge q2 = -4.30 µC moves from the point x = 0.150 m, y = 0 to the point x = 0.250 m, y = 0.250 m. How much work is done by the electric force on q2?
2/19/16 Gender—gender is very fluid; conceptions and ideas about gender roles change o Women—the caretaker Jobs primarily dominated by women are feminized— cafeteria worker, teacher, nurse, counselor, etc. Feminization of poverty—they make up a large number of people in poverty Why are women making less than men—because of the degrees theyre getting, men tend to go into STEM; unpaid maternity leave (loss of hours, experience, and face-to-face time to get promotions and raises); women may not work overtime because they need get home to kids; imposter syndrome can result in lower salary negotiations o Men—the bread winner; authoritative; emotionally strong Sex—refers to what is physically there Sexism—to say when one sex cant do it or one is better than the other Discrimination—differential treatment Patriarchy—lead by men; men hold positions of power o History has had matriarchal societies—so we know that patriarchy is not intrinsic Women: a majority-minority---women are in an distinctive disadvantage to men; men have more power, wealth, etc. Minority Women—Intersection Theory—adding in multiple characteristic o Minority women are doubly disadvantaged They earn less than white women Minority women earn less than minority men In 20120, African American women earned 62% as much as white men, and Hispanic women earned 54% as much as white men Structural-functional analysis—gender and complementary o Functionalists contend that differences between men and women help build families and integrate society as a whole (instrumental and expressive roles) o The structural-functional analysis of gender was quite influential 50 years ago but is far less today o The idea of the two parent household—stats say it is beneficial; but stats also show what gender the parents are don’t matter or whether theyre actually married o Critics contend that: Functionalism ignores how men and women can and do relate to one another in a variety of ways that do not fit any norm Functionalism fails to take into account the persona strains and social conflicts produced by rigid gender patterns; ex. a women running for president and people not liking it simply because she is a womans Ex. woman taking check at restaurant Symbolic-interaction analysis: gender in everyday life o The symbolic-interaction paradigm provides a micro-level analysis of gender at work in the everyday lives of individual people Personal behavior Use of space Language o Gender directly affects personal behavior, the use of space, and the language we use o Ex. man spreading in the subway Social-conflict analysis—gender and inequality o Friedrich Engels expanded Marx’s theory to include gender, arguing that the same process that allows a ruling class to dominate a worker places men in a dominant position over women Patriarchy is a system by which wealthy men transmit their wealth to their sons The double problem of capitalism lies in exploiting men in the favorites and exploiting women in the home o Critics of this perspective point out: Families perform vital task of raising children Not everyone defines the differences as unjust Patriarchy also occurs in socialist nations such as Cuba and the People’s Republic of China—patriarchy is not a position of just capitalists Feminism o More or less linked to social-conflict analysis o The study of gender with the goal of changing society to make women and men equal o Foundations There is no one version of feminism, but almost all feminists agree on The importance of gender Importance of change Importance of choice Need to eliminate patriarchy Need to eliminate violence against men and women Importance of sexual autonomy o Types of Feminism Liberal geminists—want women and men to be treated as individuals but want change to occur within existing social institutions Social feminists—claim that a Marxist style class revoluation is needed to secure equality for all people Radical feminist—argues that patriarchy is rooted into gender (human biology); the reason women are unequal to men because of motherhood; the family is not because of economic benefits but because of heterosexual institution for reproduction; this limits the women to home care and child bearing 2/22/16 Education—a pathway to social mobility The state of education—a global perspective o Education—social institution by which society transmitted knowledge including Basic facts, job, skills, and cultural norms and values to its members o Schooling—formal instruction carried out by specialty trained teachers Schooling is more available in some parts of the world than others o Low-Income countries—too little schooling All nations provide for primary education of at least some children In the poorest nations many children do not go to school Secondary education of children is even less common Poor nations are agrarian and rural Families take primary responsibility for education Children work at an early age Governments in poor nations are truing to increase literacy by extending school Literacy is important for economic development in poor countries of the world Gender is also related to education in poor countries Patriarchy and education Males have greater opportunity o High income countries—unequal schooling Higher rates of schooling and literacy Education is necessity for jobs Post secondary education is made available to a larger segment of the population Education in US history Thomas Jefferson—literacy and democracy By 1918, all states had laws making education mandatory o Requiring students to attend school until the age of 16 or through the eighth grade The 20 century saw the expansion of education Academic performance of US schools o A larger share of the US population earns a college degree than any other nation—except Norway o Scholastic assessment test scores below the 1967 average for both men and women effects of race, ethnicity, and class o testing—SAT African americans students score about 300 points below the average white student Hispanics 200 points below non-Hispanic whites Asian americans average about the same as white students o Children living in a single parent family o Racial stereotypes and educational bias o Hispanic children and language barrier o Native American children and cultural alienation o Poverty Dropping out o Completing high school is a major problem o About 8.1% of the population aged 16-24 have left school before graduating Figure was 14% in 1960 o Dropping out is related to being socially disadvantaged Economically—finding jobs Culturally—people automatically think you’re less intelligent; hard to build a family o Dropping out puts one at rick for other social problems o Hispanic americans have the highest drop out rate—due to language barrier o Native americans have the second highest drop out rate—has to do with alienation Functional illiteracy o Not being able to read and write or do basic arithmetic—well enough to carry out daily responsibility o About 14% or more of the population lack the necessary skills to function in society o Affects jobs opportunities o Source of embarrassment and shame Segregated schools and busing o Segregated schools post slavery through the 20 century o Supreme court case—plessy v. Ferguson (1896) –separate but equal is fine Brown v. education 1954—said separate is not fine o Law and education segregation in the south— jim crow o Supreme court case—brown v. board of education of topeka Separate but equal no longer legal o Residential segregation and continued education segregation Busing to achieve integration 1960s-90 Blacks reacted to busing with mixed options White people began to move away to different neighborhoods as schools became more integrated White flight—white people moving Pulls: safety, job opportunity, prestige, better schools Push: fear of bad neighbors and crime o Continued segregation today School funding o Inequality in education resources between states and within states o Public schools funded by state/local taxes o Economic disparities between rich and poor communities Sources of income and educational spending for students o Concentrated poverty and hypersegregation o The schools in poor neighborhoods will reflect the neighborhood due to property taxes funding school o African americans in the middle class still end up in areas with less access to resources— while white poor americans are dispersed Push: being judged in the new neighborhood Pull: staying close to people that look like them 2/24/16 Notes on video on Residential Segregation Race means nothing until it is given social policy and social meaning— race is a social and political construction o Race under jim crow was determined by percentage of African American ancestry; so your race could change if you crossed a state boarder o Takao Ozawa case denied citizenship because he was not Caucasian o Whiteness was determined as what people thought it was— circular logic European immigrants were learning that whiteness was a mobility Red lining Black busting An integrated neighborhood is unstable socially and econocmically Racial steering 2/26/16 Segregation in the context of buying homes/property o Red lining—practice of denying mortgages almost purely based on race and ethnicity; now illegal, but at one time was done o Black busting—raising fear of declining home prices in neighborhoods with rising diversity; illegal o Racial steering—steering customers to neighborhoods based on your race and ethnicity; illegal, but sometimes brokers and real state agents do it unconsciously Policies/Politics in Education College graduation rates there isn’t much discrepancy between the difference races High school graduation ratesafrican americans and Hispanic americans have a very low graduation compared to Asian Americans and whites; this is heavily do to socio-economic class o Higher income more likely to complete college and high school School funding (cont.) o Cultural capital—you learn different values/norms and knowledges based on your class; says poor people value hard work, health, etc. but they go about it differently; ex. working class parents tell kids to muscle through homework and do their best, instead of ask questions. If you left your homework at home, you deserve the bad grade. While higher class kids are encouraged to ask questions, ask for help. If you forget your homework, call me and I’ll bring it to you as a result, poor kids fall behind faster, while the upper class kids advance faster this is a product of cultural capital; both groups are working hard, but they’re doing it very differently Very different from culture of povertysays that the culture of poverty had different values (like health, school, etc.) o Differences in the home life of rich and poor children in a major factor in education o Families with more income are able to give their children more cultural capital More conducive environment Parental education o Local taxes, with additions from state and federal government Great variance $17500/student in Long Island--$8000/student in Texas o Vermont—Act 60 (1998) State pooling of local taxes and redistribution across all schools Tracking o A policy of assigning students to different educational programs o Supporters of tracking argue that tests will be used to assign students to tracks best suited to address each child’s abilities o Critics argue that tracking is a form of institutional discrimination Tracking transforms a social advantage into an education advantage Self-fulfilling prophecy Lower income kids are put into easier classes, while higher income kids are more likely to be put into more rigorous classes o We have data that shows achievement and standardized testing scores do not correlate Gender inequality o Reproduction of gender inequality in schools o Gender and educational steering by teachers, counselors, and curriculum based on cultural prescriptions of gender in society o Congress (1972) and Title IX of the Educational Amendments to the Civil Rights Act Title IX of the Educational Amendments to the Civil Rights Act—any college funding on the college campus needs to be equally disbursed o Increase in the number of women going on to college There is still a huge discrepancy into the majors/professions men and women go into Immigration: increasing diversity o Educating the more than one million immigrants that enter the US annually o English immersion versus bilingualism English immersion—teaching immigrants using English Bilingual education—policy by which schools offer classes in most subject areas in a student’s native language while also teaching them English Schooling People with Disabilities o In 1975, Congress passed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act o Mainstreaming—integrating special students into the overall educational program o Special education—schooling children with physical or mental disabilities in separate classes with specialty trained teachers The Teacher Shortage o 400000 teaching jobs remain unfilled o causes larger classes and greater burden on staff o low salaries a factor o excessive bureaucracy and school violence are also a factor school violence o has been a growing concern—homicides; aggravated assaults; rape o other types of violence—bomb threats, gang fights, cyber bullying, but shoots is a white-middle class American issue o type of school and violence larger schools urban schools poverty African American and latina students expresss greatest fear Sandy hook o