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Starting with Eq. 1020, show that the exergy destruction

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel ISBN: 9780073398174 171

Solution for problem 10114 Chapter 10

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

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Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition | ISBN: 9780073398174 | Authors: Yunus A. Cengel

Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach | 8th Edition

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Problem 10114

Starting with Eq. 1020, show that the exergy destruction associated with a simple ideal Rankine cycle can be expressed as xdest 5 qin(hth,Carnot 2 hth), where hth is efficiency of the Rankine cycle and hth,Carnot is the efficiency of the Carnot cycle operating between the same temperature limits.

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Discussion: Orientalism  Imaginative geographies o Perception through images, texts, discourses. o Why are they important  Help us reflect peoples impression on places  Make sense and shape the world  National imagery constantly changes  Imaginations of national identity works both from within and by contrast with others.  Arab-Israeli War of 1973- media said Arabs couldn’t fight, were weak, etc.  Difference between US and European Orientalism: o American- indirect, recognized Israel as civilized, became politicized. o Europe- directly involved, US never occupied anywhere in Western Asia Big Questions:  MENA, hydropolitics Transboundary rivers:  Crosses borders between countries Hydropolitics:  Interplay of fresh water resource issues and politics o Especially international geopolitics o Also domestic politics  WI is awash in water, pre candidate Bill Richardson  Crucial in Middle East because of climate (hot, low rainfall) Transboundary Rivers in MENA: Euphrates-Tigris System Hydroplitics in the Euphrates-Tigris River Basin:  1980s: Turkey plans: Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) o Purpose: sustainable economic development in less developed part of Turkey. o Plan:  22 dams  19 hydropower plants  Irrigation network for 1.7 million ha of land (1 ha ~ 2.4 acres) o Problems:  Population displacement (especially Kurds)  Planned during years of good rainfall  No guarantees of minimum flows to Syria and Iraq Israel and Palestine:  Balfour declaration (1917, UK) o “Establishment of Palestine as a home for the Jewish people”  UN partition plan (1948) o Territory divided into 2 states: Israel and Palestine  Israeli ‘security fence’ or ‘apartheid wall’ Hydropolitics in Israel-Palestine:  Freshwater sources: o Sea of Galilee (Tiberias) o Mountain aquifer o Coastal aquifer (Gaza) o Rivers Jordan, Yarmuk Hydropolitics in MENA due to:  Aridity o Water as scarce resource  Historical conflicts Europe: Introduction Hydropolitics:  Interplay of freshwater resource issues and politics Big Questions:  What do geopolitical and economic change in Europe mean for environmental issues (especially water) o How did the cold war affect ecosystems in eastern Europe, compared to western Europe European Union: a supernational entity  Economic integration – common: o Trade policies o Policies to combat unemployment o Environmental and energy policies o Agricultural policy  Political integration: common – o Foreign policy o Immigration policy  Regional integration o Governance through European Parliament Council of Europe, and European Commission Copenhagen Criteria:  Institutions guaranteeing democracy and human rights  A functioning market economy  Acceptance and ability to implement obligations of EU membership The ‘Eurozone’:  Euro is the currency  Oversight by European central bank  Common monetary policy ‘Schengenland:’  Countries in the Schengen Agreement  Travel from one country to another within the Schengen Agreement = don’t need a visa. When and how was the EU formed  Geography of the industrial revolution in Europe.  Post-WWII reconstruction  The Cold War Resource conflict and geopolitical conflict in Europe:  Saar-Lorraine in France-Germany o Coal in German Saarland o Iron ore in French Lorraine o Annexation attempts before WWII  WWII left Europe devastated Rebuilding Postwar Europe:  European Coal and Steel Community, 1952  Success of ECSC inspired EEC (common market), which led to EU formation in stages USSR: postwar reconstruction:  USSR occupied Eastern Europe: o Demanded reparations from Axis countries in east.  Industrialization, Soviet-style o Command economy o Nationalization of industry USSR: postwar repression:  Nationalist uprisings met with force: o 1953- Berlin o 1956- Hungary and Poland Iron Curtain: divided Soviet Union from rest of Europe. Why environmental degradation in eastern Europe:  USSR commands economy Blue Danube Europe’s (world’s) longest river Europe- Nationalism, etc Cultural Nationalism:  Defending a set of cultural practices against perceived ‘foreign’ cultural expressions.  Defining those cultural practices (including cultural landscape) as essential to national identity, deserving protection from the state.  Cultural pride isn’t cultural nationalism Cultural Landscapes:  Switzerland bans minarets (2009)  Why o Minarets ‘weren’t Swiss’ and ‘don’t belong in the Swiss landscape’ o Islamophobia Nationalism and cultural landscapes:  Imprint of long history on landscapes: o Medieval o Renaissance-baroque o Industrial  Historic preservation, historic re-creation o Paris skyline o Nürnburg streetscape  Religious landscapes o For many Europeans, churches are considered historical architectural artefacts, not religious icons Politics and religion in Europe: Different Secularisms:  France o Opposed French catholic church (French revolution) o No Islamic head coverings o 1905: separation of church and state  Germany o Separation of church and state, but taxes used to help churches Europe: Changes in Religious Participation  Decline in religious participation in most western European countries o Protestant, roman catholic  Resurgence of religious participation: o Poland, Romania (post- Soviet control) o Greece Policies for population growth:  Cash incentives for childbirth: o Austria, Germany  Allowances for young children o France  Immigration Immigration in Europe: Legacies of WWII:  Turkish, Greek, Italian immigrants brought in as guest workers to Germany in 1960s. Immigration in Europe: Cold War Legacies  Migration of Eastern Europeans to West  Concerns in Western Europe about impacts on population, economy Immigration and the EU:  Most Europeans support limitations on immigration  Common EU immigration policy: Schengen Agreement o Freer travel for EU citizens Immigrant communities in Europe:  Social tension caused by immigration and ‘ghettoization’ of migrants: o Immigrant populations isolated, segregated (in suburbs) o Higher rates of poverty, state violence The EU: making European Culture  EU facilitates commonality: o Mobility  Easy to move, attend school  Employment anywhere in EU o Multilingualism  Accused of not being democratic enough in its structure o Only the EU parliament is elected; the EU Commission and Council of the EU are appointed o Minority rights Europe: integration Fragmentation  Cultural nationalisms may be response to: o Cultural imperialism (globalization) o Cultural minorities (religious, racial, economic) o European integration (EU):  Feared loss of national culture Discussion- Regional Economic Integration:  EU is an economic union Danube:  Plan is to straighten it, deepen it, make the river fit the boats that would go through it. Midterm #2: Turkey, EU, Blue Danube – will be on exam Review study guide (on D2L) *Know locations of European countries

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Chapter 10, Problem 10114 is Solved
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Textbook: Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach
Edition: 8
Author: Yunus A. Cengel
ISBN: 9780073398174

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Starting with Eq. 1020, show that the exergy destruction