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In each of 1 through 6, compute D[u](k) for k = 0,1, ,4.u

Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781111427412 | Authors: Peter V. O'Neill ISBN: 9781111427412 173

Solution for problem 14.59 Chapter 14

Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 7th Edition

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Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 7th Edition | ISBN: 9781111427412 | Authors: Peter V. O'Neill

Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 7th Edition

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Problem 14.59

In each of 1 through 6, compute D[u](k) for k = 0,1, ,4.u = [cos(j)] 5 j=0

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Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 3/1/16 Exam Refresh  Final has 3-4 questions per midterm topics missed by >50% of class  Can earn up to 10 pts to add to relevant midterm grade  These Q’s are optional  Can only add points not take away, max is 100 Clicker- Built up tolerance offspring as built up as they had it; Answer: intensive use passed to offspring (Lamarck’s) Actual test questions: How could resistance increase Answer: NOT lamarck’s because can’t pass on enhanced traits; offspring “start over” Correct is natural selection: resistance bacteria reproduced and/or spontaneous mutation Clicker- 2 heterozygous individuals for 1 trait crossed= monohybrid cross Test: Eggplant skin color question from exam: 1 gene probably controls fruit skin color because PpXPp gives 675 purple, 217 white skinned Meiosis increases genetic diversity in offspring 1. Crossing over: creates recombinant chromosomes 2. Independent assortment: randomizes which one of homologous chromosome pair enters a gamete (line up RL or LR at metaphase plate) 3. Fertilization: combines chromosome sets from 2 different individuals [Pictures] Crossing over: Figure 10-11 (pg 203 of textbook) Independent assortment: M I P or P I M metaphase (Figure 10-10) 2 = # of possible ways homologous pairs could assort (line up) Fertilization: each egg has 2 possible, each sperm has 2 n multiple ^ together to get possibilities for fertilization (which is why you’re not like your brother/sister) Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek- 3/1/16 Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek Chapter 13- DNA: The molecular basis of inheritance 3/3/2016 DNA is the genetic material  Known by 1920’s: chromosomes contain genetic material and are made of DNA and protein Debate: which molecules are genetic materials Proteins o Thought proteins because 20 amino acids gives more combinations than 4 bases of nucleotides Video: - Fredrich something- isolated nucleic acid - 1928: pneumoniae mouse experiment (Frederick Griffith)- pg 246 textbook o R strain- alive o S strain- dead o Dead S + live = alive S strain  something had to change dead S to living by R because had to be DNA changing because DNAase destroyed DNA and mouse lived so it’s responsible - 1953: Watson worked with crick for structure of DNA o Found that # of nucleotides wasn’t random A=T, C=G o Didn’t do a single lab experiment themselves Experimental evidence  DNA is genetic material in bacteria  DNA is genetic material in viruses  In bacteria and eukaryotes, DNA nucleotides occur in same ratio o %A=%T, %C=%G (ratios not the same as each other in all organisms, just when you know A, you know T etc. in everyone)  Mouse experiment (inactivating molecules to figure out how R  S) o Results: R + heat inactivated S cells  mice die R + S with inactivated protein  mice die R + S with inactivated RNA  mice die R + S with inactivated DNA  mice LIVE! *inactivated by enzymes that “eat” their respective molecules* Summary vs Inference Summary: states what happened in experiment (facts only) Inference: suggests what those facts mean (outcome means) Clicker- Inference from experiment- S cell DNA can transform R into infectious is a fact Answer: DNA not protein is the genetic material of bacteria Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek Hershey and Chase 1952 (to reaffirm DNA is genetic material) - T2 phage and Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells (virus infecting bacteria) o Virus is made of protein coat with DNA inside (no other machinery) - Infection: T2 reprograms host bacteria to make more viruses o How Protein or DNA Approach: Label DNA vs Protein (tag) Grow virus in medium containing radioactive isotope isotope: colorless, but differ in atomic mass S= 16 protons + 16 neutrons 35S= 16 protons + 19 neutrons Radioactive nuclei spontaneously give off particles and energy Grew some virus in 35S –sulfur in amino acids Grew some virus in 32P –phosphorous is in DNA (Figure 13.4 pg. 247 in textbook) Clicker- Would virus growing in radioactive sulfur synthesize DNA containing radioactive sulfur Answer: No because DNA doesn’t contain sulfur, just phosphorus, nitrog. Base and sugar Clicker- What does radioactive phosphorus in pellet mean Answer: viral DNA is in bacteria - radioactive sulfur outside pellet means Answer: viral protein is outside bacteria -which is inference Answer: DNA is genetic material is virus Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek Chargoff: investigated nitrogenous base composition of different organisms (already knew that DNA is polymer of nucleotides) -% adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine in at least 40 species from various kingdoms Ex. %A %G %C %T E. coli 24.7 26.0 25.7 23.6 Sea urchin 32.8 17.7 17.3 32.1 -Rule: amount of A≈T, C≈T Clicker- bases occur in similar proportions C and G, A and T DNA structure - Monomer= nucleotide - Nucleotide consists of: o 5 carbon sugar o Phosphate group o Nitrogenous base - Polymer has 2 different ends- a 5’ end and a 3’ end 5’/3’ Carbons  Start counting clockwise from 0 in sugar ring  1’ C bonded to base  3’ C has an –OH group *enzymes recognize hydroxyl group always add to 3’ end*  5’ C links to 4O (phosphate) group Biology 1362- 8:30am TTH SW 102 Doctor Ann Cheek Each DNA molecule consists of 2 strands  Arranged in antiparallel (subunits run in opposite directions) in a double helix  Deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups are on outside of helix and nitrogenous bases project to the inside DNA Replication Conceptual model: Watson and Crick -strands separate - complimentary bases are added to single original strand Clicker- DNA replication is in what phase Answer: interphase- S phase Rosalind Franklin- X-ray diffraction photo of DNA which aided Watson and Crick to show structure of DNA is double helix (page 251 in textbook) Base pairing is 1 pyrimidine and 1 purine because it results in a uniform diameter (2 purines is too wide, 2 pyrimidine is too narrow)

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Chapter 14, Problem 14.59 is Solved
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Textbook: Advanced Engineering Mathematics
Edition: 7
Author: Peter V. O'Neill
ISBN: 9781111427412

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In each of 1 through 6, compute D[u](k) for k = 0,1, ,4.u