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Find the adjacency matrix of the graph in Fig. 476.

Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780471488859 | Authors: Erwin Kreyszig ISBN: 9780471488859 172

Solution for problem 23.1 Chapter Chapter 23

Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 9th Edition

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Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 9th Edition | ISBN: 9780471488859 | Authors: Erwin Kreyszig

Advanced Engineering Mathematics | 9th Edition

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Problem 23.1

Find the adjacency matrix of the graph in Fig. 476.

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Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 Money and Prices in the Long Run Chapter 16 Notes The Monetary System ● Barter Economy ○ “Double coincidence of wants.” ● Money ○ Set of assets in an economy that people regularly use to buy goods and services from other people. ● The Functions of Money ○ Medium of exchange. ○ Unit of account. ○ Store of value. ○ Means of deferred payment. ● Money is a ​ subset​ of wealth. It is the only thing that can be exchanged for goods universally. ● Medium of Exchange ○ Item that buyers give to sellers when they want to purchase goods and services. ● Unit of Account ○ Yardstick people use to post prices and record debts. ● Money eliminates the coincidence of wants! ● Store of Value ○ Item that people can use to transfer purchasing power. ■ From the present to the future. ● Means of Deferred Payments; ○ You settle your debts with money. ● Liquidity ○ Ease with which an asset can be converted into the economy’s medium of exchange. ● Commodity Money ○ Money that takes the form of a commodity with intrinsic value. ■ Ex. Gold, cigarettes, etc. ● Intrinsic Value ○ Item would have value even if it were not used as money. ● Gold Standard ­ Gold as money ○ Or paper money that is convertible into gold on demand. ● Fiat Money ○ Money without intrinsic value. Notes Key Boldedtexts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided by instructor. Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 ○ Used as money because of government decree. ○ “This note is legal tender for all debts, public and private.” ● Fiat ­ an order or decree. ● Money Stock ○ Quantity of money circulating in the economy . ● Currency ○ Paper bills and coins in the hands of the public. ● Demand Deposits ○ Balances in bank accounts; depositors can access on demand by writing a check. ● Measures of Money Stock ○ M1 ■ Demand deposits. ■ Traveler’s checks. ■ Other deposits. ■ Currency. ○ M2 ■ Everything in M1. ■ Saving deposits. ■ Small time deposits. ■ Money market mutual funds. ■ A few other minor categories. ● The Federal Reserve (The Fed) ○ The central bank of the U.S. ● Central bank ○ Institution designed to ■ Oversee the banking system. ■ Regulate quantity of money in economy. ● Federal Reserve ○ Created in 1913 ○ After a series of bank failures in 1907 it was established. ○ Purpose: to ensure the health of the nation’s banking system. ● Board of Governors ○ Seven members, 14­year terms. ■ Appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. ○ The chairman ■ Directs the Fed staff. ■ Presides over board meetings. ■ Testifies regularly about Fed policy in front of congressional committees. Notes Key Boldedtexts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided by instructor. Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 ■ Appointed by the president by 4­year (renewable) terms. ● The Federal Reserve System ○ Fed Reserve board in Washington, D.C. ○ 12 regional Federal Reserve banks. ■ Major cities around the country. ■ The presidents are chosen by each bank’s board of directors. ● The Fed’s Job ○ Regulate banks and ensure the health of the banking system. ■ Regional Federal Reserve Banks. ■ Monitors each bank’s financial condition. ■ Facilitates bank transactions ­ clearing checks. ■ Acts as a bank’s bank. ■ The Fed ­ lender of lost resort. ○ Control money supply. ■ Quantity of money available in the economy. ■ Monetary policy. ● By Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). ● Money Supply ○ Quantity of money available in economy. ● Monetary Policy ○ Setting of the money supply. ● FOMC ○ Seven members on the board of governors. ○ 5 of 12 regional bank presidents. ■ All 12 regional presidents attend an FOMC meeting, but only 5 get to vote. ○ Meets about every six weeks in D.C. ○ Discuss the condition of the economy. ○ Consider changes in monetary policy. ● Fed’s primary tool: ​ open­market operations. ○ Open­market operations ­ The buying and selling of U.S. government bonds. ● FOMC ­ decrease the money supply. ○ The Fed: Open­market sale. ● FOMC ­ increase the money supply. ○ The Fed: Open­market purchase. ● The Fed does not issue bonds, only trades them! ● Money ○ Currency and demand deposits. Notes Key Bolded texts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided y instructor. Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 ● Behavior of Banks ○ Can influence the quantity of demand deposits in the economy (and the money supply). ○ ∴Money Supply = Currency + Demand Deposits ● Reserves ○ Deposits that banks have received but have not loaned out. ● The simple case of 100% reserve banking ○ All deposits are held as reserves. ● Banks do not influence that supply of money. ● Fractional­Reserve Banking ○ Banks hold only a fraction of deposits as reserves. ● Reserve Ratio ○ Fraction of deposits that banks hold as reserves. ● Reserve Requirements ○ Minimum amount of reserves that banks must hold; set by the Fed. ○ ∴Funds to cover withdrawals. ● Excess Reserve ○ Banks may hold reserves above the legal minimum. ■ Ex. First National Bank ­ Reserve ratio of 10%. ○ Commonly occurs during seasonal holidays or when economy is not as reliable (people are less likely to pay). 1 ● The money multiplier = wherR R is the required reserve. ○ Ex. Started $100 → Bank (x 10) → $1000 ○ R = 10% therefore multiplier is 0.1 vs. 10 or 1/10. ○ Amount of money the banking system generates with each dollar of reserves. 1 ○ ∴Reciprocal of the reserve ratio = R ● The higher the reserve ratio ○ The smaller the money multiplier. ● Banks DO NOT CREATE WEALTH! ○ Though they increase supply of money, they create equal amounts of debt for those they loan to; thus an equilibrium. ● Bank Capital ○ Resources a bank’s owners have put into the institutions. ○ Used to generate profit. ● Assets and Liabilities must be equal! ● “When banks assets don’t alleviate liabilities the bank is ​insolvent​.” ○ From here they can only apply for a loan from the Fed or be dissolved and have all their assets sold. Notes Key:Bolded texts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided b instructor. Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 ○ Good reason put your money in multiple banks. Assets Liabilities Reserves Deposits Loans Debt Securities Capital (Owners’ Equity) ● Leverage ○ Use of borrowed money to supplement existing funds for purposes of investment. ● Leverage Ratio ○ Ratio of assets to bank capital. Assets ○ Leverage Ratio = Bank Capital ● Capital Requirement ○ Government regulation specifying a minimum amount of bank capital. ● Influences the quantity of reserves. ○ Open­market operations. ○ Fed lending to banks. ● Influences the reserve ratio. ○ Reserve requirements. ○ Paying interest on reserves. ● Open­market Operations ○ Purchase and sale of U.S. government bonds by the Fed. ○ To increase the money supply. ■ The fed buys U.S. government bonds. ○ To reduce the money supply (Ex. Inflation) ■ The Fed sells U.S. government bonds. ○ Easy to conduct. ○ Used more often. ● Fed lending to banks ○ To increase the money supply. ○ Discount window. ■ At the discount rate. ○ Term Auction Facility ■ The highest bidder. ● The Fed determines the discount rate. ○ The Fed sets a quantity of funds it wants to lend to banks. Notes Key:Bolded texts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided by instructor. Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 ○ Eligible banks can bid to borrow those funds. ○ Loans go to the highest eligible bidder. ■ Acceptable collateral. ■ Pay the highest interest rate. ● Reserve Requirements ○ Minimum amount of reserves that banks must hold against deposit. ■ An increase in reserve requirements. ● Decrease in money supply. ■ A decrease in reserve requirements. ● Increase the money supply. ○ Used rarely ­ disrupt business of banking. ○ Less effective in recent years. ■ Many banks hold excess reserves. ● Paying Interest on Reserves ○ Since October 2008. ○ The higher the interest rate on reserves. ■ The more reserves banks will choose to hold. ○ An increase in the interest rate on reserves. ■ Increase the reserve ratio. ■ Lower the money multiplier. ■ Lower the money supply. ● The Fed’s control of the money supply ○ Not precise. ● The Fed does not control: ○ The amount of money that households choose to hold as deposits in banks. ○ The amount that bankers choose to lend. ● The Federal Funds Rate ○ Interest rate at which banks make overnight loans to one another. ■ Lender ­ has excess reserves. ■ Borrower ­ need reserves. ○ A change in federal fund rate. ■ Changes other interest rates. ● Fed reserve bank does not determine the federal fund rate. ● The Fed: target the federal funds rate. ○ Open­market operations. ■ The Fed buys bonds. ● Decrease in the federal funds rate. ● Increase in the money supply. Notes Key:Bolded texts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided b instructor. Week 12 April 13th ­ April 20th Spring 2016 ■ The Fed sells bonds. ● Increase in the federal funds rate. ● Decrease in the money supply. ● Federal funds do not come from Fed but banks to banks. Notes Key:​Bolded ​texts = most important facts stressed by professor. ∴ symbol = “Therefore” or “In other words”. “ ” = Specific definition or word choice provided by instr ctor.

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Chapter Chapter 23, Problem 23.1 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: Advanced Engineering Mathematics
Edition: 9
Author: Erwin Kreyszig
ISBN: 9780471488859

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: Advanced Engineering Mathematics, edition: 9. Since the solution to 23.1 from Chapter 23 chapter was answered, more than 269 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “Find the adjacency matrix of the graph in Fig. 476.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 10 words. Advanced Engineering Mathematics was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780471488859. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 23.1 from chapter: Chapter 23 was answered by , our top Math solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:46PM. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 220 chapters, and 9259 solutions.

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Find the adjacency matrix of the graph in Fig. 476.