Describe several ways in which a scientific law differs from a legislative law.
Social Psychology Monday, Feb 22 Inconsistent behaviors and beliefs o Dissonance When our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors feel inconsistent o Cognitive Dissonance theory (Leon Festinger) We are motivated to maintain consistency between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors Taking office supplies Attiutdes about school Smoking Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) o Pegturning study How enjoyable was the peg turning task (it’s painfully boring) 3 (not at all enjoyable) to +3 (very enjoyable) $20 for lying to upcoming participants by saying it was exciting vs $1 for lying to participants by saying it was exciting People who got paid a dollar rated it as more enjoyable. Their motivation to remove dissonance was higher. The people who got $20 had a better justification for lying and so they were more honest after about how they felt. People convince themselves they enjoyed the task Reducing the dissonance o Change behavior o Change attitude/belief o Add consonant (consistent) thoughts o Trivialize the behavior o Ex. Smoking, eating meat, a strong belief in a just world, hazing rituals Other implications o Learning from and correcting our mistakes o If we avoid thinking about dissonance and discomfort from our mistakes, we can’t learn from them. Eliot cognitive dissonance selfjustification o Uncomfortable feeling when opposing beliefs clash o We don’t comfortably live with dissonance o It is most painful when opposing beliefs clash within you o We all want to believe we are good, kind, smart, competent people o Want to dismiss contrary and opposing evidence o How do learn from MY mistake o People spend a lot of emotional energy protecting their ego Wednesday, Feb 24 Fear Appeals o Advertisements use fear in one of two different ways. o Targeting a particular demographic and telling them they are at risk. o By arousing fear – the general intention is to cause fear in anyone who sees it. o Low threat ads frying pan and eggs is your brain on drugs Low threat means low fear. o High Threat Ad High threat, leads to fear, leads to defensiveness, directly affecting our psychological immune system. Our natural reaction to fear is to reject it. So an ad maker needs to capture people’s attention with fear / threat and then provide a solution for how to get rid of the fear. Transportation o Changing attitudes by telling stories to get people to change their attitudes to be consistent with the story. (The little engine that could. You identify with the character and realize what they went through. o Some people have transported more than others. (Some are easier persuaded than others.) o But if you can target a more specific audience and identify within them, then its more affective. o Fictional stories can be just as persuasive as real stories. Transportation in advertising o Advertisers try to transport customers. Lifestyle Ads o Suggesting that a product will make your life like the people’s in the ad. It is selling a lifestyle and the ad may have nothing to do with the product. No class Friday