×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to General Chemistry: Principles And Modern Applications - 10 Edition - Chapter 6 - Problem 104
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to General Chemistry: Principles And Modern Applications - 10 Edition - Chapter 6 - Problem 104

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

. A mixture of and can be used as an anesthetic. In a

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 104 Chapter 6

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

4 5 1 303 Reviews
13
1
Problem 104

. A mixture of and can be used as an anesthetic. In a particular mixture, the partial pressures of and are 612 Torr and 154 Torr, respectively. Calculate (a) the mass percentage of in this mixture, and (b) the apparent molar mass of this anesthetic. [Hint: For part (b), refer to Exercise 103.]

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

Study Guide: CS Exam 1 Computer system: software and hardware Hardware: physical equipment that consists of 5 parts 1. Input devices: where programs and data are entered (e.g. keyboard, mouse, touch screen) 2. Central processing unit (CPU): executes instructions such as calculations, comparisons and movement of data (computers may have one or more). Also ALU, registers and LI cache. 3. Primary storage/main memory: data is stored temporarily during processing (erased when turned off or logged off). 4. Output devices: monitor (soft copy) or printer (hard copy) that shows output. 5. Auxiliary/secondary storage: where programs and data are stored permanently. Software: collection of programs that allows the hardware to work. 2 categories: 1. System software: programs that manage computer resources (interface between hardware and user). a. Operating system: services such as interfaces (such as Internet protocols) and database access. b. System support software: system utilities and operating services (e.g. sort programs and disk format programs). c. System development software: language translators – convert programs into machine language for execution, debug tools and CASE (computer-assisted software engineering) systems. 2. Application software: solves user’s problems. a. General-purpose software: purchased from a software developer, used for more than 1 application (horizontal market). b. Application-specific software: used only for its intended purpose or task (vertical market). Computing environment  Time-sharing environment: many users are connected to one or more computers (e.g. typical college lab). Computing is done by central computer.  Client/server environment: splits the computing function between a central computer – called the server – and user’s computers (personal computers/workstations) – called the client.  Distributed computing: seamless integration of computing functions between different servers and clients (e.g. Internet). Computer Languages: evolution I. Machine languages: made of streams of 0’s and 1’s. Because internal circuits of a computer are made of switches, transistors and electronic devices that can be either on (0) or off (1). (Only language understood by computer hardware). II. Symbolic/assembly languages: converts programs into machine language – mirror machine languages using symbols or mnemonics. Computers use an assembler to translate to machine language. III. High-level languages: relieve the programmer from assembly details to focus more on the application problem. Must also be converted to machine languages through compilation. Creating and running programs: programmer writes and tests the program: 1. Write and edit - Text editor: software used to write programs. Uses lines of code and usually included with the compiler. After completing a program, it is input to the compiler, known as source file. 2. Compiling programs: translating into machine language: a. Preprocessor: reads and prepares for translation, result: gets the translation unit b. Translator: actually converts to machine language. Writes the resulting object module to a file. 3. Linking programs: linker assembles all functions into the final executable program. 4. Executing programs: uses commands such as run to load in primary memory (loader function) and execute it. When done, operating system removes program from memory. System development life cycle: series of phases used to develop systems or software. Popular model: waterfall model. Software development steps: (program development) 1. Understand the problem: system requirements 2. Develop a solution: step-wise refinement (steps to solve the problem), external documentation: a. Flowchart: flow of data through function represented in symbols b. Pseudocode: part English, part programing logic. Describes algorithmic detail on the programs steps in English-like statements c. Structure/hierarchy chart: shows functional flow through program 3. Write the program: type the code and test it. Blackbox (tests without knowing what is inside the program) or whitebox testing (assumes tester knows about the program) 4. Compile the program: stages: preprocessor – translator – linker. 5. Test the program: use more than one set of data and test it iteratively. 6. Put into production: one can make more than one submission 7. Maintain the program C: structured high-level programing language. Derived from ALGOL. Program structure: syntax – rules 1. Preprocessor directives: start with “#include” in column 1 traditionally, and library to use , , . 2. Global declarations: function prototypes (never use global variables) 3. Main program: starts with command main (int main (void)), local declaration of variables and program statements 4. Function definitions Comments: block comment: several lines of comment (e.g. /* comment */). Line comment: uses // at the beginning Headers: every program must start with one (hp shortcut) Identifiers: name variables, functions and preprocessor macros  Valid: letters (variable: lower-case), digits and underscore (_)  No spaces nor hyphens  First character cannot be a digit  First 63 characters must be unique  Not the same as keyword  Don’t use single identifiers unless needed Data types: 1. Void: no values nor operations. Useful for function that has no parameters 2. Integral: a. Boolean: true (1) or false (0) b. Character: single ASCII character represented by a number (char) c. Integer: whole numbers with no fractional part (int – short int, long int, long long int) 3. Real: a. Floating point: real number and may have decimal point (float, double, long double) Variables: memory locations that have a type. Declaration: type identifier;. Contains random data until initialization: e.g. int count = 1;. (comment for each variable declaration). Constants: data element that cannot be altered in value during program  Literal: e.g. 5  Defined: e.g. #define TAX_RATE .029 (no ; after)  Memory: syntax – const type identifier = value; Input – scanf() (&)/Output – printf(): format codes: Errors:  Syntax: violates syntax rules, doesn’t compile, caused by typos  Run-time errors: crash of program, not predicted by compiler (e.g. dividing by zero, memory access violation)  Logic: do compile but give unexpected results Debugging: insert temporary print statements, write and test small sections of code, do simple cases first Expressions: sequence of at least one operand and zero or more operators that reduces to a single value a. Operator: token that perform an action (e.g. + / %) b. Operand: object which receives an operator’s action – variables or contants  Unary expressions: o Prefix expressions: before statement is evaluated o Postfix expressions: after statement is evaluated  Binary expressions: Operator precedence: Statements: usually terminated by a semicolon, left operand – single value, variable memory location is updated after evaluation of the expression Conversions: 1. Implicit: 1. Items in an expression are elevated to rank of higher ranking data type in the order of rules of precedence 2. When assigned to a variable: resulting data type is converted to that of the variable a. Promotion: rank of right expression is elevated to rank of left variable b. Demotion: rank of right expression is truncated to rank of left variable 2. Explicit: uses cast operator Function: named block of code that performs a specific task within the program  Calling function: makes the call – passes zero or more pieces of data, receives none or one piece of data  Called function: function that is called – receives and returns up to 1 piece of data UDF: User Defined Functions  Declaration: global declaration section “type name (formal-parameter-list- data types if any);”  Function call: where function is evoked in program “x = name (actual-parameter-list types and names of variables for input);”  Definition: code of function “type name (formal-p-list) { return result; }” Every function must be preceded with function header comment! Can do: a. Parameter passing b. Side effects c. Return value Parameters: variables declared in function definition – expressions in the calling statements (must match order, type and number) Inter-function communication:  Downward flow: pass by value – parameters are passed but values remain unchanged  Upward flow: return statement, pass by address – value of variables can be changed (use & in front of variable name in calling statement, use * after data type in formal parameter list, use * in function body  Bi-directional flow: combination Scope: region of a program in which a defined object is available {}- prevents unwanted interaction between a code block and outside world (blackbox) Top-down design: program is divided into a main module and related modules. Rule of thumb: function must not contain more than 20-30 lines of code. More separate functions is better than less Factoring: each module is divided into functions  Cohesion: degree to which elements of a module belong together (maximize)  Coupling: degree that one module is dependent on another module (minimize) Structure charts: before writing code, shows only functions called, common functions contain cross hatch Study Guide: CS Exam 2 Logical data: true 1, false 0 Logical and comparison operators: Positive expressions are preferred Do what makes most sense to you De Morgan’s Rule: to negate an expression, apply the not operator to each operand and switch and/or operators && Short circuit logic: if the 1 st expression is false, 2 nd is not st evaluated (use expression most likely to be false 1 ) st nd || Short circuit logic: if the 1 expression is true, 2 is not evaluated (use expression most likely to be true 1 ) st Selection statements When + than 1 statement One-way selection: if statement (nothing happens if false) after if/else, use {} Two-way selection: if…else statement -Block of statements- Multi-way selection: if…else if statement, switch statement If the else condition is not required/null statement: rewrite condition Nested if statements: use && operator Dangling else problem: since spacing is ignored by the Conditional expressions: 3 operands, 2 operators compiler, else is paired with most recent unpaired if expression expression1 : expression 2 Conditional expressions can also be nested, but should be avoided. Switch statement: control expression evaluates to multiple alternatives When the expression matches one of the constants, it Default: didn’t match executes from that point to any other the end unless you use “break” Character test functions: Repetition: series of instructions several times/iterations (executions). Looping: repeat instruction until terminating condition is reached.  Initialization: assign beginning values to variables before loop begins  Control expression: determines whether the body of the loop is to be executed  Control variable: regulates the number of times a loop is executed  Loop updating: process which changes something in the loop – will cause the loop to terminate Infinite loop: repeats endlessly (has no terminating condition or it isn’t reached. Interrupt it: CTRL-C Pre-test loop: control expression checked before loop is executed, body may never be executed (while or for) Post-test loop: control expression checked after loop is executed, body executed at least once (do…while) 1. While statement: most common, body executed when condition remains true. 2. For statement: loop choice executed for a finite number of iterations. Use ONLY with counter controlled processes, make use of all 3 expressions with every for loop 3. Do…while statement: executes body at least once, use for input validation Input validation:  Use function to collect user’s input & return it as single value  Provide user with unlimited opportunities  Do not validate for particular data types  Display error message when user makes a mistake Do not use: Don’t use 1. Goto statement: jump from one location to another in a break or comma program, may produce unpredictable results & violates operator rules 2. Break statement: jumps to the end of a control statement 3. Continue statement: jumpts to beginning of control statement 4. Comma expressions: multiple expressions separated by commas 5. Recursion: function calls itself to solve smaller part of same problem Big-O Notation Standard input/output: Scanf – stdin, Printf - stdout Using files in a program when:  So much output it scrolls off screen  Too much data to be typed  Don’t want to type anymore

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 6, Problem 104 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, edition: 10. The answer to “. A mixture of and can be used as an anesthetic. In a particular mixture, the partial pressures of and are 612 Torr and 154 Torr, respectively. Calculate (a) the mass percentage of in this mixture, and (b) the apparent molar mass of this anesthetic. [Hint: For part (b), refer to Exercise 103.]” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 53 words. Since the solution to 104 from 6 chapter was answered, more than 237 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 104 from chapter: 6 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:52PM. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132064521. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 28 chapters, and 3268 solutions.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

. A mixture of and can be used as an anesthetic. In a