Use data from Figure 9-1 and equation (9.1) to estimate the density of the recently discovered element 114. Assume a mass number of 298.
Chang 1 SOC 101 – Exam II Study Guide Social Networks Social Networks o Social Networks A set of relationships (dyads) held together by ties among individuals o Social Ties The content of a relationship between individuals Flow of resources Types of Social Ties Strong ties Weak ties o Strength of weak ties People we are least connected to tend to offer us the most opportunities Ex. job referrals The Forbidden Triad Flow of “resources” Personal evaluations o Ex. who likes whom Transfer of material resources o Ex. exchange of money/services Information o Ex. who communicates with whom Movement of people o Ex. flow of people between organizations Formal roles o Ex. flow chart of organizational command hierarchy Kinship o Ex. who is related to whom, by descent or marriage o Social Capital Knowledge of people and connections that help individuals enter into and gain power within social networks “It’s not what you know, it’s who you know” Ex. Big Brother Big Sisters research o Homophily Individuals with similar characteristics are more likely to be connected with one another Ascribed homophily (age, race, sex, etc.) Achieved homophily (marital/parental status, occupation, etc.) Chang 2 “Birds of a feather flock together” o Propinquity Individuals who are spatially near one another are more likely to be connected Ex. neighborhood location and friendship circles o Mutuality Whether a relationship between two individuals is reciprocal o Popularity Individuals with more directed connections have more popularity o Structural Bridges Exclusive path in a network connecting two points Almost always a weak tie o Structural Holes Gap in a social network separating two groups of people o Sociograms Graphs representing social networks Social Class and Stratification Social Stratification o The way in which social groups are organized into unequal strata within a society o Hierarchical, ranging from least to most privileged o Inequalities may be intended or unintended o Inequalities beyond difference in natural ability Stratification Systems o Caste systems Closed systems based on ascribed characteristics o Class systems Open, but rigid, systems based on strata of similar statuses o Meritocracies Open systems based upon achievement Elements of class o Income Money earned on a regular basis (exchanged for labor or rent) Class is not equal to income o Wealth Totality of assets (minus debt) o Education Extent; type o Culture Chang 3 Important for thinking about social class Knowledge of specific lifestyles Socioeconomic Status (SES) o An individual’s position within a stratified social order o Typically, measured as combination of income and education Poverty o Absolute poverty Minimum level of substance that no family should be expected to live below o Relative poverty A relative standard of deprivation whereby the “bottom” are judged as disadvantaged in comparison with the whole o Official poverty In U.S., calculated as 3x’s minimal food diet Adjusted by family size Middle Class o Most difficult class category to define o Americans’ perception of middle class boundaries vary wildly Common characteristics o Formal education/training beyond HS o $$ comes primarily from income (rather than wealth) o Stability of income Spend $ on education, health care The “Old” Rich o American aristocracy Comprises much of top 1% o Wealth is inherited Comes from older industries o Ex. Rockefeller, Vanderbilt, Morgan etc. The “New” Rich o Wealth tends to be created, not inherited Comes from news industries (technology, energy) Concentrated along West Coast o Status differentiation o Still overwhelmingly white and non-Hispanic Social Mobility o Movement from one social strata to another o Upwards and downwards o Macro-scale opportunity structures expand or contract, vast groups experience mobility Intergenerational o Mobility within one’s own lifetime o Tends to be modest Intergenerational Chang 4 o Mobility across multiple generations o Potential for greater variation Structural Mobility o Macro-scale opportunity structures expand or contrast vast groups experience mobility Ex. upward – post WWII US (Baby Boomer generation), downward – post Great Recession Theorizing Social Class o Conflict Theory Karl Marx Class defined by ownership, not income Stratification all about class location Max Weber Class defined by common life opportunities Stratification results from combination of class, status, and power o Functionalism Davis-Moore thesis (1945) Class determined by functional utility of labor Compensation reflects importance Stratification all about division of labor and functionality o Symbolic Interaction Socialization Interaction Socialization occurs within context of social class Everyday interactions and consumer decisions shaped by class location o Our friends (social network), personal taste Conspicuous consumption Consumption that reflects social status o Ex. pet culture o Perspectives on Social Stratification Functionalist Conflict Interactionist Purpose of Facilitates filling Facilitates Influences stratification of social exploitation people’s lifestyles positions Attitude toward Necessary to Excessive and Influences social inequality some extent growing intergroup relationships Analysis of the Talented and Uses ideology to Exhibit eccentric wealthy skilled, creating further their own consumption and opportunities for interests leisure others Chang 5 Race and Ethnicity I Race Race o Differences in physical characteristics used to categorize large numbers of individuals o As a social construct, these categorizations can have profound life impacts o Racial categories that are culturally transmitted Thus, definitions of race very across cultures and over time o Racialization The formation of previously unnoticed identities around boundaries of racial differences Ethnicity o Group identity based primarily upon common national origin or distinct cultural pattern o Shared culture in forms of language, religion, cuisine, traditions, etc. o Like race, ethnic categories change over time o Ethnic enclaves Geographic concentration of ethnic group members o Ethnic economies Establish businesses that serve and employ mainly members of the ethnic group, reinvest in community o Symbolic ethnicity Nostalgic allegiance to culture of the immigrant generation Carries minimal risk or stigma Typically emphasizes a few things (food, e.g.) rather than deep ties to the culture Ex. German Americans Race and Ethnicity II Majority and Minority Groups o Majority groups Group of people holding the majority of power in mainstream society o Minority groups Group of people at a social disadvantage Sociologically, refers to position of power, not numbers Minority-Majority Group Relations o Assimilation Minority-majority differences dissolved Chang 6 o Pluralism Minority-majority co-exist, but differences persist o Segregation Minority-majority groups are separated through legal and/or social practice (usually based on race) Stages of Assimilation o Cultural assimilation: change cultural patterns to match host society o Structural assimilation: large-scale entrance into cliques o Marital assimilation: large-scale intermarriage patterns o Identification assimilation: development of collective identity based on exclusively on host society o Reception assimilation: absence of systematic prejudice or discrimination o Civic assimilation: absence of value or power conflicts Types of Segregation o de jure segregation: enforced by law o de facto segregation: informal (without law) segregation Scapegoat Theory o Blaming of minority groups for problems experienced in wider society Ex. European Jewish experience during WWII, the Dreyfus Affair (1894), and 1923 Great Kanto earthquake in Japan – thousands of ethnic Koreans executed Prejudice VS. Discrimination o Prejudice Refers to biased thoughts and feelings held against a specific group of people o Discrimination Refers to biased actions taken against a specific group of people o Racism Directing prejudice onto a specific racial group Institutional Racism o Social dynamics or rules that seem race-neutral, but disadvantage a minority group in practice Distinct from more “personal” forms of racism This bias is usually not noticed by majority group Ex. racial disparities in criminal sentencing Theories of Racial Prejudice/Discrimination Theory Explanation Functionalism Racial discrimination functions positively for the dominant group Chang 7 (hence its longevity) Conflict Theory Racial inequality reflects a power struggle among multiple racial groups in society Symbolic Interaction Race provides important symbols as source of personal identity. Prejudice results from isolated interactions with opposite race Is Race “real” o Race is not biological, but socially determined Race is a “social structure” It does not depend on whether someone “believes” in race or not o Consequences of race Ex. wealth Social networks, race, and jobs Race and resume experiments (multiple examples) Housing discrimination (matters for intergenerational wealth) Gender I Sex VS. Gender o Sex A biological category Generally refers to genitalia, genetics o Gender A social category Cultural characteristics associated with male/female Gender category assigned by sex category Gender Identity o Gender Identity Extent to which one identities as masculine/feminine Binary Fluid Depends on the culture (socially constructed) Transgender Inconsistency between sex and gender categories Gender Roles o Gender Roles The behaviors associated with widely shared expectations of how men and women are supposed to act Gender Difference o Essentialism Chang 8 Explains gender differences as reflection of biological differences o Functional sex roles Belief that while gender differences may not be biological, nuclear family is ideal Need for complementary “male” and “female” sex roles As an institution, gender provides predictable division of labor Sociological Critique of Essentialism o Ignore historical and cultural variability o Ignore variations within gender groups o Lack of genetic evidence o Ignore the role of power Theories of Gender in Society Perspective Functionalism Gender roles from traditional nuclear family offer ideal form for society Gender is dichotomous Conflict Gender inequality is the result of patriarchal systems Economic opportunities systematically shut off to women Symbolic interaction We are socially into our genders We “perform” our gender through everyday actions Social Construction of Gender o Social construction of gender Gender is routinely re-created Gender is a process o Gender socialization Process by which we learn how to perform our gender roles Norms guide appropriate behavior, expectations of boys and girls Ex. children’s toys o Gender ideology Traditional VS egalitarian Gender II Chang 9 Gender Systems o Patriarchy Subordination of femininity to masculinity Nearly universal social system o Matriarchy Subordination of masculinity to femininity Ex. Mosuo society o Time-use surveys The “Second Shift” (Arlie Hochschild) Working women still responsible for domestic duties Invisible Structures o “Glass ceiling” Refers to gap in earnings and authority between men and women “Invisible” in sense that no formal rules enforce it o “Glass escalator” Men working in female-dominant occupations tend to earn more, get promoted sooner o It is illegal to discriminate on the basis of sex Feminism o Raising consciousness around idea that gender organizes our social life o General belief that men and women should be treated with equal opportunities o Feminism Movement First wave: Political Second wave: Economic and Civil Third wave: Cultural o “Multiple feminisms” today Sexuality o Sexual orientation Emotional/sexual attraction to a particular sex Attitudes about Sexuality o Attitudes toward sexuality vary greatly by culture Ex. value places on premarital sex o Double standard of sexuality Different cultural standards for men VS. women often exist Connection between cultural attitudes and sexual behavior o Virginity pledges The Kinsey Reports o Alfred Kinsey (1948-1953) Refutes sexuality as gay/straight binary Chang 10 Instead, sexuality conceptualized as a spectrum Diverse empirical reality around sexuality Health and Society I Medical Sociology o Studies how humans manage issues of health, disease, and health care in society Doctor/patient relationships within social and cultural context Socioeconomics of health care Social construction of attitudes toward health and health care Social Epidemiology o Studies the causes and distribution of diseases Focus on connections between disease with: Social problems Socioeconomic patterns Ex. affluence, sedentary lifestyles Obesity Heart disease Diabetes Social Networks and Obesity o Long-term studies reveal that over time, people gain weight socially Weight gain associated with similar gain among friends Especially same-sex friends But, neighbors’ weight gain does not affect us Homophily VS propinquity = norms VS behavioral imitation o Conversely, weight loss most successful when occurring among peers Health and Inequality o The “status syndrome” The experience of lower status and trying to “keep up” linked to poorer health (recall “relative deprivation) Ex. education o Lifespan of individuals with PhDs > Masters > Bachelors > Associates > High School > Less than High School o Inequality in access to health care In U.S., great disparities by class and race Health and Poverty o Poverty -> ill health o Lack of sufficient health care -> poverty Chang 11 Medical bills cause between 20% - 60% of bankruptcies in U.S. Health and Society II Models of Illness o Medical model of illness Illness is an objective label (everyone agrees on what is normal and what is an illness) Illness is nonmoral, defined scientifically Illness is apolitical o Sociological model of illness Illness is a subjective category (people sometimes disagrees on what should be labeled as illness) Illness is a moral category Ex. judge people with STDs) Illness is a political category Ex. pharmaceutical companies market illness in order to sell drugs for it) o Takeaway: illness is much more than just a physical phenomenon Sociological Perspectives on Health o Functionalist Overall health of the population tied to health of society o Conflict Health of the population tied to issues of equity o Symbolic Interactionist Perceptions and meanings of health dependent upon social norms and actions Functionalists: The Sick Role o As a social role, the sick have certain rights and obligations (Talcott Parsons) o Rights The sick person is exempt from “normal” social roles Relative to nature and severity of the illness The sick person is not responsible for their condition An individual’s illness is usually thought to be beyond his or her own control A morbid condition of the body needs to be changed and some curative process apart from person will power or motivation is needed to get well o Obligations The sick person should try to get well Rights of the sick are contingent upon fulfilling this obligation Chang 12 The sick person should reek technically competent help and cooperate with the physician