Explain why the several periods in the periodic table do not all have the same number of members.
PY 372- Week 14 Notes Clark & Mills (1979)- exchange and communal relationships Exchange: Scratch my back, I’ll scratch yours Communal: Give don’t expect/ want anything in return **Gender differences in relationships Evolutionary psychology o Relations with other- women say worse o Sex with other- men say worse Ideally, how many sex partners would you want this year -men: 6 -women: 1 Men tend to be more sexually promiscuous and less choosy than women, perhaps, in part, due to evolutionary pressures -Altruism- **Social Status and Approval Helping is admired o We all enjoy social approval (sociometer theory) Its expected: The Social-responsibility norm o People should help those in need regardless of future exchanges o Applied selectively Victims of circumstance vs. choice **Self Image Helping is most important for your self-definition, a big part of your value system o Feels good to live up to our own standards; we avoid guilt o Helping as habit -Managing Moods & Emotions Arousal Model o We try to manage moods/ emotions through prosocial actions o When viewing situations requiring help, we are usually distressed o We want to reduce this (our own) distress this is an egoistic model **egoism- a motive to increase one’s own welfare (opposite of altruism) **Empathy- Altruism Hypothesis we help out of altruism when we feel genuine concern 2 Opportunities after video: 1. Help 2. Distract WHEN do people help **Decision making model of helping behavior (Darley & Latane) -5 steps to helping 1. Notice the event 2. Interpret event as a situation reguiring help a. Ambiguity diminishes helping behavior b. Pluralistic Ignorance: i. We assume that when other people APPEAR unconcerned in the situation, it is not an emergency ii. Could be awkward/embarrassing to intervene in a non emergency situation 3. Take responsibility for helping a. Even if it is a clear emergency, people may not help if others are around b. Bystander effect: greater number of bystanders, less likely for one to help 4. Must know/ be able to give help a. Self-efficacy: I cant do anything about it 5. Must decide to help (weigh rewards and costs) WHEN do people help -norm of reciprocity -social approval -feel good about self WHAT are some people costs of helping -Danger -Time -Effort -Could be awkward; insult the other Social exchange theory: people take rewards and costs into account when deciding whether to help Thoughts& Moods: Positive Stories of helping Good Samaritan Study: Darley & Batson