Which of the following ions are unlikely to be found in chemical compounds: or Explain briefly.
Week 7 Notes Telescopes Cont. • Why are radio telescopes big Observing at a longer wavelength • Magnification =Telescope’s Focal Length / Eyepiece’s Focal Length o Brings light to a focus • Image size = Angular size x Telescope’s focal length • Imaging o One color of light is recorded at a time on astronomical detectors. More than one image must be used to create fully colored picture. Earth’s atmosphere • Affects Ground-Based Observations: o Minimal light pollution (dark) o Dry—no rain, clouds o Higher altitude = Less atmosphere to see through o Good “seeing” (i.e. not much turbulence); Calm/Not that windy o For observatory, it is also good for it to be accessible, have a large aperture, have good optics/adaptive, has a large format, has a dome (enclosure), and has low-noise detectors • Light Pollution o Scattering off of what is in the atmosphere (Human-made light) • Twinkling and Turbulence o Turbulence distorts our view of space, which is why it looks like stars twinkle • Adaptive Optics o There are aberrations in telescopes, such as: § Lenses and mirrors not perfect, so there is a figure (e.g. spherical aberration) • A sphere is not a parabola • Distance is the same between line and focal point with a parabola (Hard to make, spheres are easier to make) § Chromatic aberration § Aberrations in eyes • E.g. nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism o Perfect optics that are carefully designed and maintain a figure/shape of the optics • Transmission o Only radio and visible light easily pass through our atmosphere § Telescopes are used in space to view other forms Radio Telescopes Interferometry • Technique to link 2+ telescopes to have an angular resolution of one, single, large telescope Infrared and Ultraviolet Telescopes • They operate like visible-light telescopes X-Ray Telescopes • Above atmosphere • Focusing requires special mirrors; Mirrors arranged to focus its photons by grazing bounces off the surface of the telescope Non-Visible Light Telescopes • High energy light, it is tricky Week 7 Notes—Chapter 7 of Cosmic Perspective Comparing Planets • Comparing processes that are within multiple worlds instead of simply knowing facts specific to each specific world • Hydrogen and Helium are typical gases within universe • Sun o Over 99.9% of mass • Mercury o Metal, rock, large iron core; Desolate craters; Long, tall, steep cliffs; Very hot and cold; Darker than the moon • Venus o About same size as Earth; Closer to sun than Earth; Surface of Venus is hotter than Mercury; Its surface is hidden by its clouds; Extreme greenhouse effect à Hellish conditions; Winds • Earth o Only surface that has liquid water in the solar system; Large moon • Mars o Little atmosphere; Volcanoes and canyons; Polar caps; Water has flowed, so there may have been life; Looks earth-like; Have sent two major rovers (but there has been more) that drive around the surface o Mars Express à Vulcanism o Briny water § Wider and darker lines grow during the summer—some sort of liquid water due to perchlorate salts which keeps its temperature down (Spectral fingerprints) o Methane sniffer en route to Mars to find out if it is biological in origin • Jupiter o Lots of rings; Further from Sun; H/He and no solid surface; Active volcanoes; Large; Cratered; Liquid ocean underneath; “Ice ball” o Jupiter’s moons can be planets themselves (Jupiter’s four Galilean moons) • Saturn o Rings (are not solid—made of icy rocks that orbit like a moon), moons o Cassini orbiting around it o Geysers (Thermal and theological activity) on moons • Uranus o Gas giant; Hydrogen compounds; Tilted almost 90 à Extreme seasons • Neptune o Similar to Uranus except for its tilt • Pluto and other Dwarf Planets o Icy and like a comet’s composition; Its moon is similar to its size o Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt Planets • Orbit in same direction and in same plane • Patterns: o Nearly circular motion o Orderly motion o The inner planets are more rocky and terrestrial, while outer planets are Jovian and gaseous Deductive v. Inductive • Deductive o Valid versus invalid o Sound argument versus unsound argument o If p then q. § P= antecedent § Q= Consequent • Inductive o Strong versus weak argument o Cogent versus uncogent argument Three categories: 1. Irrelevant a. Ad hominem b. Appeal to authority c. Genetic fallacy—Argument based on a source 2. Ambiguity a. Straw man arguments; Twisting argument around to make it confusing i. Misrepresenting a position so that it appears weaker b. Accent fallacies—Statement’s meaning is changed where its stress had been placed 3. Presumption a. False dilemmas; Argument cast in a way that it seems to not be true • If two propositions conflict with one another, then one of them must be false • If it is logically possible it does not mean it is physically possible or real • Skeptical of propositions that conflict with one another • An expert in one field does not mean he/she is an expert in another field • Bias o Confirmation Bias § Too critical if it conflicts with your point of view o Media Bias § Narrative bias (Beginning, middle, and end) § Commercial bias § Fairness bias (Equal time and weight, etc.)