Describe the molecular geometry of suggested by each of the following methods: (a) Lewis theory; (b) valence-bond method using simple atomic orbitals; (c) VSEPR theory; (d) valence-bond method using hybridized atomic orbitals.
CLA 322 Monsters 4/5/2016 Indian Monsters Rig Veda (our source): Rig meaning prayer (like to the gods) andVeda meaning Knowledge Indra (storm god) leader of the Devas (gods of heaven)-see pictures The Vedic Triad: Indra(Stormgod), Surya (Sun god), and Agni (Fire god) As regulator of the goods he would be considered as guardian of the cardinaldirections (Like the Lokapala from Tang Dynasty china)-gods of the cardinal directions often depicted as trampling the enemy Japanese example: The four heavenly kings (Shitenno) here they guard the Buddha Back to Indra: He is the protector of the east (throws lightning bolts) He is said to have slain a dragon calledVritra Rigveda 1.32 1. I WILL declare the manly deeds of Indra,the first that he achieved, the His first manly deed Thunder-wielder. This dragonwas supposed to have been holding back the flood waters (that are precious o this agricultural society) He slew the Dragon,then disclosed the waters, and cleft the channelsof What is this dragon therefore the mountain torrents. o The dragon is therefore a cloud that doesn’t want to yield its water onto the earth 2. He slewthe Dragon lying on the Tvastar isan inventor for the gods (like the cyclops or Hephaestus) mountain: hisheavenly bolt of Waters describedas if it were a herd of cattle thunder Tvastarfashioned. The bolt fashioned by Tvastar: Like lowing kine in rapid flow descending the waters glided downward to the ocean. Indra’s Vajra Means diamond aswell, something hard, gleaming, and“pure”. This weapon was not enough to defeat his enemy, he needed something else Before going into battle with this cloud/dragon, Indra first drank a specialbeverage: Soma. 3. Impetuous as a bull,he chose the Soma and in three sacred beakers drankthe juices. Maghavan grasped the thunder forhisweapon, and smote to death this firstborn of the dragons. This dragon is the first born of the dragons Is soma ephedra A plant used as a brain stimulant and performance enhancing drug (used in methamphetamines) Rigveda 2.12 1. HEwho, just born, chief God of lofty spirit by power and might became the Gods' protector, Before whose breath through greatness of his valour the two worlds trembled,He,O men,is Indra. 2. He who fixed fast and firmthe earth that staggered, and set at rest the agitated mountains, Who measured out the air's wide middle region and gave the heaven support, He, men,is Indra. Indra gives stability to the world as wellas giving fertility He protects the gods A force without which everything will fall to chaosand disorder, He is like the combination of Zeus and Atlas. As soonas he kills the dragon, he gives life to foundational elements of the cosmos: 4. When, Indra,thou hadst slain the dragon'sfirstborn,and overcome the charms of the enchanters, Then, giving life to Sun and Dawn and Heaven,thou foundest not one foe to stand against thee. Thingsget a bit complicated: We have hintsat to why Indra was though t be allpowerful: 7. He underwhose supreme control are horses, all chariots, and the villages, and cattle; He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters,He, O men, isIndra. 8. To whom two armies cry in close encounter, both enemies,the stronger and the weaker; Whom two invoke upon one chariot mounted,each forhimself,He, Oye men,is Indra. 9. Without whose help our people never conquer; whom, battling,they invoke to give them succour; He of whom all this world isbut the copy, who shakesthings moveless, He,O men,is Indra. 10.He who hath smitten,ere they knew theirdanger, with his hurled weapon many grievous sinners; Indra is the god of victory, aswell as the victorious (combination of Zeusand Athena). In the sameway he led the Devas (gods of the skies) against the Asura (gods of raw nature—like the Norse giants), he was also thought to have helped the Aryan Tribe of conquering the native inhabitants of India (The Dayu—conflated with the enemies of Indra) Explaining Soma: Ancient for of Indian worship is characterized by highritual practices, heavilyreliant of properties like Soma What is the origin of this great drink o This drink that he absolutely needs to destroy the dragon is made by humans, thisis part of their arrangement for his protection 14. Who aids with favourhim who poursthe Soma and him who brews it, sacrificer, singer. Whom prayer exalts, and pouring forth of Soma, and thisour gift, He,O ye men,Is Indra. 15. Thou verily art fierce and true who sendest strength to the man who brews and pourslibation. Rig Veda3.32 8. Many are Indra's nobly wrought achievements, and none of all the Gods transgresshis statutes. He beareth up thisearth and heaven, and, doer of marvels, he begot the Sun and Morning. 9. Herein, OGuileless One, is thy true greatness,that soon asborn thou drankest up the Soma. Days may not check the powerof thee the Mighty, northe nights,Indra, northe months,nor autumns. 10. As soon as thou wast born in highest heaven thou drankest Somato delight thee, Indra; This drink brings him close to the humanswho make it, it is part of their worship to him THINK: What doesit say about the dragon needing to be killed through Soma consumption Root of soma meansto press. Vritra is not defeated by god alone, but by a divine contract This dragon can remind you of Tiamat (and her assailantMarduk) The Babylonians share a common origin with the Aryan tribes who inherited Indian subcontinent (Punjab) The Punjab is where the Veda was composed by priestly poets They brought with them the idea of the dragonas the forces of chaos to be defeated CHINESE DRAGON: (before emergence of Vedic dragon inAsia) the idea of dragons was unified Before that time the Chinese dragon was100% a beneficial creature, symbolizing the unity, authority, and majesty, of the godgiven power of the Emperor. Emperor=Dragon=Emperor This dragon idea split in three types 1. Mythological dragon 2. Dragon King (from legend and folk religion) 3. Folktale dragon slain like a typicalWestern dragon Focusing on 1: (Folk tale dragon isan ambiguous rain giver) and imperial dragon doesn’tgive gifts(or rain) but serves as anidea of heavily regality. Does not serve as an obstacle to the hero, he is an object of collective worship How did they get to this conception Confucius (551-479 BCE) o Observance of rank andrespect for imperialauthority o Reflected powerfully in the imperial dragon The 6 references of the (original) dragon of Chinese myths: Sky Water Spiritual nobility Good omen Imperial power Nationality SKY: (Tian “Heaven”) Sky= imperialauthority Lao Tzu a Dragon (Founder of Daoism) “Birds fly, fish swim, animals run. The running animalscan be caught in a trap,the swimmers in a net, and the flyers by an arrow. However, theDragon exists; I don’t know how it rides on the wind or how it reaches the heaven. Today Imet Lao Tzu. I can say that I have seen theDragon.” Metaphysical philosopher “I can say that Ihave seen the dragon” Lao Tzu is embodying the ideal of what the dragonrepresents His thoughts are from heaven—spiritual nobility Why would confusions think this From Tao Te Ching (explaining the Ying and Yang): 2 When people see some things as beautiful, other things become ugly. When people see some things asgood, other things become bad. Being and non-being create each other. Difficult and easy support each other. Long and short define each other. High and low depend on each other. Before and after follow each other. Therefore the Master acts without doing anything and teaches without saying anything. Things arise and she lets them come; things disappear and she lets them go. She has but doesn't possess, acts but doesn't expect. When her work isdone, she forgets it. That is why it lasts forever. “Profound Wisdom” Good fortune: The 64 hexagrams in the book of changes (a divination chart) “Dragon flying in the heaven. It furthersone to see agreat man.” “Things of one kind come together. Birdsof afeather flock together. Waterflows to where wet is,fire closes to what isdry. Clouds followthe dragon, wind followsthe tiger. In the same way, the wise man arises, and the common people follow him with theireyes. What is born of heaven feels related to what is above. What is born of earth feelsrelated to what isbelow. Like attracts like and each follows its kind.” Dragon as symbol of China: story of Yu: Yellow Emperor There was a severe drought and10 sunsshone on the earth, just as the land was recovering, a flood almost destroyed it again, at this time china was led by the Yellow emperor. Kun (grandson of the emperor or) decided to steal a small amount of magical clay from the yellow emperor and gave it to the peasants (without his knowledge). With this clay, they were able to absorball the extra water and Kun was not content (as he loved his fellow peasants). He built dams, but over time they broke. Eventually the YE found out and ordered the fire god to kill Kun. The fire god follows him to the great frozen north, and smote him with his fire sword, trapping him in ice (alive). He is left there for 3 yrs., the emperor sends the god back to check on the body. He came back and saw that his body was preserved, and was curious as to whether he was alive. He cracked the ice with is fire sword, and pierced Ken’s skin a bit. Out of this wound, Yu was bornnot as a baby, but in the shape of a dragon. Becoming humanagainhe assigned himself the job of marinating managing the flood (just like his father) instead of stealing the dirt he asked the yellow Emperor for it (respecting hisauthority). He built dams, canals, leveled hilltops, used the tail of the dragon to create river channels. For this role, he waschosen assuccessor. Why the ice Preservation in ice was the preservation of the goodness of Kun Yu’s shape alludes he will be able to control the waters and become emperor Yu is truly a dragon, but takes on human shape to live amongst them and help them National Flag under the Qing Dynasty (1646-1911) Consort of the imperial dragon: “TheChinese Phoenix” Feng (male) Huang (female) Symbolizes the yin and yang Symbolizes grace, peaceand prosperity. Witnesses the rise of a new good dragon The imperial couple These two appeared early on astwo of the four of the cardinal directions The 4 guardians of the 4 directions Dragon: East, Spring, Green(/blue), wood Feng Huang: South, Summer, Red,fire White Tiger: West,Autumn,white, metal Tortoise: North, Winter, black,water The tiger was thought of asa protector (warriors) therefore association with metal which could be described as white Tortoise: known for longevity (1000) and having learned the language of humans Black: This Is what happen when there is a long accumulation of color mixed together, The north is cold and dark