Arrange the liquids represented by the following molecular models in the expected order of increasing viscosity at 25 C.
The Decline of the Caliphate • “Age of Ribat” began to decline • Steady, relentless attack from former, kicked-out leaders • Pockets of rebels who never fully accepted dan Fodio attacked • Emirates, such as Kano, began to assert its authority by rejecting authorities in the late 18 century • Modification of aims of the Caliphate due to internal and external problems • Emirates began to assert autonomy • Sign that the end-time was near and it became a more central aspect of society o Refuge in personal piety • Lugard’s army in 1903 had begun to establish a dynasty in the south and worked its way up into Nigeria (a.k.a. the British conquest) o Many pious leaders fled, but the British worked through the rest of the emirs who had their autonomy taken from them. The Caliphate’s infrastructure was useful for the British (indirect rule) • Legacy o Took library with them on jihads § Book covers § Writing implements owned by vizier/wazir (main advisors of the caliph) o Lineage § Spiritual leader today is a direct descent of Uthman dan Fodio Review: Africanization • Rituals o Rites of passage o Afterlife (e.g. Nupe) • Pero Mask—Quranic verses etched into its inside • Swahili mats • Poetry, art, architecture • Quran and hadith translated into vernacular languages, such as Hausa and Fulfulde • Linking of praise genres (e.g. Traditional Hausa women singing in Islamic form) • Different pilgrimage sites (e.g. Touba in Senegal because of the Mourides; Uthman dan Fodio’s tomb) o Appropriation/sanctifying model of the hajj Islamization • Dream interpretation o 1/46 prophechy o existed before, but changed to Arab Islamic culture interpretations—Arabic dream manuels o Also Africanization • Swahili coast o Used both languages—Arabic language is “Swahili-ized” Kabbe • Catechism; Abbreviated; A creed • Based on a treatise by an Algerian, al-Sanusi • Dan Fodio did not like it because it was sectarian Religious Change • Quarantine, Mixing, Reform (Fisher) • Problematic o Too generalized—they overlap o Concept of “mixing”: “Less authentic/complete”—heresy to some extent; Term applied by outsiders Sokoto Caliphate • Wa’azi o Warning style of poetry • Takhmis o Add lines to beginning of a poem o To reinforce and add own twist • Fulanis were pastoralists/cattleholders • Acrostic o Style of writing poetry o Mneumonic device for support and relief o E.g. So Verily