Carbon tetrachloride and mercury have similar viscosities at 20 C. Explain.
Diasporas and Homelands: Are Diasporas Agents of Economic Development ● Diasporas are more actively engaged ● Homeland governments also more engaged with the diasporas ● Passive diasporas lost the connection with the country they have come from “old” diasporas ● Active diasporas are the more recent diasporas ● Relationships with homeland: political or economic ● Positive economic (securing good governance through leverage/engaging in economic and social reconstruction at micro and macro levels) ● Negative political (funding communal and religious hatred or peace making/ mobilizing or funding ethnonationalism or generating conflict, peace wrecking) Frameworks for Understanding Diaspora’s Developmental Linkages and Impacts ● DiasporaHomeland transnational exchanges ● forms of diaspora capita; 4Cs Model ● Forms of Diaspora finance ● Macrolevel impacts 5Ts models DiasporaHomeland ● Exchange of ideas, money goods and services ● Not a one way system 4Cs ● Intellectual capital ○ Reversing brain drain ■ Returnees brain gain, brain circulation ● Social/cultural capital ○ Ethnic bonds ● Political capital ● Financial capital Example: Financial capital contribution of diasporas ● 1 remittances ● 2 philanthropy ● 3 finance (FDI/Portfolio/bonds) ● 4 knowledge transfer and innovation ● 5 institutional reform ○ Move up signifies change from breadth to depth of contribution 5Ts ● Telecoms (phone, fax, internet) ● Tourism (boosts local and regional economy) ● Trade (ethnic foods, heritage and cultural goods) ● Transport (airlines, airports, buses, taxis) ● Transfers (money, goods, gifts) Main forms of diaspora finance ● Family remittances ● philanthropic/community funding ● bank deposits in NRI accounts ● purchase of special bond issues ● portfolio investment stocks and bonds ● foreign direct investment ○ Total financial contribution can be significant % of a country’s foreign exchange reserves ○ (in some cases even up to 40%) Overseas Chinese and FDI ● Foreign direct investment up to 70% in some years esp. in coastal provinces ● IT/Science helping towards move up the value chainSilicon Valley Connection ○ 2010 60% of SV’s and S&E workforce born overseas ● Venture Capital for R&D innovation and patents ● “Thousand Talents” program to lure talented overseas Chinese Different forms of capital forms ● Remittances have emerged as an important source of development finance ● Developing countries foreign aid has been relatively flat over the last 15 years ○ Steady increase in remittances ○ Increase in foreign direct investment Remittances and migration ● 436 bil. million of US dollars in remittances contribution by diasporas worldwide (2014) ○ Huge business with a great impact on the local economies ● Major recipients (2014) ○ India 71 bil ○ China 64 bil ○ Philippines 28 bil ● Many LA countries dependent on remittances from the US (78% from the USA) ● BUT COSTS OF REMITTING HOME ARE STILL HIGH Impacts of Remittances ● Micro level ○ as a means of insurance ○ means of investment ○ means of consumption ○ nonpecuniary effects of remittances eg social remittances ● Macrolevel ○ impact on national economic growth ○ source of revenue for govt ○ as source of fx earnings People, Philippines’ best export ● Most successful export of the Philippines remains its people ● in 2009 remittances from 9m overseas Filipinos, nearly a tenth of the country’s population rose to $15.8 billion, equivalent to 1113% of the economy Kerala, South India ● 2.4mil of Keralites were living and working overseas in 2014 ● The money they send home is equivalent to fully 36% of the state’s domestic product ● Highly dependent Mapping Formation of Sikh Diaspora Picture quiz ● Governor of South Carolina ● Father of fiber optics ● Recruitment of SIkh into the British army ● Guru Nanak (founder of Sikh religion) Home of the Sikhs Punjab ● Known as land of 5 rivers ● Boundaries changed esp, at the end of colonial rule (1947) and during post colonial period (1966)now has only 3 rivers ● Pop. of Punjab = 28m and Sikhs 58% of the population ● Scripture= Guru Granth ● Language= Gurmukhi/Punjabi ● Sacred Center= Darbar Sahib (GT) at Amritsar ● Punjab ⅙ in territory than what it was before 1947 Stats ● Sikhs as a minority community in the world 25mil (0.35%) ● Bigger community than the Jewish or Armenian community ● Sikhs are also a minority community in India 1.72% ○ Hindus by share 79.8%, Muslims 14.2%, Christians 2.3%, Sikhs 1.72%, Buddhists 0.7% , Jains 0.4% ● Sikhs are largely located in the Punjab ○ And some areas around Punjab that used to be the greater Punjab ● The only place where Sikhs are majority Punjab ○ But over years even that majority is declining ○ The numbers of Sikhs are also declining in Delhi ○ Fear of being taken over by Hindus ● Punjab ● 58% Sikhs, 39% Hindu, 2% Muslim, 1% Christian Founding of Sikh Religion ● Nanak (14691539) ● Born in Punjab in Talwandi in 1469 ● Spend over 20 years travelling (udasis) N/S/E/W after undergoing powerful spiritual experience ● Eventually settled down and founded Kartarprur (town of the Creator) and Sikh community to carry out mission assigned to him ● Started process of scripture creation (pothis in Gurmukhi script) ● Founder of many Sikh congregational prayers, rituals and instructions ● A monotheistic understanding of God (Vahiguru) centered on divine unity and uniqueness ● God brought “Creation” into being in historical time and runs it with the twin principles of justice (father image of stern judge) and grace (image of motherly forgiveness) ● The creation and its history are part of the larger divine design. If humans do not understand its details, it is part of their limitations not the absence of a valid explanation ● The creation being a divine abode in real and sacred ● Human life represents the pinnacle of this creation. This is an opportunity to attain liberation, of being one with God ● Liberation is open to all with no distinction to social or gender distinctions and can only be achieved within the context of family, community, and society at large ● The essential core of Sikh beliefs is ethical not theological ● Humans should follow the values that emerge from God’s running of the world ● Sikh values/life style is thus build on: ○ Recognition that God is the object of human devotion (nam) ○ Personal purity (ishnan) ○ Hard/honest work (kirat) ○ Societal responsibility/sharing (dan/seva) ● NO PLACE FOR ASCETICISM, GENDER OR CASTE/SOCIAL INEQUALITY, IDOL WORSHIP OR SUPERSTITION Enduring Sikh Institution of Langar (community kitchen/meal) created by Nanak ● Between 10,00020,000 meals are served daily in the Langar Hall at the Golden Temple Guru Arjan6th Guru and builder of the “Darbar Sahib” (“Honorable Court”) ● Foundation stone was laid by a Muslim Sufi Saint Guru Gobind Singh10th and last Guru Creation of the Khalsa ● Khalsa created by Guru Gobind in 1699 in Anadrpur (Town of Bliss) ● After the 10th Guru Khalsa/Sikhs do not recognize any personal authority. Office of the personal Guru is replaced by collective decision of Khalsa Sikhs (Guru Panth) collective decision and the revealed worldThe Guru Granth ● The Guru Granth becomes the eternal/living Guru ● Outward symbols to mark distinction (5K’s) Amritdhari Sikhs the 5K’s ● Khalsa/Sikhs believe that the human body is sacred, no cutting of bodily hair (kes), kept clean (kangha), carrying the markers of nobility and ready to fight for divine justice (kirpan, karha, and kachta) ○ Turban becomes a religious symbol and a symbol of nobility and honor) Two important Sikh Symbols signifying Sikh Belief and Values ● Nishan Sahib (flag, symbol of Sikh sovereignty or Sikh sacred space flag flies at every Gurdwara) ● ● Khanda (Symbol of oneness of God, a double edged sword for justice and divine knowledge and two swords reminding us to keep balance between the spiritual and the temporal (miripiri) Historical Context: empire, mobility and beginnings of Sikh global diasporas Punjab comes under British Rule, 1849 ● Maharaja Ranjit Singh (17991839) ● 2 Anglo Sikh Wars between East India Company and Khalsa Army First War 1846 Second War 1848/9 ● Sikhs lose and Sikh Empire transferred to the British formally in March 1849 both sides learned mutual respect for each other ● Indian rebellion of 1857 or First War of Independence Sikhs sided with British as sign of loyalty ● 1858 British Crown takes over rule from East India Company Mapping Formation of Sikh Diaspora Cont. Quiz 2 is based on Lectures 7/8 (Indian Diaspora) and 9/10 (Sikh Diaspora) ● Small diaspora, only 2 mil (½ mil in the USA, ½ mil Canada, 620k UK/Europe) ● Emergency of Sikh Diasporas ○ “Myth of Return” → “Diasporas” → “Transnationalism” ○ 1. Empire migrants (1880s1947) ○ 2. Post Partition UK, North American (19481970) ○ 3. Post 1970s Gulf States (197120) ○ 4. Post Cold War Mainland Europe and North America (1980 20) ■ Some are twice and thrice migrants Punjab Comes Under British Rule, 1849 ● Maharaja Ranjit Singh (17991839) ● 2 Anglo Sikh Wars between East India Co and Khalsa Army First War 1846 Second War 184849 ● Sikhs lose and Sikh Empire transferred to the British formally in March 1849 both sides developed mutual respect for each other ● Indian Rebellion of 1857 or First War of Independence. Sikhs sided with the British as sign of loyalty ● 1858 British Crown takes over rule from East India Co 2 Important impacts of British rule on the Sikhs ● 1 internal migration associated with policy of development of Canal colonies ○ Thousands of Sikhs moved into western Punjab because of land grants and job opportunities in new colony towns ○ Many migrated overseas from these regions in the late 19th C and early 20th C helped by development of railways which connected land locked Punjab to nearest port city of Calcutta ○ However, at partition in 1947, all were uprooted “forced migration” left for East Punjab, India and some overseas ■ Early catalyst for people to move ● 2 Overseas migration due to recruitment of Sikhs into the British Indian Army which intensifies from 1870s Sikhs as a favored “martial race” ○ Disproportionate recruitment from among the Sikhs ○ At the height of recruitment Sikhs comprised nearly one third of British India Army despite having only 2% of India’s population ○ Good fighting people, military tradition ○ Martial racist theories all good martial people are all near Punjab Migration to British Colonies in Southeast Asia starts from 1880s ● Early movements outside the Punjab: recruitment to British Army and as policemen ● Followed by adventureseeking migrants employed as night watchmen, tin miners and farmers ● Policemen in Malay, Shanghai Moving Eastward Hong Kong Gurdwara built in 1901, 1937 largely as a staging post ● All men (some kids) ● No women ● All this migration during this period is male centered ● Hong Kong is a port and a major staging post Arriving on the Pacific Coast Vancouver 1900 ● Many worked in the lumber mills, Canadian Pacific Railways and miles and later in berry farming ● Steady flow until racist immigration laws stopped “the Hindu invasion” ● Gurdwara in Abbotsford 19112011 Komagata Maru Incident, 1914 ● Gurdit Singh hired a ship sailed from HK to Vancouver with 376 passengers 340 Sikhs. Refused rights to unboard passengers ● He was testing the new immigration rule “Continuous Journey” California (1899) ● By 1913, 6656 admitted, 2844 excluded, 107 deported and 704 have departed ● At time of Immigration Commission investigation in 1910, they were found to be employed in 6 mills, 4 near Tacoma First Gurdwara in Stockton (1912) and second El Centro (1948) ● Sikhs initially worked in lumber industry especially in British Columbia and then moved southwards Washington, Oregon and California ● Land could not be owned so leased or held through “proxy” owners ● Male migrants only as wives not allowed some married Mexican women ● Subjected to racism organizations ● Sikhs building railroads in CA Sikhs as farmers from the 1910s large settlements in Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, Imperial Valley ● More recently in YubaSutter County Hostility and racism ● Riot in Bellingham in 1907 Sikhs driven out towards BC Migration to British Colonies in East Africa ● Early Sikhs in British East Africa pioneers as soldiers who fought against Germans to capture Tanganyika ○ Some settled in East Africa ● 1890s building railroads in Uganda ○ One of the earliest Gurdwara in East Africa, 1903 Lecture 10 the Post Colonial Sikh Diaspora 3 Contrasting Phases of Sikh Migration to the USA Period 1: 19001965 ● Migration directly from Punjab, India and spill over from Canada 67k in number ● 1910 onwards limited increase in numbers, due to exclusionary acts Alien Land Laws ● 1940s relaxation of immigration controls, but still quota systems existed Period 2: 19651985 ● Quota system abolished in 1965 and replaced with Immigration and Nationality Act ● Earlier single, male, uneducated rural migrants replaced by variety of educated, urban based, married professional migrants scientists, engineers, etc start of socalled “brain drain” ● These categories of migrants increase not just from India but also for Sikhs from other especially exBritish colonies as opportunities regarded as being better in USA ● Immigration and visa issue system also gave preference to such migrants Period 3: 1985 Present ● This period overlaps with period 2 ● Visa for professional migrants, family sponsorship ● New category of political migrants increase from mid 1980sseeking asylum and refugee status due to troubles in Punjab ● Thus diversity as well as geographical spread increases greatly How many Sikhs are there in the US ● Enumerating the number of Sikhs in America is tricky as US Census survey does not ask questions around religious affiliation ● We end with wide range in estimates ● Probably around 500,000 ● A minority, Sikhs as only 1% of US Asians ● 5% of Indian Americans ● West Coast 55% of Sikhs ● East Coast 30% Early Case of Legal Right to US Citizenship ● Bhagat Singh Thind, came to US to study in 1913, recruited to US Army late during WWI ● Discharged in 1918, having “excellent character” ● Initially granted citizenship but in 1923 it was revoked because not a “white Caucasian” ● Gained citizenship in 1936 after 3rd attempt and become successful yoga teacher Dalip Singh Saund ● Elected as US Congressman in 1956 and served w/ distinction from 1957 till 1963. First Sikh American Congressman in the US ● Served as judge for several years in the Westmoreland Judicial District, before his election as Congressman ● Eventually acquired his own successful farming business Socio economic profile ● Part of “Model Minority” with high median income and education levels ● Employment varied but more likely to be in ○ Farming, esp fruit largest Sikh farming community outside India ○ Professionals ○ Trucking ○ Microbusiness Canada ● Phases are very similar to American ● Relaxed migration in 1967 ● Rapid population growth ● Major issue in Canada turban only allowed in 1990s to be a part of the Royal Mounted police Summary ● Geo spread associated with expansion of British Empire later by economic opportunities ● Farming all over the world Diasporas and Homelands: Are Diasporas Agents of Economic Development Cont. Kerala, South India ● Household survey organized by Rajan of the Centre for Development Studies, found that 2.4mil Keralites were living and working overseas in 2014 ● THe money they send home is equivalent to 36% of the state’s domestic product. “For all practical purpose, it’s a remittance economy” says C.P. John of the state government ● Kerala’s experience has been hooked on remittances longer than most. It shows how they can reshape an economy ● China has mobilized its diaspora to invest successfully (and at a grand scale) ● Real impact has been in the realm of remittances ○ Helping family, paying back debts, etc ● Philippines dependent on remittances ○ Utilizes migration and foreign exchange ● Keralites are mostly on the Gulf ○ Female migrants as maids, cleaners ○ Men tend to work in construction sites, other types of businesses Diasporas ● Have a lot of income and wealth as compared to people back home ● Have accumulated assets and wealth ● High consumption, sometimes of goods from homelands ● Homeland governments want diaspora to save money in banks in the homelands ● And homeland govs also encourage investments ● So potential for mobilization through savings, remittances and investment in homeland 2 types of states ● Supportive state (diasporas matter) → sub states → strongly supportive sub state/ rhetorically supportive sub state/ selective supportive sub state ○ Sub states (provinces) ○ How they engage with their diaspora ○ Sub states can vary within the country in terms of support ○ Selective supportive as in allowing no invest, not giving voting rights (many diff. scenarios) ● OR ● Restrictive or rentier state (indifferent attitude toward diaspora) ○ In many countries actual situation is somewhere between Rhetorically and Selectively supportive substates ● Indifferent attitudes from India and China before towards their diasporas ● Transformation over the last two decades over how diasporas are viewed Some Conclusions ● Potential is enormous but abject failure in engagement and mobilization in many countries but some excellent examples ● Disconnect between rhetoric and reality ● Diaspora’s contribution is largely micro at household and community level so only partial contribution ● Potential failure due to: ○ Heterogeneity and diversity of diaspora due to migration experiences ○ Lack of critical mass in many areas of potential contribution ○ Some sections of the diaspora may have reached the phase of “disinvestment” so capital flows out ○ Lack of coherent and consistent policy on incentives ○ Politicization of connections and exclusivity and fracturing of diaspora identity ○ Lack of transparency in diaspora connections The Indian Diaspora ● Overseas Indian day always to be held in January (a holiday for overseas Indians) ○ On the day Gandhi returned from South Africa to India ○ Have not happened this year The New Indian Diaspora Formation of New Indian Diaspora ● Migration before Indian independence was limited partly due to immigration controls and partly due to disruptions caused by 2 World Wars and global dispersion in between ● Opportunities for migrating abroad began to open up esp to UK in the 1950s and to North America from the mid 1960s ● Further opportunities opened up for migration to Gulf/Middle East after OPEC 1 & 2 (19734 and 197980) ● IT boom and growth in IT industry in Silicon Valley and Indian leads to migration of large number of IT software engineers (techies) to USA under the H1B visa system and later to the EU ● Twice and thrice migrations of Indians from lower developed excolonies to more advanced countries and also from Africa due to Africanization Major types of migrants from India over 3 decades ● High skilled workers/educated economic migrants ● Unskilled male and female labour migrants (mainly to the Gulf) ● Family reunions/marriages ● Students studying abroad Changing locations since the 1960s ● New centers (USA, Canada, Europe, Middle East, etc.) ● Located in 130+ countries around the world ○ Genuine global dispersion Highly Educated Indians as top migrants in the OECD Countries ● Indian migrants contribute over 2 million peoples Gulf ● Increasing migration over the years ● Since the beginning of the 21st century Indian Diaspora in USA and Gulf States as two contrasting cases ● Far more pleasant experience in the USA Indian Migration to Gulf yet another form of indenture labor ● Health and safety record in Gulf leaves a lot to be desired ● Some similarities with indenture labor Introduction to Indian Diaspora in USA ● Indian diaspora in USA 3.8mil ie those either born in India or reported Indian ancestry or race, according to US Census Bureau ● From 1980 to 2013, the Indian immigrant population increased tenfold, from 206,000 to 2.04 mil, roughly ● Indians are top recipients of temporary highskilled worker H1B visas, accounting for 70% of 316,000 H1Bs issues in 2014 ● India is 2nd for sending students to US after China: nearly 103,000 Indianborn students in U.S. in 201314 ● Indian immigrants tend to have much higher educational attainment compared to both the foreign and native born populations ● Lots of migrants before 2000 Indian Story of the Valley ● Entrepreneurship, innovation leading to upward success ● CEO of Google, CEO of Microsoft Entrepreneurial Success in Silicon Valley ● According to AnnaLee Saxenian (UC Berkeley) Indianborn entrepreneurs founded 7% of all SV startups between 1980 and 1998. By forming their own networks and mentoring each other, they changed the perception of Indian technologies 17 Indian IITsEducated brightest of the bright but then many leave ● Indian Institute of Education Technology ● Living style in the US is attractive ● Brain gain for the US (most gain, Canada comes second) SV and Indian IT Industry connection Brain Circulation ● Indian Moving up the Value Chain from IT to BPO and KPO ● Knowledge process outsourcing is bespoke software development and other higher end consultancy eg analytics, forecasting Changing Contexts: Backlash against the twin threat ● Backlash against Indian migrant workers ● Indians dominating IT sector, China making everything used in the US US Indian Americans score high on education and income metrics ● A new elite ● High income and highest education ● “Model minority” ● Wealthy, highly educated, but prefer to marry within their own group Diversity ● Diversity of origins ● Diversity in terms of religion (51% of Hindus, but also 18% are Christians, 10% Muslim, and others) Some Conclusions on India (largely Hindu) Indian Diaspora experiences ● Diversity in religions of origin Gujarati, Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, Punjabi, etc ● Diversity in languages ● Diversity in religious tradition/ deities followed but attempts at developing pan Hinduism ● Social hierarchy transplanting of caste system ● Homeland orientation strong allegiance to homeland politics and to parties promoting Hindu Nationalism active courting by Indian government Social Hierarchy ● Leads to separate social and business networks and tensions eg in UK a movement to lobby for legislation to make caste discrimination illegal as with race or gender Diaspora Experience accommodating religious diversity ● How to manage the sectarian/regional diversity within the tradition From the quiz Halacha Rabbanic law Galut exile Total Jewish population 14 mil, in Israel is about 5.7 million, so about 8.5million in diaspora Muslim Diasporas Continued Muslim Presence in USA ● Pew estimates American Muslims number at 3.3mil 1% third largest religious group ● It is a group that is heterogenous in race, ethnicity, religious beliefs and political attitudes ● US Muslim population is largely Sunni ○ Muslim Americans are racially diverse. No single racial or ethnic group makes up more than 30% of the total. Overall, 30% describe themselves as white, 23% as black, 21% as Asian, 6% as Hispanic and 19% as other or mixed race Where do they come from ● Growing number from SubSaharan Africa migrants indicates growth in new African diaspora Conclusion is Ummah and Diaspora same in Islamic mind ● Ummah Arabic word meaning “community” or “nation”. In the context of Islam, the world Ummah or Muslim Ummah s used to mean the diaspora or “community of the believers” (UmmatalMu’minin) ● Thus the whole Muslim world is seen as one Ummah, moving towards a common goal, striving to realize their common objectives, worship and the only God ● In many traditions Muslims are described as one body and different segments of the Muslim Ummah are regarded as the organs of a single body relating to each other in matters of kindness, love and affection. When one part of the body is afflicted, the entire body feels it, causing great discomfort Muslim Identity in USA today ● Muslims tend to see themselves more in terms of their religious identity than American identity ● Christians are split equally in terms of identity The Chinese Diaspora Picture quiz ● Beijing Olympics stadium Bird’s nest ● Chinatown ● Great wall ○ Isolation of China ● General Mao ● Confucius Chinese as an example of trade diaspora Two diasporas compared 20 top destinations ● Chinese diaspora= 4045mil ● Indian diaspora= 25mil ● ¾ of Chinese diaspora is in South East Asia ● Many Indian migrants in the Gulf Intro to Chinese Diaspora ● China’s population: around 1.35 billion ● Total chinese diaspora is between 4055 million. Discrepancy comes from trying to define who’s Chinese abroad ● Definitions: What is Chinese Diaspora or Overseas Chinese ○ Overseas Chinese all people of Chinese birth or ancestry living outside mainland China but many overseas Chinese may not identity with either the PRC (Taiwan) or the ROC (China) ○ Terms: Huaqiao (Chinese sojourner) or Huayi (ethnic Chinese residing outside China). Another common term is haiwai huaren a literal translation of Overseas Chinese ● Cantonese, Hokkien (Taiwanese) or Hakka as major linguistic or ethnic groups in SEA ● Much of historical Chinese overseas migration related to trade and political and economic factors which pushed Chinese out of China Formation of Chinese Diaspora period up to 19th C. ● Early accounts of overseas Chinese refers usually to them as traders (South China Sea, Indian Ocean, Old Silk Road) ● Between 10th18th century, China saw several waves of migration to Southeast Asia. Countries such as Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia have flourishing Chinese communities, which play an active and in some cases dominant role in their respective countries’ business and finance and trade with China ● Most of these migrants come from maritime provinces of Guangdong, Fujian and Hainan ● Almost 75% of Chinese diaspora is located in SouthEast Asia strong regional trade and business network exists today China’s Silk and Spice Trade Routes increased mobility ● The Chinese traded silk, opium and some spices in return for gold, silver and wool ● Technique of obtaining silk was closely guarded secret for almost 30 centuries ● The Great Silk Road, mentions of which can be found in 300 BC lit., was a result of Chinese silk trade with Roman Empire and Arabs Chinese trade and migration in South East Asia and Indian Ocean ● Diaspora ○ Thailand 9mil ○ Malaysia almost 7mil ○ U.S. nearly 4mil Formation of Chinese Diaspora 19th Century ● After slavery was abolished in British colonies, colonists replaced African slaves with indentured laborers from China and India ● Widespread famine (causing starvation) and surplus labor in provinces of Fujian and Guangdong ● Conflicts such as Second Opium War (18561860) and Taiping Rebellion (1851 1864) caused disruption of agriculture and economic activities ○ Coolies hard worker ● Large number of unskilled Chinese were sold as contract laborers in the Coolie (hard labor) trade Chinese gang labour building Californian (1880s) and Canadian (1990) railways Chinese Migration to US & growing Sinophobia in 1880s ● Chinese came to US to participate in the California Gold Rush “Gold Mountain” ● Numbers grew between 1870 and 1880; by 1880 Chinese numbered 105,465 (0.2% of the U.S. population of 50mil) ● Immigration was authorized by the Burlingame Treaty; between China and US in 1868 ● 1880 Burlingame Treaty revised; Chinese immigration is suspended ● 1880s Anti Chinese sentiment Growing Sinophobia ● May 6, 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act passes and immigration exclusion era begins ● 1920 estimated 17,300 Chinese entered the US illegally, since the passes of the Chinese Exclusion Act ● 1965 Hart Celler Immigration and Nationality Act abolishes immigration criteria based on nation of origin and race Controlling Chinese Immigration ● Most of Chinese in CA, and almost all of them from Pearl River Delta outside of Guangzhou in Southern China ● While the act was in effect from 1882 to 1943 Chinese immigrants became America’s first “illegal” immigrants. Chinese immigration drastically dropped, though it never totally stopped Formation of Chinese Diaspora in 20th C ● The Chinese Revolution in 1911, Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party (19271950), and subsequent establishment of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949 “pushed” many economic migrants and political refugees overseas ● 1989 Tiananmen Square protests further accelerated migration ● Announcement by China in 1984 that it will take over Hong Kong ○ Fear among Chinese living in that era in Hong Kong, lot of people leaving prior to 1997 ○ Before China, Hong Kong was a British colony Key Centers of Chinese Diaspora Today ● ASEAN 33mil ● US 3.4mil ● Peru and Canada 1.3mil each ● EU 1.4mil ● Africa about 1mil ● Russia 1mil ● Australia 0.9mil ● Japan 0.7mil Chinese Immigration to the USA 19802013 ● Total Chinese diaspora in the US is around 4.5mil (the figure we need to remember) Chinese diaspora in US largest of all Asian diasporas ● Many reside in California (LA and SF) ● Also a large number in New York Conceptualizing Diasporas ● (Image above) Sikh temple gurdwara ● Faith communities have migrated to California from abroad but have retained strong attachment to their faith Last Session Main Message ● People who came in mid 1960s (relaxed migration laws) may have applied for their family members to join them in the US, might be sponsoring their families now. There is a continuation ● Diasporas is not a static concept ● Migration is a continually changing concept Simple Model of International Migration ● Push and Pull Model ○ Push factor (emigration region/place of departure) ■ War, environmental degradation, low standard of living, political repression/persecution ○ Pull factor (immigration region/place of arrival) ■ Demand for labor, political freedom/security, expectation of higher wages (aspiration, ambition) ○ Push and pull factors are interrelated From Migration Studies to Diaspora Studies ● Migrationmobility from here to there ○ Nature of migration “forced” or “voluntary” ○ Focus on place of migration and its causes/focus on place of settlement ○ Costs and benefits of migration on home and cost societies ● Analysis of Migration Itself ○ The process, experience and dynamics of mobility ● Outcomes of Migration ○ Especially from the point of view of the host country ■ Are these migrants integrating Is there a process of assimilation Are they developing their own neighborhoods ○ Issues of integration, assimilation, segregation or exclusion of migrants ● Notion of diaspora helps us to reconcile and integrate these divides in migration discourses provides an alternative way of thinking ○ All the elements of migration studies are integrated into diaspora discourses. Another way of thinking What does the term Diaspora mean ● From Greek composite verb dia and sperio (to scatter or to sow). So it is “sowing the seed/scattering the seed”. ○ Original word could be interpreted in the negative (victim) way or could be done in a positive way (dispersing, flourishing) ● In Jewish history, the term attained the connotations of exile or forced expulsion and dispersion, communal suffering or persecution, sense of loss and a longing and vision of return home ● “diaspora” has now become a term of selfidentification among many varied groups who migrated or whose forebearers migrated from one place to another or to several other places Defining Diasporas ● First definition probably provided by Armstrong in 1976 “any ethnic collectivity which lacks a territorial base within a given territory” ● Sheffer’s (1986) emphasized “attachment and ongoing relationship between the group and its homeland and group’s maintenance of a common identity and solidarity” later he further elaborated on root of migration eg voluntary or forced and conscious decision to remain new adopted home ○ Starting to question where the homeland is Nature of home, belonging ● Since 1990s, significant interest in diasporas Dufoix (2008) suggested definitions can be divided into three types: ○ Open definitions ■ Relatively loose and allow for widest variety of cases ■ Broad and wide, can apply to any particular group in any particular formation ● Van Hear Dispersion from homeland, living abroad (enduring presence outside of homeland), some link with a homeland (letters, money sent back, keeping in touch w/ friends). ● Esman material and sentimental linkages, while adapting to a new country. Identity is going to change. ○ Categorical definitions ■ These attempt to offer a clear and strict set of necessary conditions. Only those groups that meet the entire set may be considered “true” diasporas ● Safran 7 conditions whilst Cohen 9 conditions ● Reason for strict conditions is to argue that there are only few instances of diaspora groups benchmark of the Jewish diasporas as the archetype others are just migratory groups or “false” diasporas ● Esman has criticized this as being too strict but they do have an effect of concentrating the mind about this complex and multifaceted phenomenon ○ Oxymoronic definitions ■ These provide a postmodern or postcolonial definitions of diaspora. Instead of a pure and static phenomenon, existence of a diaspora is perceived as fluid and blurred. ■ Diaspora consciousness is a continuous process of adaptation and alienation and one that is characterized by diversity and hybridity ● Diaspora becomes a state of mind, state of consciousness ● Diaspora are not homogenous groups ■ Critics of this school say that perhaps except for introducing notion of fluidity and hybridity, they fail to provide us with a clear definition or workable concept of the term diaspora James Clifford: Diaspora as a Condition ● State of mind ● Focus on diasporic consciousness denoting it as a condition rather than being a descriptor of a group ● The condition that emerges from the experience of being from one place (homeland) and of another (place of settlement) ● One is “socially constructed” in the place of settlement, but due to “difference” and “othering”, differential forms of cultural accommodation/hybridity are produced ● Here is a situation where people think globally while living locally Key Issues to Consider ● Under what conditions is synthesis of cultural elements possible ● Which elements of culture become destabilized ● Are some aspects of culture more difficult to mix ● To what extent is there a truly politically radicalizing potential in this “condition” and what are the different forms that the condition takes ○ Are you more prone to become more politicized ● What are the difficulties encountered Defining Diaspora ● So defining diaspora is not so straight as first thought the term is contested among scholars Summary of Changes in Thinking ● Issue: ○ Cause of migration ■ Old: forced ■ New: any kind of dispersal ○ Cross border homeland links ■ Old: return to (imagined) homeland ■ New: dense and continuous linkages and circular exchanges ● Do not necessarily want to go home, there might be a symbolic home, not all wish to return there, but they maintain linkages ○ Incorporation/integration to host country ■ Old: do not integrate/maintain boundaries ■ New: Cultural hybridity ● Assimilation is the opposite of hybridity. Assimilation is the end of diaspora (all for example, become American) ● Identities are situational So what definition do we adopt and stick with ● Common ethnonational identity ○ A group should share the same collective identity despite heterogeneity (for ex., they come from Germany, Korea, etc.) ● Dispersion ○ All diaspora are dispersed groups dispersed in one or more countries, voluntary or forced ● Homeland Orientation ○ Attachment to real or imagined “homeland” as a source of meaning (memory, myth) as well as crossborder or trilateral experiences ● Maintenance of Boundaries/Lack of Complete Incorporation ○ Notion that full inclusion, assimilation and integration into host society is impossible or unwanted as a result group maintains a distinctive collective identity in the host country diaspora consciousness/condition ○ Not that your values are opposing, but you have maintain your home values, identity, etc. Diaspora Philanthropy: Are Diasporas Agents of Social Change Social Remittances ● Peggy Levitt defines social remittances as ‘the ideas, behaviors, identities, and social capital that flow from receiving to sending country communities’ ● Social remittances as ‘non monetary’ transfers that playa vital role in promoting entrepreneurship, community and family formation, as well as social and political integration both in the diaspora and at home ● Three main types of social remittances are: ○ Normative structures (ideas, values, beliefs such as gender sensitivity) ○ systems of practice (political participation, inclusion, skills transfer) ○ social capital (including all the values and norms that are socially remitted) ● The above promote cultural diffusion and social change and tend to be associated with greater human development outcomes in areas such as health, education and gender equality ● Collective remittances as social remittances ○ Philanthropy ○ social and cultural change (eg tradition based to modernity) What is philanthropy ● Philanthropy means “private resources donated out of an altruistic motive to advance human welfare” or “private giving for public good” ● Philanthropy appears to have replaced the word charity in academic discourses ○ charity derives from caritas “loving care for one’s fellow beings” whilst literal translation of philanthropy is “love of mankind” so overlap ○ Charity, unfairly, has become associated with patronage/conservatism whilst philanthropy is supposed to be more systematic and continuous and importantly with potential to be transformative ● Philanthropic donations excludes private remittances but not collective remittances, is not intended to generate direct commercial benefits to donors and are not intended to achieve political power ● Philanthropic giving implies a large element of psychic, spiritual and societal benefits ● Governments are excluded Who are the philanthropists ● There is a wide variety of actors with different motivations, objectives, capacities and impacts ● There are individual diaspora donors who have the connections and drive to select their causes and give independently ○ These can be relatively poor or middle income migrants who give to their hometown or villages ○ or they can be celebrities, sports stars, entrepreneurs and wealthy businessmen/women ○ “cultural entrepreneurs” emerge ● There are also others who choose to donate via intermediaries for convenience and greater impact ○ Eg through Hometown or Community based Associations; faith groups, professional networks, diaspora foundations and internetbased platforms Hometown Associations new nonstate actors, Mexico ● Mexico’s 3x1 program, (local/state/federal migrants put equal funding towards a project) improves public welfare ○ Program shows that coproduction improves citizens’ access to public sanitation, drainage, and water, although not electricity ● Over the years more and more states have participated Why Emergence of Diaspora Philanthropy ● Emergence of new development actors ○ A variety of new nongovt actors local, national, multilateral, private, which includes migrants ● New trends in global philanthropy ○ Although philanthropy in US has long history, phils are focusing on strategic giving to bring social change and influence policy ○ online platforms allow small donations to be pooled or give directly to initiatives abroad ● New directions in diaspora engagement ○ growth in wealthy diasporas and homelands govt’s more actively in courting diasporas tax breaks and matching grants and internet that allow diasporans to organize, collaborate and nurture ties across borders Motives for Diaspora Philanthropy ● 1. Faith is one of the biggest catalysts for giving ○ many diasporas like to give to churches and temples, but not all necessarily see religiouslymotivated giving as an act of philanthropy ● Faith communities and philanthropy and development ○ Buddhists giving is a way for the giver to accumulate merit in the cycle of life, death and rebirth ○ Hinduism concept of daan giving to needy/those in distress ○ Muslims charitable giving is one of the 5 pillars of Islam for devout Muslims ○ Christians tradition of tithing or giving away 1/10 of income for faith based charities ○ Sikhs idea of sharing, selfless service and donating 1/10 (dasvandh) for charitable purposes ● 2. Altruism civic duty, emotional ties and loyalty to village kith and kin activities can include sponsoring tournaments, building gym, facilities and establishing scholarships ● 3. Social status raising social status within village or state social structure and hierarchy ● 4. Response to govt initiatives but govt’s can also get in the way at best governments can provide the framework and incentive structures that encourage giving to social causes ● For many diasporas, homeland governments aren’t always favoured governing bodies seen as corrupt ● 5. Volunteering increasing enthusiasm for volunteering as well as giving to human rights related causes ○ Many examples of eyecamps, mobile diagnostic and screening clinics, mobile library, literacy and raising awareness about female foeticide (females aborted) and declining sex ratios and counseling services etc. ○ But corruption is a big factor often cited for hesitancy to give, and there is not much faith in the local NGO sector ○ Diasporas tend to work outside both governments and local NGOs Conclusion on Motives and Drivers of giving ● There are some interesting findings common to all diaspora groups: ○ Giving is still emotional rather than strategic, but newer generation’s giving patterns are more like those of their new home ○ Family and faith are the most important considerations ○ They are very cautious about giving in home countries to programs where governments are involved ○ Giving to home countries is limited by trust Sikh Philanthropy Case Study based on personal research ● Wealthy and well established diaspora despite low numbers history of educational philanthropy in California among Sikh pioneers ● Punjab is slowly getting on radar compared with India many examples of individual/family and some collective (philanthropic) remittances just over half of this if faith based ● Constraints in mobilisation due to the characteristics of the diaspora, nature of communities, etc Lot of family remittances spend on palatial houses but this is not philanthropy ● Social status seeking ● A house, spending remittances on lush houses ● Remittances spent on conspicuous consumption Health and education sector Guru Nanak Mission Medical and Educational Trust (1979) central Punjab (by Budh Singh Dhahan) ● 250 Bed hospital in rural area with subsidized pharmacy ● School of nursing, and college of nursing providing a BSc nursing qualification (affiliated to Baba Farid uni of Health Sciences, Vancouver) ● Middle school for 200 local kids ● Has collaborated with Canadian international development agency (CIDA) project aimed at identifying the health needs of the rural population ● 22 bed deaddiction unit ● Ambitious plan for trauma center and medical college but plans currently stalled ● question over sustainability of project due to infighting and leadership crisis Philanthropy in Education Sector Amardeep S. Shergill Memorial College ● College serving rural children of surrounding villages ● Applying for uni status ● Set up in the memory of Amardeep Village Modernization example of remodeled village Palahi ● Modernizing infrastructure ○ Town hall, pool ● Another remodeled village Kharoudi (developed village town hall, park) ○ With the help of American and Canadian govs ○ No open sewers, solar lighting Dalit Philanthropy (people of very low status, caste status is very low) empowering a low income community ● Migrated, started their own philanthropic projects Conclusions ● Promise of Diasporas as Social Agents: potential is enormous but abject failure in harnessing and mobilization ● Failure due to: ○ Lack of coherent policies on incentives ○ Politicization of connections and exclusivity and fracturing ○ Lack of transparency in connections Introduction to Migration and Diasporas ● As of July 2013 41.3mil of US population was foreign born (that is 1 out of 6 people) ● USA the most diverse of all nations ● Dramatic rise in number of immigrants coming to US since 1940s ○ 1930s1940s collapse in the number of immigrants ○ 1940s and on dramatic increase in migration to the U.S. ○ About 13% of US population is born outside of the USA ● 1960s ○ 84% of immigrants coming from Europe/Canada ○ 6% from Mexico ○ 4% from Latin America ○ 4% from S/E Asia ● 2013 ○ 24% from Latin America ○ 28% from Mexico ○ 26% from S/E Asia