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Using methods similar to Examples 12-10 and 12-11,

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 80 Chapter 12

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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Problem 80

Using methods similar to Examples 12-10 and 12-11, calculate the density of CsCl. Use 169 pm as the radius of

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History of the American Motion Picture Final Review Hollywood Majors Hollywood- Oligopoly • The Big Five: Paramount, MGM, 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros, RKO o Vertically integrated companies : production, distribution, exhibition o Big 5 owned regional first run theater chains o Theaters required 100+ films/year, so Big 5 share films (without block booking) to fill screens o NY HQ determines budget, type & quantity of films (strategically analyze past successes) • Hollywood production lots, backlots, ranches (wide open property) o Studio boss- liaison to NY office, contracts o Head of production - 50 films/yr. o Story dept.- most films were based on preexisting material • Fed gov’t breaks up oligopoly of studios (Anti-Trust Act) • Little 3: Universal, Columbia, UA supply B & indies Star System • Long term option contract (7 yrs) binds stars to studios (money & billing) • Typecasting & offcasting • System of bringing up and coming stars to Hollywood & “trying them out” during 1st year of contract • Publicity Dept. Paramount: Adolph Zukor • (1912) Famous Players; (1914) Hodkinson & Paramount • (1916) FP & Paramount merge • Producer Jesse Lasky; Pickford, Fairbanks, Valentino • Directors: Ernst Lubitsch - sex comedies; Cecil B DeMille (most expensive/profitable); Josef von Sternberg; Preston Sturges; Billy Wilder • (1933) Receivership- caused by losses • (1966) Gulf & Western takes over Paramount- sophisticated comedies, classy films for classy audiences • Paramount’s famous players: Clara Bow, Marlene Dietrich, Ga ry Cooper, Mae West, Claudette Colbert, Fred MacMurray, Alan Ladd • The Paramount Program: Fletcher Cartoons, Paramount News, Live Action Shorts MGM- Culver City • Loew’s Inc.- Marcus Leow buys Metro & Goldwyn • Louis B. Mayer (studio boss), Irving Thalberg (head of production) • Smallest theater chain, but most profitable (NY, OH) o During WWII & Great Depression MGM made profit because they didn’t have high fixed costs o ‘30s = golden age • MGM Stars: Clark Gable, Gene Kelly, Judy Garland, Fred Astaire, Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford o “More stars than there are in heaven” • Specialized in musicals o Dinner at Eight, The Wizard of Oz, Singin’ in the Rain , A Space Odyssey, Ben Hur, Big Parade • Hearst Metrotone News, Hal Roach Shorts (live action comedy shorts), Hannah & Barbera Cartoons o Tom & Jerry 20th Century Fox • William Fox vs Edison Trust o Fox Movietone News o Fox theaters- Western US o 1930’s Fox forced out of company (convicted for jury tampering) & company in bankruptcy • 20th Century (1935) founded by Darryl Zanuck & Joseph Schenck • Made films for U nited Artists; some of the best films • Merger with Fox— 20th Century Fox • Stars: Theda Bara, Tom Mix, Janet Gaynor, Will Rogers, Shirley Temple, Marilyn Monroe • Films about the good ole’ days, Film Noir (urban crime dramas) - Otto Preminger o Sunrise, Seventh Heaven, How Green Was My Valley , All About Eve, Sound of Music, Star Wars o Socially conscious films & musicals • Directors: John Ford ( Stagecoach), Otto Preminger (deal with controversial issues, Film Noir, social commentary on films), Joseph Mankiewicz (All About Eve; screenwriter- Citizen Kane) • Fox shorts: Fox Movietone News (best news in Hollywood), Terrytoones (Mighty Mouse; worst in Hollywood) Warner Brothers • President Harry Warner, Studio Boss Jack Warner • Purchases First National - Burbank Studios • Gangsters & working class heroes • Busby Berkeley musicals • Stars: Bette Davis, Humphrey Bogart, James Cagney, Edward Robinson • The Jazz Singer, The Singin g Fool, Little Caesar, Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca o Fast moving, topical films • Filmmakers: Michael Curtiz ( Casablanca), Raoul Walsh • Shorts: Looney Tunes & Merry Melodies: Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Tweety, Road Runner o Very successful in c artoons o Wise cracking, street wise characters RKO (1929, weakest) • RCA Photophone (David Sarnoff) • Keith-Albee-Orpheum theater chain (NY); weakest, 150 theaters • Radio City Music Hall (centerpiece of studio) • Theater chain enters bankruptcy first, closes in 1957 • RKO Radio Pictures • RKO Filmmakers: Merian Cooper ( A Dangerous Game, King Kong ), Orson Welles (Citizen Kane) • Stars: Katharine Hepburn, Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, Robert Ryan • Little Women, Citizen Kane, Best Years of Our Lives, It’s a Wonderful Life • Film noirs, crime pictures, low -budget horror films • Distributed Walt Disney’s films - Snow White, Fantasia, Dumbo, Pinocchio, Cinderella • Made B-movies The Little Three The Little 3 • Universal, Columbia, United Artists • Not vertically integrated, didn’t screen films Universal • Carl Laemmle/IMP • (1914) Universal City • Carl Laemmle Jr. tries to expand/borrow $ & loses control of company; bankruptcy during Great Depression • Push for quality • (1936) Standard Capital forecloses & takes over Universal • No major stars under long term contract, mostly B -movies, low budge t • Universal Monsters: Frankenstein, Wolfman (Lon Chaney, Boris Karloff, Abbott & Costello) • Universal Series Films: Sherlock Holmes, Ma & Pa Kettle, Francis the Talking Mule • Viewed audience as Midwestern, small -town, lest sophisticated folks • Full Operation organization: Universal News; Walter Lantz (animation program): Woody Woodpecker; serials (sci -fi) Columbia • Harry & Jack Cohn • 1924 Cohn Brent Cohn (CBC) films • B films, series & serials • Poverty Row • Made money during Depression (only studio to do this aside from MGM) • Low exec salaries, small star roster • Frank Capra- worked for Hal Roach & Harry Langdon United Artists • 1919 Distribution of independent productions • Founders: (famous players) C haplin, Pickford, Griffith, Fairbanks B-Movie Companies Companies • Republic- Herbert J. Yates o B Westerns, Singing Cowboys (Gene Autry), Serials • Monogram o W Ray Johnston, Trem Carr o Lone Star; Bowery Boys (gangbanger/dead end/East side kids) • PRC (Producers Releasing Corporation)/ Eagle Lion o Studios on Gower Gulch (poverty row) o Distributed British films & crime pics • Lincoln Motion Picture Company o Films targeted toward Af rican Americans o B-Westerns: Herbert Jeffrey o Mom and Dad (1945): exploitation films, sex ed film, childbirth scene, separate screenings from men & women, nurse on duty in case someone fainted (Kroger Babb) Hollywood & WWII WWII • Hollywood studios all returned a profit in ‘40s (except for UA) • The Home Front: rationing (food, gas); other goods not available at all (new cars) o Movies deemed important to build morality, but some subject matters were regulated/off limits o All forms of mass entertainment boomed (radio, newspapers/magazines/comics) o Distraction from worries of modern world & source of info • Hollywood’s Biggest Years (1941 -1946) o Long runs (decline in quantity of product) o Troop screenings Hollywood Filmmakers at war • Made films for the military (Frank Capra - Why We Fight) o Propaganda films, American perspective to trainee soldiers o John Ford Battle of Midway (for US Navy) o John Huston Battle of San Pietro (combat film about fighting in Italy; beginning of cinema verite) • Also made short training films, newsreels • The Hollywood Cantee n: servicemen only nightclub; founded by Bette Davis & John Garfield; free for servicemen • War Activities Committee • War bonds sold at theaters • WWII in films: majority were entertainment films, but Hollywood also shot war fims (Ford’s They Were Expendable ) • Office of War Information (OWI) : Roosevelt interested in managing flow of info - check all films that had war-related topics (compared to Ministry of Propaganda in Germany) o Reduced stereotyping of enemy o Goal to keep South America neutral (large immigrant population, leaning toward Germany/Italy) • Office of Inter-American Affairs (OIAA) : run by Rockefeller • Good Neighbor Policy (Down Argentine Way, Week -End in Havana)- set in Latin America; musicals & comedies w/Latin American characters • Pro-Soviet Hollywood films : after Hitler turns against Russia, Soviet Union aligns w/US o The North Star (1943), Mission to Moscow (1943) o After war these films come back to haunt screenwriters/directors of films The Atomic Age: Peak & Decline of the Studio Era • Box Office Peak: 1946 o Films in distribution: The Best Years of Our Lives, The Big Sleep, The Killers, The Bells of St. Mary’s • 1947 Network TV starts to take away mass audience • 1947 HUAC (House on UnAmerican Activities) starts to investigate Hollywood personnel & wartime films • 1948 Paramount Supreme Court Decision - existing distribution/exhibition scheme in violation of antitrust act Hollywood & American Politics • Great Depression: greatest capitalism crisis • Hollywood Guilds & Unions allegedly pro -communist • 1939 Hitler-Stalin alliance begins WWII - battle in American society • Labor management issues: Below the line workers (unions) • IATSE (International Alignment of Theatrical Stage Employees) taken over by the mob o Took over projectionist unions/pension funds o Threatened Hollywood in exchange for labor peace o Roy Brewer takes over IATSE - anti-communist • Herbert Sorrell & CSU (Conference Studio Unions) labor struggle: more radical unions vs. anti-leftist unions; Roosevelt urged unions to keep peace o Labor struggles between radical & anti -communist unions • Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals (MPA) becomes anti - Soviet Union o Invites HUAC to investigate pro-communist Hollywood writers; hearings take place in DC to destroy lib eral, leftist core & prevent liberal films o (1947) HUAC calls 3 types of witnesses: friendly witnesses (members of MPA), moguls (leadership of film companies), unfriendly witnesses that thought HUAC was trying to prevent freedom of speech o Jack Warner called before HUAC o Committee for the 1st Amendment tried to intervene (Bogart, Lauren Bacall, John Huston, Billy Wilder) • Hollywood 10: John Howard Lawson convinces other 9 to not admit to being communist o Each of 10 were tried for conte mpt of congress, blacklisted, sentenced to 1 yr in jail o Hollywood horrified - want to please audience, threat of boycott (box office declining, in violation of Anti -Trust Act) • 1951 HUAC hearings: expanding blacklist to anyone who has communist connect ions o Blacklist in place until Otto Perminger hires Dalton Trumbo (on Blacklist) (1959) to write film Paramount Consent Decree • 1938 US Attorney Thurman Arnold begins Dept. of Justice lawsuits • Anti-Trust investigations: independent theater owners objected to block booking & their inability to become first-run theaters (studios could anoint theaters to become first run theaters) o Agreement: studios rent out 5 films at a time instead of block bo oking 50 films at a time during WWII o Studios fight lawsuits, but in 1948 US Supreme Court decides in favor of Dept. of Justice • 1948 Paramount, RKO Consent Decrees o Paramount divided into 2 companies (theaters & production) • Reverse vertical integ ration o 1950-55, Warner, Fox, MGM vertical integration abandoned • Impact of divestiture (1948): theater chains now separate entities o Main companies are producers/distributors but not exhibitors o Decrease in production; decline of long term contracts o Reduce overhead/layoffs o Studio lots rented to independent producers o 1960s studios sell backlots o Studio produced 20-25 films/yr. • Rise of independent production : capital gains tax (on profits of businesses) lower than income tax o Directors/stars create own production companies to develop projects o Producer/director/star have ore control of projects & career o Rise to power of agencies Lecture 13: Post-Studio Era MCA (Music Corporation of America) & Lew Wasserman (1913 -2002) • MCA: Talent Agency founded by Jules Stein (Chicago) to represent dance bands o Lead agent- Lew Wasserman o Wasserman suggests royalities rather than high salary • Packaging: Big agencies attach director, stars, screenwriters to a project & sell to studio; different from studio system o 10% agency & packaging fee o Wasserman represented Hitchcock & packaged his TV show • Created Revue company for TV shows (bought Universal in 1959) o Dept of Justice co nflict of interest; agency broke up & sold o Wasserman remains head of Universal o Start of post-studio era United Artists & Arthur Krim (1910 -1994) • UA in financial trouble during WWII • Not enough independent productions (big studios offered better deals to independent producers) • Lawyers Arthur Krim & Robert Benjamin put in charge in 1951 o Former heads of Eagle Lion (B movie studio) o Realized studio could profit if focused on distribution o Krim offers producers distribution deals & uses connections to Wall Street to finance projects § Production financing & distribution became main focus of companies • UA becomes prestige studio for independent films Crime Pictures - Film Noir • Hard-boiled detective fiction o German expressionism & influence of German emigre directors o Aspects: 40s social change, femme fatale & cynical anti -heroes, shadows (low key lighting), darkness, rain o Story structure: flashbacks • B movie Noirs shot on location • End of Film Noir- 1955 • Film Noirs: The Big Sleep, Scarlet Letter, The Killers • Neo Noirs: Chinatown, Sin City Hollywood & TV Network TV in US (1947 - ) • 1947 better quality TV - cause for drop at box office o TV program paid for by commercials; studios wanted to be part of TV industry • Studio responses: o 1. Differentiate theatrical project § Color film • Technicolor: founded by Herbert Kalmus • 2 color technicolor; dichroic filters • The Toll of the Sea (1st technicolor film 1922) • Expensive, so studios often filmed one reel in color • Strip technicolor: red, green, blue (Becky Sharp, 1st full color feature) § Eastmancolor: (16mm) negative monopak film § Cinerama (1952-1962) • Special cinerama theaters built, screen 3x as big (battle small TV) • Film with three cameras close together, projected next together to create big films § 3D film • 1951 Bwana Devil; alignment difficult § Widescreen: Anamorphic lens • Cinemascope (20th Century Fox brand) • Aspect ratio: wider than it is tall; 4:3 or 1.37 (aka Academy Ratio) • Widescreen: 2.35 to 1 aspect ratio o (1950) The Robe • Non-anamorphic widescreen for movies w/more intimate setting (1.85 to 1) • Critique: distortion of image • Panavision: modern day lenses that get rid of distortion § 70mm Film & Stereophonic Sound - much more high quality; abandoned after 1972 • Mike Odd- 70 mm release prints, but theaters needed expensive 70mm projector o Used for Star Wars special effects scenes • Blockbusters: frozen foreign profits (couldn’t withdraw profits to US), so sent crews abroad/exotic locations; event releases; roadshows and long runs § Production Code & Adult Conten t • Geoffrey Shurlock (head of MPAA) - more adult content to lure audience • (1951) The Miracle Decision : freedom of speech, movies can no longer be censored by state o Exhibition of European films & films w/out MPPA • (1966) End of production code & self -censorship- adopt rating system • Motion Picture Association of America (1968): G, PG, R, X o Jack Valenti takes over (1968); Didn’t patent X rated movies to avoid Anti Trust attacks - anyone could rate their movies X; lead to porn feature films (Deep Throat, Midnight Cowboy- X-rated best picture) o No more X-rated movies because they couldn’t be advertised o PG-13 & NC-17 created after Indiana Jones was controversial rated R § The Youth Audience • Radio business su rvived by catering to teen audience (Rock ’n Roll music stations) o Hollywood followed - Elvis movies, Beatles movie § Teen Exploitation Films • American International Pictures; producer/director Roger Corman • Low budget & racy subjects § The Drive-In • Appealing to teen/family audiences • Golden age of drive -ins end in late ‘60s because they took up too much space • 2. Producing TV shows & sell them to channels o I Love Lucy- multi-cam filming o 1955 ABC TV Network collaborates w/Walt Disney (cartoons) § Davy Crockett • 3. Sell Old/Theatrical Films to TV: Ancillary market o B movie studios sell first to TV stations (reluctance for major studios) o 1st major to sell films to TV: RKO o Bridge on the River Kawaii - old film to garner major revenues o (1956) Majors sell films to TV o (1961) NBC first network to buy films; NBC Saturday Night at the Movies o (1966) Made for TV movies o (1971) Brian’s Song- highest rated made for TV movie; based on current controversies o Transformation for TV films to be issue oriented films about current issues o (1977) The Mini-Series (Roots) Hollywood (1960-1972) Blockbusters & Conglomerates - The Hollywood Slump (1960 -1972) • Last blockbuster hits: Mary Poppins (1964); The Sound of Music (1965) • Flops: Cleopatra (1963); Fall of the Roman Empire (1964) • Conglomerates: (1966-69) Gulf & Western (Paramount); Transamerica (UA); Kinney (WB); Kirk Kerkorian (MGM) § Conglomerate: diversification instead of relying on success of one type of market § Conglomerates were good at finding undervalued assets in Hollywood (selling licensing of films & real estate) Conglomerates React • Cutback production budgets - sell off studio properties (MGM selling props) • Appeal to youth audience ( Love Story 1970, The Graduate 1967) • Studios bring young filmmakers right out of film school (Martin Scorsese, Peter Bogdanovic) • Black Exploitation : shot w/out permit, non-union crew, 16mm, wave of urban crime dramas § Melvin Van Peebles ( Sweet Sweetbacks Baad Assss Song 1971), Gordon Parks (Super Fly, Shaft) New Hollywood (1972-88) New Hollywood (1972 -1988) • New success formula: Coppola’s The Godfather (1972) won Best Picture, Paramount film § Brando & Pacino • Return to Hollywood’s roots (big budgets) • Marketing to the modern audience: advertising- TV commercials Distribution • TV commercial marketing + saturation release = key to success • Distribution: wide release (into many theaters); seasonal release (vacation time = best time to release films; Jaws in summer 1975) • The multiplex: theaters converted to show more than one film at a time; multiple screens; saturation release (released on thousands of screens) Home Box Office • Ancillary Markets : Cable TV delivered to subscribers (monthly fee) • Home Box Office: Satellite distribution nationwide; Telecommunication satellites; Time inc § HBO- less censorship, no commercials • Commercial cable networks : Ted Turner (WTBS) § 1976 WTBS Atlanta- major league sports & Hollywood films (“Superstation”) § 1977 USA Network- super-station § 1979 ESPN: channels catered one specific demographic (opposed to catering to everyone); bett er for advertising § CNN, MTV, TNT, AMC § Use Hollywood films for programming • Merchandising: Star Wars, Disney stores, WB stores § Reverse merchandising : movies coming out of products (Transformers) • Movies & Music: Hollywood rediscovered they could make money off records; play music videos on MTV to advertise § Grease, Saturday Night Fever, Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club • Home Video: 1956 videotape introduced; 1968 videocassette recorder § VCR (sony) § Recording device viewed as criminal (piracy) 1980s The Reagan Era • Stepped back from Paramount Consent Decree - studios buy theater chains again § Formula: reintegration & expansion, multi -screen theaters, successful theaters • New filmmakers: Francis Coppola, Steven Spielberg, Woody Allen, George Lucas, Martin Scorsese • Paramount: § High concept films (1983 Flashdance, 1984 Beverly Hills Cop, 1987 Indiana Jones, Friday the 13th) § 1967 Paramount acquires Desilu ( Star Trek, Mission Impossible ) § Martin Davis renames Paramount Communications & takes over leadership (’83) Global Entertainment Conglomerates (1989-2014) Hollywood Today • Time Warner (Turner) o Modern blockbuster based on comic books (targets youth audience) o Commercials on MTV o Sequels & TV shows o Merchandising o Young, promising director • 2000 AOL Time Warner merger - rise of internet but AOL bubble bursts so Time Warner drops AOL o Franchises: The Matrix, The Lord of the Rings/The Hobbit, Harry Potter films, DC Comic films

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Chapter 12, Problem 80 is Solved
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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

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Using methods similar to Examples 12-10 and 12-11,