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The normal boiling point of water is and the enthalpy of

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 90 Chapter 12

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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10
1
Problem 90

The normal boiling point of water is and the enthalpy of vaporization at this temperature is What would be the boiling point of water if it were based on a pressure of 1 bar instead of the standard atm?

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Social Psychology: Chapter 12  How we behave around other people  How we think about/relate to influence one another o Someone present or watching (could be physical or implied presence)  Social Influence o Several different forms o Hitler, Stalin, David Koresh  One person’s impact can have an impact on people o Social norms  Face forward in elevator  Wait in lines  Certain places where you should smoke o Persuasion  Attitudes or beliefs influenced by another person’s communication  Systematic  Appeal to reason  Reasons why best presidential candidate / lay out facts  Heuristic  Appeal to emotion o Conformity  Tendency to what others do just because they are doing it  Why we conform  Normative influence (social norms) o Want to fit it, want others approval  Informative influence o Not sure how to act; look to others to see what to do  Asch’s study of Conformity o Conformity surprisingly high given:  Unambiguous  Strangers  Low stakes for being wrong o 24% participants never conformed  Personality characteristics/ factors  Desire for consistency o Changed either attitudes/beliefs or behavior o Foot in the Door Technique  Agree to small action; comply later with larger one  Safe driver study  17% consented to large, poorly lettered “Drive Carefully” sign  Almost 100% consented to 3-inch “Be a safe driver” sign  76% consented to the large sign  Cognitive Dissonance o Behaviors influence attitudes/beliefs o Cognitive Dissonance Theory  Festinger  Inconsistency leads to discomfort, change in attitude  Menial Task o Group 1 and 2  Tell others it’s fun o Group 1 gets $1 and group 2 gets $20  Which says it’s more enjoyable o Group 1  If unable to justify attitude change how they feel about the task o Obedience  Form of compliance  People follow direct commands, usually authority figure  Milgram Experiment  Test how people are really that evil (WWII and Holocaust time period)  Completely unethical so can’t be used today  26/40 (65%) completed the experiment  Factors that affect obedience o Yale vs. office building (48%) o Multiple “teachers”  Accomplices accepted orders (65%)  Accomplices defied orders (10%)  Group Behavior: 2 extremes  Diffusion of Responsibility o If alone, responsibility is yours, if others present, divided o Smoke filled room  Informational influence o Helping Behavior  People are less likely to help when in a group than when alone  75% help if alone  53% help in a group  Deindividuation o Large groups may increase impulsive, uninhibited behaviors o Less aware of individual values (take on values of the group)  Ex: Riots o Altruism  Behavior that helps other person  Unique to humans  Reciprocal altruism  Expect something in return (seen in animals) o Cooperation  Behavior that leads to mutual benefit  Studied quite a bit  Prisoner’s dilemma (game)  At first both remain silent, eventually one will confess (b/c people are thinking only of themselves  Tit-for-tat (iterative game)  Also one with forgiveness  Watch out for cheaters  Ultimatum game  2 people  offer and accept

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Chapter 12, Problem 90 is Solved
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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

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The normal boiling point of water is and the enthalpy of