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In some barbecue grills the electric lighter consists of a

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 118 Chapter 12

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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Problem 118

In some barbecue grills the electric lighter consists of a small hammer-like device striking a small crystal, which generates voltage and causes a spark between wires that are attached to opposite surfaces of the crystal. The phenomenon of causing an electric potential through mechanical stress is known as the piezoelectric effect. One type of crystal that exhibits the piezoelectric effect is lead zirconate titanate. In this perovskite crystal structure, a titanium(IV) ion sits in the middle of a tetragonal unit cell with dimensions of At each corner is a lead(II) ion, and at the center of each face is an oxygen anion. Some of the Ti(IV) are replaced by Zr(IV). This substitution, along with Pb(II), results in the piezoelectic behavior. (a) How many oxygen ions are in the unit cell? (b) How many lead(II) ions are in the unit cell? (c) How many titanium(IV) ions are in the unit cell? (d) What is the density of the unit cell?

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Tuesday 4/5/16 Why did the United States enter the war 1. Financial commitment to the Allies a. War was economic boom for US b. Our money was going towards Britain and France 2. Shared principles of Democracy a. Opposition to German militarism b. Not everyone was pro­British 3. German attacks on American neutrality a. Sinking of the Lusitania because Germans didn’t want America and Britain to trade () b. “Unrestricted submarine warfare” beings early 1917, America declares war with Germany in April 1917 America at War: What was its contribution to victory ● America didn’t determine the strategy ● The Donkeys ( ​1961) ● German 210mm GUNS­ artillery was the big killer of soldiers in the war of 1914­1918 ● War of attrition­ US didn’t have any tactics ● US needed, “men, men and more men” ● Germans end the war agreeing to an armistice (Armistice Day, 11/11) Problems of Peacemaking Wilson at Versailles Why did the US enter the war 1. Financial commitment to the allies 2. Shared principles of democracy 3. German attacks on American neutrality And... 4. How could we influence the post­war peace, if we were not actively involved in fighting the war ● “Peace without victory,” ­­Wilson, January 1917 (before we enter the war) ● “Fourteen points” speech, ­­Wilson, January 1918 ○ End to secret treaties, establish League of Nations Wilson’s New World Order ● Spread democracy because democracies did not engage in wars of conquest ● An end to trade barriers would reduce tensions that led to war ● A “league of nations” rather than arms and alliances would be the key to international order There were two problems: One was the Europeans The reality of Versailles ● Britain would not accept freedom of the seas ● “Open diplomacy” was conducted behind closed doors ● Peace without victory became the “war guilt clause” for Germany ○ Made the Germans resentful and determined to “get even” when the opportunity presented itself in the future ● Self­determination for some; but other border realignments just created new problems The other problem was the US Opposition to the Treaty *** in textbook ● November 1918 elections gave control of Congress to the Republicans ○ President Wilson did not involve Republicans in the peace negotiations, even though he needed a Republican­dominated Senate to approve any treaty (Art II, Sec 2 of the Constitution) ● Irreconcilables­ did not want anything to do with a League of Nations ● Reservationists­ not necessarily against a League of Nations but wanted restrictions on its authority over the United States ● Opposition to Article 10­ did it commit nations to using force to maintain the peace and guarantee territorial integrity The Twenties Events of 1918­1919 ● Influenza­ killed 500,000 Americans (more American soldiers died of this than at the hands of the Germans) ● “Red Scare” generated by Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia and bombing campaign in US *** in textbook ● 1919­ more strikes than in any other year of American history ● Chicago White Sox threw the World Series! ● Manufacturing inexpensive consumer goods (electric mixer, the vacuum, refrigerator, washing machine) ● Age of consumption ● Instant gratification, fulfillment with consumption A consumer culture ● A society in which the majority of people seek fulfillment and defines identity through acts of consumption ● New values like, “instant gratification” rather than self­denial, restraint, saving for the future, and so on (the supposed values of the older generation) ● “Problems” resolved through consumption The automobile: Backbone of Industry ● 1900 → 300 firms produced 4,000 cars ● 1922 → Ford produced 2 million cars ● 1927 → one car for every 5.3 people in the US; in France one for every 44 people; in Germany one for every 196 Model T cost went down Automobiles encouraged consumption I.e. General Motors Cadillac → different styles of cars came out every year so your car could complement your personality ­ Promote dissatisfaction so people buy new cars ● Clyde Barrow (Bonnie and Clyde)­ “I always prefer to steal a Ford.” Car industry set up credit for consumers (so people can get a loan) ● Mass entertainment! ● 1929 40% houses had radios ● Film industry! Increasingly homogenized America… people dressing the same way, buying the same products, watching the same movies, but this creates tension in society because of this new culture Culture Clash *** In textbook ● The Triumph of Nativism (Immigration Restriction) ● “National Origins” or Immigration Act of 1924 ● Instituted a permanent quota system, with total immigration capped at 164,000 based on percentages (2 percent) of ethnic origins shown in 1890 census ● Example: Italy’s quota was 3,845, great Britain’s was 65,361 Thursday 4/7/16 Culture Clash ● The Triumph of nativism (Immigration Restriction) ● The Second Ku Klux Klan ○ Earlier KKK was in South, this one is in the Midwest (OH, IN, TX, OK, OR) ○ 100% Americanism­­ no more immigrants! ● The Scopes Trial ○ Can’t teach evolution­ too secular ○ Similar to Plessy vs. Ferguson­ separate but equal Politics of the 1920s Resurgent Republicanism Warren Harding (1920) ● “I can handle my enemies; it’s my damn friends I have to worry about!” ● ^^^ Corruption during Harding Administration ● Trickle­down theory of economics Calvin Coolidge (1924) ● Coolidge Joke: “Did you hear that former president Coolidge was found dead” ­­“Really! How could they tell” Herbert Hoover (1928) ● Hoover is “certainly a wonder and I wish we could make him president of the United States. There would not be a better one.” ­­ FDR The Great Depression (under the Hoover Administration) ● “Great Engineer” ● Said he would donate presidential salary to charity Why Depression ***in textbook ● The Stock Market Crash, 1929 ○ Shares decreased by about 40% ● Depressed Agricultural prices and farm closures ● Lack of diversity in economy ● Overproduction of consumer goods “... all of the policies of the New Deal failed to end the Great Depression; it ended when the United States began rearming in 1941...” ​n Economic History of the US ­ So… in order to end a depression, go to war ● Depressions happen about every 25­30 years ● But this Great Depression is the only one that doesn’t go away immediately and becomes a worldwide depression Some figures: ● National income: ○ $87.4 billion in 1929 ○ $41.7 billion in 1932 ● By 1932, 20­25% national unemployment with higher statewide numbers: ○ 50% in Cleveland ○ 80% in Toledo ● Bank closures to 1933 wiped out $7 billion in savings ● Hoover believed the Great Depression was only temporary ○ Government never did anything to help the depression and it would go away ○ Hoover believes he should do the same­ as it got worse, he looked bad ○ Democrats were trying to embarrass Hoover ○ Hoovervilles, Hoover flags, “Hard times are still Hoover­ing over us” Election of 1928­ Almost all the states Election of 1932­ only took 6 states FDR ● Had the draft of a speech against high tariffs, another supporting it, and told his speech writers to mesh the two together ● New Deal ● Willingness to try new things ● Confident grin ● Attempted assassination of FDR, but wounding others ● Fireside addresses Road to Recovery ● Bank holiday ○ Emergency Banking Act, 9 March 1933­­ this bill was passed unanimously by the house (seven “no” votes in the Senate​nread by any member ● The hundred days­­ 15 major pieces of legislation National Recovery Administration ● Government­Sanctioned cartels ● Industrial compacts and codes to set wages, hours, and working conditions ● Part of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) Civilian Conservation Corps ● A work­relief program ● 3 million young men employed; paid $30 a month (had to send $25 home) ● National forests; flood control; beautification projects Public Works Administration ● First of the major “make­work” programs of the New Deal ● Allotted $3.3 billion for public works (idea is to put money into people’s pockets quickly) JMU was built using PWA project money! Problems ● Conservatives thought that New Deal programs were corrupting “American Ideals”­­ FDR was going too far! ● Radicals saw the Great Depression as proof that capitalism was dead­­ FDR was not doing enough to recognize that reality! ● And economic indicators did not indicate that much recovery was taking place Floyd Olson of Minnesota and the Farm­Labor Party Upton Sinclair ● Democratic candidate for Governor of California in 1934 ● Epic­­ end poverty in California program; seize idle lands and factories and turn them over to workers’ and farmers’ cooperatives Huey Long of Louisiana ● “Share our wealth society” (1934) ● FDR: Long was “one of the two most dangerous men in the country.” ● DICTATORSHIP The “Second” New Deal ● Social Security Act (1935) ● WPA­­ Work Progress Administration ○ $11 billion works program (included the ex­slave interviews) ○ Nation’s single largest employer ● Wagner Act, or National Labor Relations Act (1935)

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Chapter 12, Problem 118 is Solved
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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

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