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All solids contain defects or imperfections of structure

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 121 Chapter 12

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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Problem 121

All solids contain defects or imperfections of structure or composition. Defects are important because they influence properties, such as mechanical strength. Two common types of defects are a missing ion in an otherwise perfect lattice, and the slipping of an ion from its normal site to a hole in the lattice. The holes discussed in this chapter are often called interstitial sites, since the holes are in fact interstices in the array of spheres. The two types of defects described here are called point defects because they occur within specific sites. In the 1930s, two solidstate physicists, W. Schottky and J. Fraenkel, studied the two types of point defects: ASchottky defect corresponds to a missing ion in a lattice, while a Fraenkel defect corresponds to an ion that is displaced into an interstitial site. (a) An example of a Schottky defect is the absence of a ion in the NaCl structure. The absence of a ion means that a ion must also be absent to preserve electrical neutrality. If one NaCl unit is missing per unit cell, does the overall stoichiometry change, and what is the change in density? (b) An example of a Fraenkel defect is the movement of a ion to a tetrahedral interstitial site from its normal octahedral site in AgCl, which has a structure like NaCl. Does the overall stoichiometry of the compound change, and do you expect the density to change? (c) Titanium monoxide (TiO) has a sodium chloridelike structure. X-ray diffraction data show that the edge length of the unit cell is 418 pm. The density of the crystal is Do the data indicate the presence of vacancies? If so, what type of vacancies?

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Physiological Chemistry 150 Lecture Notes Week Four: 9/12-9/16 Atoms and Elements Chemical Equations  Chemical reactions are conveyed via a chemical reaction o Reactants  Products  Chemical equations show the energy released or absorbed  Balanced equations are used to obey the Law of Conservation of Matter o Atoms are equal in the beginning as in the end Example: Magnesium and oxygen combine to make magnesium oxide, MgO. Balance the equation, remember “” means “yields” or “equals” 2 Mg + O 2 2 MgO *The number of reactant atoms must be equal to the number of product atoms  Thermochemical equation shows the chemical reaction with all symbols for elements and formulas for compounds correctly indicated: o Must b

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Chapter 12, Problem 121 is Solved
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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

Since the solution to 121 from 12 chapter was answered, more than 240 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The answer to “All solids contain defects or imperfections of structure or composition. Defects are important because they influence properties, such as mechanical strength. Two common types of defects are a missing ion in an otherwise perfect lattice, and the slipping of an ion from its normal site to a hole in the lattice. The holes discussed in this chapter are often called interstitial sites, since the holes are in fact interstices in the array of spheres. The two types of defects described here are called point defects because they occur within specific sites. In the 1930s, two solidstate physicists, W. Schottky and J. Fraenkel, studied the two types of point defects: ASchottky defect corresponds to a missing ion in a lattice, while a Fraenkel defect corresponds to an ion that is displaced into an interstitial site. (a) An example of a Schottky defect is the absence of a ion in the NaCl structure. The absence of a ion means that a ion must also be absent to preserve electrical neutrality. If one NaCl unit is missing per unit cell, does the overall stoichiometry change, and what is the change in density? (b) An example of a Fraenkel defect is the movement of a ion to a tetrahedral interstitial site from its normal octahedral site in AgCl, which has a structure like NaCl. Does the overall stoichiometry of the compound change, and do you expect the density to change? (c) Titanium monoxide (TiO) has a sodium chloridelike structure. X-ray diffraction data show that the edge length of the unit cell is 418 pm. The density of the crystal is Do the data indicate the presence of vacancies? If so, what type of vacancies?” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 280 words. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 121 from chapter: 12 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:52PM. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, edition: 10. This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 28 chapters, and 3268 solutions. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132064521.

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All solids contain defects or imperfections of structure