Caproic acid, found in small amounts in coconut and palm oils, is used in making artificial flavors. Asaturated aqueous solution of the acid contains and has Calculate for the acid.
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 9 3/22/16 Insects Continued Lepidoptera (scale/wing) – Butterflies, Moths membranous wings, body and legs covered in scales siphoning mouthparts in adults (liquids, even decomposition), chewing seen in larvae forewings and hindwings linked to moved synchronously Butterflies have hook antennae, Moths more brushy; Moths more nocturnal, butterflies are diurnal Use color for recognition, camouflage, finding mates “Startle mechanism” sudden flash of bright colors to deter predators antennae have greatly increased surface area for sensing environmental + chemical cues Hymenoptera (membrane/wing) – Sawflies, horntails, wasps, bees, ants Hindwings smaller than forewings – strong fliers Margin with row of attachment hooks Hamuli Mesothorax with principal flight muscles ovipositor modifications, sawlike or stinger Suborder Symphyta are most primitive throax and abdomen broadly joined larvae with abdominal prologs sawlike ovipositor (saw through vegetation to lay eggs) often herbivorous, fungivores (young laid in vegetation or fungi will have food source until really to hatch) have 4 wings (true flies have 2) Suborder Apocrita is more advanced petiolate (long, narrow/cylindrical) abdomen st nd pinched between 1 and 2 abdominal segments abdominal mobility Infraorder Aculeata modified ovipositor into stinger (Chrysididea, Apoidea and Vespoidea) parasitoids, singularly devoted to pest control many have vivid coloration, some only several millimeters long area between thorax and abdomen used for ID only reproductive ants have wings, worker ants have no wings Pollination (entomophily) pollinate crops, which make up ~1/3 of our diets pollinate some tree species pollinate many food source plants of ‘biological controls’ bees are specially equipped for dealing with flowers – mouthpart with long tongues, barbed hairs on legs Honey (“regurgitated bee spit”) –sequesters nectar in gut to swallow pollen, gives it to other bees to convert to honey The Unfamiliar World of Insects Metamorphosis nd th Instar Molt 2 instar Molt (n instar) Final Molt Adult Stage Hemimetabolous – gradual metamorphosis immatures resemble adults (grasshoppers, true bugs) wings, when present, develop externally and gradually while immature (Exopterygota) habitats very similar between juveniles and adults 13 orders including Hemioptera and Coleoptera Holometabolous – complete metamorphosis, Pupal Stage (not seen in hemimetabolous) immatures appear different from adults Endopterygota – no wingpads, wings will develop internally habitats are very different orders considered most advanced Mouthparts and Feeding Adaptations Chewing (Beetle) parts move sideside mandibles can have teeth (some kind of ‘metal’ to chew tougher material) Sponginglapping mouthparts (Flies) mouthpart has lines of channels along surface for drawing liquid into them Cuttingsponginglapping (horseflies) will pierce into skin to suck up blood Piercingsucking (Hemiptera, true bugs) elongated mouthpart for generally plants but can be animals too feeding tube or sheath secreted to protect mouthparts during piercing action; also controls flow of liquid into body pharyngeal pump and/or cibarial pump (vacuum, feeds at negative pressure) Ex. Hemlock Wooly Adelgid – insert ‘fishline’ into plants Ex. Stable fly (house fly) – no labellum, vestigial Mosquitoes have some of the most specialized insect mouthparts (modified maxilla to protect mandibles) Many bloodfeeders have special saliva (anticoagulants, anesthesia) to avoid detection and to successfully suck out a meal Siphoning (Lepidoptera) unfurled using hydrostatic pressure; can give insect great range while feeding on liquids (nectar) Insect/Human Interaction Food resource contain all essential amino acids higher protein than plants less direct competitions for same food resources Entomophagy is common in many places around the world, but not so much in US Competition for food/Agricultural Entomology corn beetle feeds on parts of corn plant, issue seen in Midwest (especially in monocultures) Stored Product Pests pet food, canned food Locusts (group of grasshoppers) most notorious herbivorous insect, seen in swarms that will consume virtually anything in their path exhibit swarming behavior in response to food shortage seen everywhere except North America and Antarctica 1874 – Rocky Mountain Locust swarms along Great Plains swarm estimated to be 198,000 square miles, calculate to be over 3 trillion insects would eat anything: salt, wood, even each other Last R.M. Locust was identified in 1902 Competition for fiber/Forest can lead to tree mortality (carpet beetle, Emerald Ash Borer) Cultural Applications boll weevil, even has musical application (The Boll Weevil Song) Insect and Disease/Medical Entomology Typhus, lice, mites – vectors specially adapted for disease transmission often thrives in poor sanitary conditions, tight human conditions Fleas – bubonic plaque (Black Plague) very thin and compact with backward facing hairs, useful for driving themselves into human hosts Malaria 3/24/16 Biology of Aquatic Insects Dr. Neil H. Ringler Success of Insects cuticle of chitin segmentation mouthparts with a variety of uses airtubes sensory organs metamorphosis small size Exopterygotera wings develop outside Endopterygoptera wings develop inside Morphology know parts of insect leg 10 abdominal segments 3 parts to thorax Mouthparts – labrum (dorsal) and labium (ventral) shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators Ephemeroptrera – Mayflies hemimetabolous (no pupal stage) insects Significance – found throughout the world can be nuisance Geologic History – Paleozoic, Carboniferous 925,000 described species worldwide and 8600 aquatic species described in N. America About 3000worldwide mayfly species Voltinism = # generations/year Most aquatic insects are univoltine = 1generation per year Semivoltine – generation time is more than one year Naiads – immature stage for mayfly Stages – larva (nymphnaiad), subimago (“dun”), imago (“likeness”, “spinner”) and egg can take1225molts to next instar range from 533mm long temperature counts Habitat Partitioning between larvae substrate type, water velocity, food availability, temperature and oxygen Imago does 1 final mold (delicate, elongate) before adult stage Genitalia used in species identification Wings have pleated veins, increase wing strength veins are equipped with nerve and tracheal tube that makes it strong but flexible; patterns vary and are used for identification Males swarm to find females, hold them from below Ephemeroptera (“live for a day on the wing”) flies swim to surface, inflate wings and emerge from nymphal skin able to even use eggs in identification Odonata “toothed ones”, odonates Dragonflies and Damselflies hemimetabolous, paleopterus (cannot fold wings) larvae and adults are both predatory aerial predators 2 suborders, Anisoptera (Dragonflies) and Zygoptera (Damselflies) Significance largest, fastest and among the oldest (huge size in Carboniferous) Diversity – 5500sp worldwide, 650 in NA BOOK Dragonflies of North America – look in Moon Library Zygoptera: Calopterygidae, Coenagrionidae, Lestidae Anisoptera: Aeschinidae, Corduligastridae, Corduliidae, Gomphidae, Libellulidae, Macromiidae, Petaluridae Characteristics univoltine or semivoltine Zygoptera swim, Anisoptera jet in larval stage 1 epiproct, 2 cerci and 2 paraprocts large diversity of antennae Emergence and Metamorphosis larvae crawl up from water (emergence typically nocturnal), inflate wings, and fly solo at dawn temperature counts BOOK Dragonflies through Binoculars Wings have reduced density of veins; fast fliers Prereproductive period, <3weeks sheltered from water and wind Males transfer sperm from 9 to 2 segment in abdomen, which the female picks up on the end of its own abdomen (“wheel organ”); male then grasps female behind head or on thorax Eggs deposited in water Have 30k sensory cells in eyes (ommatidia) Territory – area defended by males using wing warnings, abdominal displays Plecoptera Stone flies “Pleated wing” hemimetabolous neopterans (able to fold wings into body) characterized by ‘weakflying’ adults Significance essential part for structure and function of stream EPT – water quality and habitat assessment Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera History found since Permian Period Diversity – 3500species worldwide, 650 in North America Detailed survey in Adirondacks found 23species (9 very rare, extirpation risk) Nymphs are easily recognized Mouthparts – can be herbivorous or carnivorous (vary in mandible, maxilla and labium morphology) Habitat cool, swift streams with stable substrate (utilize hyporheic zone) Life History oviposit – dip abdomen in water adults resemble larvae Exuvium – means adult has hatched Mating – some males have “dialect”, beat abdomen on substrate or vibrate eggs can be used for ID Trichoptera – Caddisflies named for Caddismen (Shakespeare) hairy/tentshaped wings “sedges”, related to butterflies holometabolous, silkproducing larvae larvae construct case made from environmental materials for protection (even used in jewelry) Undergo differentiating metamorphosis use silk as safety line, trumpet net