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From the following bases, select the one with the smallest

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 69 Chapter 16

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

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Problem 69

From the following bases, select the one with the smallest and the one with the largest and give reasons for your choices. (a) (b) (c) (d)

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Modern Political Thought Most Recent Notes European Enlightenment  This was a time of scientific advancement.  The Catholic Church was challenged by historically based theories.  There ended up being more confidence in men’s rationality.  Political life was questioned openly. Thomas Hobbes  He supported the separation of the state and religion.  He believed that every event is a type of motion.  He believed that an absolute sovereign was necessary.  What motivates people and their emotions causes events to happen.  He thought that the aim of social contract was not about fairness and justice but that the aim was peace and stability.  He believed humans were equal in intelligence  Trade, philosophy, and the arts can exist due to stability and peace.  Causes and effects need to be determined.  Social life is created by how people react to people react to what happens in society. John Locke  He supported the Glorious Revolution of 1688, which resulted in the bloodless overthrow of King James II and the end of absolute monarchy in England.  He supported the idea of constitutional monarchy.  He thought natural rights should be protected from infringement.  He supported the right to revolution.  The state is dissolved after revolution but the citizens can rebuild it afterwards.  He believed there should be a system of checks and balances.  Powers of government should be limited.  Moral law was around before the state.  God is the author of man­made law.  Officials should be held accountable by citizens through voting.  Violation of the rights of the people and severe failures by the government justify revolution. Jean Jacques Rousseau  People are naturally good.  Society oppresses people.  He emphasized a group perspective of society.  People are naturally good in the state of nature but when the social contract is forced upon people, life becomes negative.  He values tradition more than innovation.  He believes in the idea of collective rationality. French Revolution  France had a hereditary monarch.  Capitalism was spreading and international trade relations were expanding,  There was a middle class of merchants but nobles were more advantaged.  There was a lack of social mobility.  There were a lot of anti­Monarchist views.  A financial crisis haunted Louis XVI’s administration.  The Estate General met in 1789 after not meeting for 11 years in order to solve problems.  Many political reforms occurred but there was still much violence used by the elites. In Response to French Revolution Edmund Burke  He believed society was artificial.  Practical experiences, culture, religion, and history accumulate over time.  Rationality does not exist on its own.  He believed change should happen slowly over time so he disagreed with the French Revolution.  During the French Revolution, institutions were torn down rather than careful reform being attempted.  He believed in convention deciding the rights of people as opposed to natural rights.  He believed in collective intelligence.  Constitutions should be used a form of traditional authority.  He was frightened by the French Revolution.  He believed equality is fake.  Humans desire to be part of a community, to love, to be in a family, and to be a part of something bigger than themselves. Mary Wollstonecraft  Her views were similar to Locke.  She supported the idea of natural law.  She also supported individual rights and equality for the sexes.  She believed that the church was corrupted.  She thought the system negatively affects everybody, even the rich.  She thought that time does not make what is wrong morally right. John Stuart Mill  He supported Utilitarianism.  Pleasures are all different.  He used to support laissez­faire capitalism but he eventually supported capitalism.  Decisions that are made at right may not be beneficial in the long run.  Intellectual pleasure should be pursued rather than sexual pleasure.  He was a rare man since he supported women’s rights and was a feminist.  He believed in freedom of discourse.  He was distrustful of mass opinion.  He supported freedom of expression.  He believed women’s oppression is not natural.  He thought only the educated should vote.

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Chapter 16, Problem 69 is Solved
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Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

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From the following bases, select the one with the smallest