×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to General Chemistry: Principles And Modern Applications - 10 Edition - Chapter 16 - Problem 84
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to General Chemistry: Principles And Modern Applications - 10 Edition - Chapter 16 - Problem 84

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

Show that when is reduced to half its original value, the

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci ISBN: 9780132064521 175

Solution for problem 84 Chapter 16

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

  • Textbook Solutions
  • 2901 Step-by-step solutions solved by professors and subject experts
  • Get 24/7 help from StudySoup virtual teaching assistants
General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition | ISBN: 9780132064521 | Authors: Ralph Petrucci

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications | 10th Edition

4 5 1 242 Reviews
26
3
Problem 84

Show that when is reduced to half its original value, the pH of a solution increases by 0.30 unit, regardless of the initial pH. Is it also true that when any solution is diluted to half its original concentration, the pH increases by 0.30 unit? Explain.

Step-by-Step Solution:
Step 1 of 3

WaterandFluidBalance Comprisesapproximately60%ofbodyweight Range_40-80% Functions -Aqueousmediumforchemicalreactions/cellprocess -Transportofsubstancesthroughthebody -Thermoregulation Fluidbalance -Watervolume -Soluteconcentration Euhydration=normalfluidbalance Osmosis -Movementofwaterthroughasemipermeablemembraneto areasofhighsoluteconcentration Tonicity -Hypotonic-watermovesin -Isotonic -Hypertonic-moresolubleoutside,watermovesout;cellsshrivel anddie Tonicity -Primarilyaffectedbyelectrolyteconcentration Waterconcentrationinbody -Averagemale-60%(approx.42Lfor70kg) -Averagefemale–50-55%(30L) Waterdistributioninbody -Bloodplasma -Muscles&otherorgantissues -Bone -Adiposetissue Distributionofbodywater Intracellularfluidcompartment -Approx.2/3ofbodywater Extracellularfluidcompartment -Approx.1/3ofbodywater(14Lor~3.5gallons) -Plasma -20%oftotalECFvolume(3Lor3Qrts) -Transport;thermoregulation Interstitialfluid–80%oftotalECF(11Lor3gallons) -Protection Lymphaticsystem Tonicity Hypertonicity -Heavysweating -Largelossofplasmavolume + -IncreasedconcentrationofplasmaNa -Watermovement Hypotonicity -Consumptionoflargeamountsofwaterveryquickly -Nervecellscanceasetofunctionproperly -Ex.3,000mlor~13Cin4hrs -DilutesECFresultingindecreasedplasmaNa + Watermovement Waterloss Insensible–H20lossthroughchannelsnotnormallynoticed Sensible Primarychannels–urine,sweat,feces Influencesonwaterloss -Fluid&saltintake -Renalfunction-majorroleinfluidbalancecontrol Actionofvarioushormones Consumptionofdiureticcompounds FluidBalance Diuretics -Alcohol–inhibitsproductionofADH -Prescriptionmedications-mayblockreabsorptionoffluid&/or electrolytes -Caffeine&theophylline–increasesurineoutput -Herbs Sweating-thermoregulatorymechanism Waterintake Averagedailyintake-~2,350mlfrombeverages&foods Food–20-25% Tapand/orbottledwater–35-40% Othersources–35-45% Aerobicmetabolism–350ml(12.5oz)ofdailywater Regulatedbywatervolume&osmolalityofECF Hypernatremia&enduranceathletes Clinicalhypernatremia–plasmalevel<135mmol/L Exercise-inducedhypernatremia–rapiddroplessthan130 Involvesenduranceeventslasting>7hrswithsignificant sweatloss Ultraendurancerunningevents–10% IronmanTriathletes–29% Swellingofnervecellscancausedizziness,confusion, seizure,coma,&death 0.5-0.7g/lfluid Strategiesforprevention ReplacementofNa&preventionoffluidoverload Eventslasting>2-3hrsshouldincludeNareplacement Sodiumintake Dailyintake ConsumedprimarilyasNaCl:1/4tspoftablesalt(1000mgofNaCl has40%Na)=1.5gNaCl Processedfood–77% Tablesalt–11% Naturallyinfoods–12% AveragedailyNaintake Males–4200mg Women–3300mg Exerciseandfluidbalance Undernormalconditions,fluidbalanceeasilyregulated Exercise:increasebodytempandfluidlossviasweating Decreaseinplasmavolume Leakageoffluidfromplasmaintotheinterstitialspaces Dependentonintensityofexercise Intenseexercise–smalllosses(5%)w/osweating Prolongedexercise–largelosses(10-20)w/sweating Exerciseandfluidbalance Factorsaffectingincreaseinsweating Exerciseintensity Environmentalconditions Clothing Trainingstatus-highersweatrates;moreeffective thermoregulatory Variationsinsweatloss Non-exercise,normaltemperatureenvironment-100ml Exercisinginelevatedtemperatures–300-1200ml/h Exercisinginelevatedtempswithprotectiveclothing–1-2l/h Athletescompetinginteamsports&prolongedenduranceevents inhotenvironments–2.5l/h Athletescompetinginaquaticevents Havebeenshowntohaveelevatedsweatrates Coldclimates–waterlossfromventilation Hypohydration Hypovolemia: Lossofbloodvolume:increaseosmolalityofplasma Increaseinbodycoretemperature:every1%lossofbody weightaswater,about0.1-23 cincreasecoretemp Impairmentinabilitytodissipateheatresultinginhigher bodytemperatures Decreasedthermoregulatorycontrolinbrain Mayresultinhyperthermialeadingtoheatstroke,coma& possiblydeath Electrolytelossduringexercise + - Greatestloss-Na andCl Exercising<2hrs:electrolytelossnotlikely;fluidreplacement shouldbefocusedonwaterintake Exercising>2hrs:electrolytereplacementwithsodium Replenishmentofwater&electrolytes Determininghydrationstatus Amountoftotalbodywater Plasmaosmolality Providesaccurateassessmentatsinglepointintime Analysisofurineoutput Higherspecificgravity,osmolality,&darkercolor seeninhypohydration Urinetestingstripsavailable Changesinbodyweight Weightlossfromsingleexercisesessionlikelyduetofluid loss Canbeusedasabenchmarkforsubsequentrehydration Ex.Athleteengagesinintenseexerciselastingone hour&loses2kg 1Lwaterweighs1kgwhichtranslatestolossof2Lof water Ifonly1kggainedbackthefollowingday,signifies inadequatefluidreplenishment Hydrationassessmenttool Pre-exercisehydration Pre-exercisebeverage Waternormallysufficientwithslowfluidintakebeginning atleast4hrsprior,ifpossible:5-7ml/kgshouldbesufficient Sodium–stimulatesthirstandretentionofbodyweight Carbohydrates -Recommendedadditionalintakeof3-5ml/kg-2hrspriors Hypohydrationstatepriortoexercise Inadequaterestorationoffluidfrompreviousday’sexercise Multipleexerciseboutsinhotand/orhumidconditions Voluntaryrestrictionoffluidtoreducebodyweight Amount&timingshouldbeindividualized Toolittlefluidintake:dehydration Toomuchfluidintakebloating Hydrationstrategyguidedby: Intensity&durationofactivity Potentialeffectofhypohydrationonperformance Environmentalconditions Intakeduringtraining&performance Goals Replacebodyfluid Delaydehydration Replacesodium AvoidoverconsumptionandGIdistress ACSMrecommendations Marathonrunners–0.4-0.8l/h Drinkorschedulew/goalnottolosemorethan 2%ofbodyweight CurrentGuidelines Developacustomizedplanthatconsiderssweatrate, sweatcomposition,duration,clothing,& environmentalconditions Replenishmentaftertraining&performance Goals: Replacewaterloss,sodiumandotherelectrolytes PlasmaNaincreasesduringexerciseduetolossofwater Consumptionofadequatecarbandprotein AvoidGIdistress Recommendations 1.5L/kgofbodyweightlost Nacontainingbeverages:exercisefor>4hrandheavy sweating Ivreplacement:noevidence

Step 2 of 3

Chapter 16, Problem 84 is Solved
Step 3 of 3

Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications
Edition: 10
Author: Ralph Petrucci
ISBN: 9780132064521

This full solution covers the following key subjects: . This expansive textbook survival guide covers 28 chapters, and 3268 solutions. This textbook survival guide was created for the textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, edition: 10. General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications was written by and is associated to the ISBN: 9780132064521. Since the solution to 84 from 16 chapter was answered, more than 236 students have viewed the full step-by-step answer. The full step-by-step solution to problem: 84 from chapter: 16 was answered by , our top Chemistry solution expert on 12/23/17, 04:52PM. The answer to “Show that when is reduced to half its original value, the pH of a solution increases by 0.30 unit, regardless of the initial pH. Is it also true that when any solution is diluted to half its original concentration, the pH increases by 0.30 unit? Explain.” is broken down into a number of easy to follow steps, and 46 words.

Other solutions

People also purchased

Related chapters

Unlock Textbook Solution

Enter your email below to unlock your verified solution to:

Show that when is reduced to half its original value, the